December 18, 2004

PAKISTAN : Abdul Hamid responds to Hafiz Saeed's statement on Northern Areas

Ghazwa
November 4, 2004
Internet edition

Musharraf making the Northern Areas an Ismaili State

Hafiz Saeed

‘Musharraf is working on a hidden agenda to make the Northern Areas an Aga Khani state in the name of the Kashmir dispute’s settlement. He has proposed a plan to resolve the Kashmir issue only a week after Christina Rocca visited the Northern Areas. He has declared the Northern Areas part of Kashmir. Pakistan’s stand has been that the Northern Areas are not the parts of Kashmir.’ ‘Musharraf has been pressured by Rocca as well as Prince Karim Aga Khan to hand over the Northern Areas under the trusteeship of the UN. This is in fact a conspiracy to take away the Northern Areas from us to make it a separate Ismaili state.’ ‘Musharraf has been badly trapped by Rocca and Aga Khan.

He has already surrendered the educational board to the Agha Khan Foundation. Let’s see what happens next. But I assure you that we will not let him make this holy land the evil land of Ismailis. The Ismailis are neither Sunni Muslims nor the Shia Muslims. They are Ahmadis and we will fight them if they took away the Northern Areas from us,’ Hafiz Saeed, Amir, Jamatud Dawa.

[END]

________________________

RESPONSE to above statement by

Mr.Abdul Hamid
Chairman
Balawaristan National Front
________________________

[START]

First of all this is rubish. Secondly, Hafiz saeed is a ISI puppet, who has been appointed as so-called head of Lashkar-eToiba. Thirdly, Balawaristan (Pakistan Occupied Gilgit Baltistan) is not part of Pakistan according to Pakistani mconstitution. Indian Constitution and UN resolutions.

I am Ismaili Shia and we don't allow any one to make it a sectarian or fanatic religious state for any one. It will become a State for all the indigenous inhabitants of Balawaristan (Baltistan, Gilgit, Shenaki Kohistan, Chitral and Ladakh) without prejudice of sect, religion or athnical group. Neither we will alow the fanatic ismailis to be dominated, nor Shia, Sooni or Noor Bakhshi, because we are all equal brothers and respect each other and tolerate each other.

All the inhabitants of this disputed land have equal rights. Terrorist Hafiz Saeed has no right to enterfare in the matter of Balawaristan. Beside our own people of Balawaristan, we love Qadyani Soonis, Brelvis, Dewbandis, , Shias, Ismailis, Noor Bakhshis, Sikhjs, Hindus, Christians, jews and every human being without prejudice of his/her belief, but Saeed does not. We hope that Hafiz saeed will give up his evil ideas of ISI brand and learn to love with the creatures of God.

[END]

Jihad against Italy : Sonia is to Europe what Mushy is to America

-- NS Rajaram

The Vatican, especially its secret service know as the Opus Dei greatly fears this history returning. This is in fact the nightmare scenario that dominates the thinking of European intellectuals and even policymakers.

Europe is in decline inmore ways than one. Its polulation is shrinking and has no capacity to wage war against the encroaching hand of Islam.

The fear is most acute in Italy which has no capacity to fight anything. Strategically also it is most vulnerable with Muslim strongholds in Bosnia and Albania in the Balkans. Kosovo is just hundred miles from Trieste on the Italian border.

European countries today have substantial Muslim populations, which was a problem at the time described in the article below.

After the fall of Jerusalem to Arabs in the first millennium, Coanstantinople fell to the Turks in the second. Now the fear is the fall of Rome next.

This seems to be what is behind Sonia Gandhi's attempt to control the Government through some of her stooges. The idea seems to be to make India serve Euroean interests the same way that Pakistan is serving America's.

In effect, Sonia is to serve as India's Musharraf. India is to supply the soldiers to defend Italy and Europe. The picture should become clearer in the coming days and weeks.

Jihad against Italy (Author unknown)


By the mid 7th century, after overrunning North Africa, the Arab
Muslims turned their attention towards the North Mediterranean coast
in an effort to invade the Byzantine Empire from the West. By then
the Arabs, who already controlled the North African coast and Spain,
considered Sicily a highly strategic step for their expansion
towards the north of Italy and an advance into Europe. The Arabs who
had started developing pretensions to becoming a naval power, sent a
fleet to Sicily and conquered the undefended fortress of Palermo in
Sicily in 830. With Sicily as a base they started harassing the
mercantile shipping in the Mediterranean, and more importantly they
tried repeatedly to invade Italy from Sicily.

The Battle of Palermo

The Christian resistance began immediately to recapture the island
of Sicily. The Franks tried to take back the island in the 7th
century, but failed. By the 11th century, the baton of resistance to
the Saracens was taken up by the Normans. The Normans undertook an
attempt to liberate Sicily by sending in an expeditionary assault in
1068 with just sixty knights, but with their shock tactics, they
gave a stunning blow to the Arab chieftain Ayub ibn Temim at the
Battle of Misilmeri (then called by the Arabs Menzil el Emir),
outside Palermo. This was followed by the main Norman assault in
1071, when they attacked and defeated the Arabs at Palermo. This
fortress whose very name derived from the Arab Balarm - defines its
origins as an Arab city. Palermo, when it was an Arab emirate for
five hundred years, was described as "the city of the 300 mosques,
very few of which survive today, with most of them having been
converted into Churches.

The Battle of Palermo stands as one of the most astounding Norman
escapades in Italy against the Muslims. It rivals the Battle of
Hastings (1066) in importance. Socially, the Normans' occupation of
Arab Palermo was far more significant than their conquest of Saxon
London, as it brought Sicily back into the European orbit, a
development which eventually established an Italianate presence in
the central Mediterranean. The Normans had taken Messina during an
early morning battle in Spring 1061. In the ten years since, they
had sought to consolidate their control of
Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, fighting the
Arabs in a string of skirmishes.

At Palermo, the Arabs were again
led by their wily and intrepid commander Ayub ibn Temim and the
Normans by a young and energetic leader named Robert Guiscard de
Hauteville and his younger brother, Roger de Hauteville. But the
Normans with their conquests in other parts of Europe, notably
England , where they fought the battle of Hasting in 1066 and
defeated the Saxons, were chronically short of trained knights.
(Indeed, it would be years following the Battle of
Palermo before they could wrest back control of Enna, from the
Muslims. Enna had been an Arab-Muslim stronghold in east-central
Sicily

In 1072 Palermo had something over a hundred thousand residents. On
the morning of 5 January, Robert's cavalry attacked the al Kasr
district (high ground near what became the cathedral, Piazza
Vittoria and the Norman Palace). Fighting was fierce, and
penetrating the walls seemed like an impossible feat. Leaving his
brother, Roger, to maintain the attack on al Kasr, Robert and some
knights attacked al Khalesa, the
administrative district on the coast, built around the emir's
fortress.

This was taken by nightfall, though most of the adjacent al Kasr
district, further inland, remained in Saracen (Muslim) hands. Nevertheless, a
Saracen delegation surrendered to the Normans the following morning.
Specifically, the Normans first entered al Khalesa over a wall near
what is now the Spasimo. (In a corner of this structure the vestiges
of a eight-century Mosque that the Normans changed into a church.
The traces of this change can be seen even today.) The ceremonial
entry of the Norman Christians into Palermo took place on 10 January, with a Greek Rite
mass celebrated by the Orthodox bishop Nicodemus of Palermo in the
old cathedral (on the site of the present one), hastily re-converted
into a church from its use as a mosque. Here was a historic juncture
where Robert and Roger chose to defy convention and their own
Christian tradition. All mosques that had been churches (before the
Arabs' arrival two centuries earlier) were re-converted into
Churches. With the conquest of Palermo,
the Normans had liberated only a part of Sicily, the rest of the
island still lay under Arab occupation.

But in spite of the Norman attack, the Arabs in Sicily were divided,
and taking advantage of the situation, Count Roger, after a series
of campaigns, subdued the rest of the island and brought it under
Norman Rule. Count Roger also invaded other islands to make sure his
southern flank was secure from a possible Arab attack, having
reduced the Arabs to a state of vassalage and releasing the foreign
Christian slaves, he returned to Sicily without even bothering to
garrison his prize. In 1127,
Roger II the son of Count Roger, led a second invasion of Malta;
having overrun the Island he placed it under a more secure Norman
domination under the charge of a Norman governor. He also garrisoned
with Norman soldiers the three castles then on the islands. From
about this period the Maltese moved back gradually into the European
orbit to which they had belonged for a five hundred years prior to
the Arab interlude.

Lessons from the Battle of Palermo

Sicily had been under Muslim occupation for nearly three centuries
from 812 up to 1071. the population had been wholly converted to
Islam, and there was not a single church left standing. They had
either been reduced to rubble or had been converted into Mosques.
When the Normans retook Sicily, they reversed history in equal
measure and with equal ruthlessness. After the Norman liberation,
there were no Muslim left in Sicily, Malta, Sardina and any other
surrounding islands that had been under Muslim occupation. This
ensured that the population forgot about the Islamic interlude. The
Norman acted as an exorcist to exorcize the influence of Islam on
the population and returned the lands to Christendom.

The Battle of Lepanto

Although Sicily was never directly threatened again, the shadow of
the Islamic Jihad loomed once again when the Ottoman Turks started
moving into the Mediterranean after 1500. With the fall of
Constantinople in 1453, the prospect of the conquest of Europe was
reignited in Muslim hearts. This prospect had been defeated at
Poitiers, Palermo and had been rolled back by the Reconquista in
Spain. The Ottomans now moved toward Malta which had remained a
peaceful Christian bastion for four more centuries after its
liberation by the Normans in 1127. In the meanwhile Malta had become
the base for the Crusader knights of Malta and it played an
important role as a transit point for the crusaders to go to the
holy land. Malta was a marked fortress for the Muslims who bided
their time to seek revenge when they could again come within
striking distance.

And so it s if to prove the point, the Turks launched two attacks
against the island in 1547, and again in 1551, 1565 till they were
finally routed decisively at the naval battle of Lepanto in 1571.
The Turks had a policy of ravaging the Maltese countryside they
ignored the fortified towns, and turned their attention to the
island of Gozo and carried away the entire Christian population into
slavery, the children being brought up as Muslims who were to be
thrown into battle as suicide warriors named Janissaries (from Jan =
life and Nisar = given away). That same year the Turks drove the
Knights out of Tripoli. these attacks stung the Knights into
feverish activity to improve the islands' defenses in anticipation
of another, and possibly bigger, attack.

On the 18th May, 1565, the Ottoman Turks and their allies pitted
48,000 of their best troops against the islands with the intention
of invading them, and afterwards to make a thrust into Southern
Europe by way of Sicily and Italy. Against them were drawn up some
8,000 men: 540 Knights; 4,000 Maltese; and the rest made up of
Spanish and Italian mercenaries. Landing unopposed, the first
objective of the Turks was to secure a safe anchorage for their
large invasion fleet, and with that in mind,
launched their attack on St.Elmo. After a heroic resistance of
thirty one days the fort succumbed to the massive bombardment and
continuous attacks of the Turks. After the fort had been reduced,
the Ottomans turned their to the two badly fortified towns
overlooking the harbour. Subjected to a ceaseless bombardment, and
repulsing attack; behind the crumbling walls, the Christian forces,
against all odds, kept the enemy at bay until a small relief force
of some 8,000 troops arrived from Sicily (a smaller relief force of
600 men had previously landed at about the time that St.Elmo had
fallen). Totally demoralized, as the Turks were, by losses from
disease, fire and steel, added to the fact that their supplies were
running low, they were in no position to offer an effective
resistance, and the Turks retreated never again to attempt another
invasion in that part of the Mediterranean.

In 1571, Don John of Austria commanding the fleet of the Holy
League, met the Ottoman Turks in the waters at the mouth of the Gulf
of Patros. Don John of Austria met his fleet off Messina and saw
that he had 300 ships, great and small, under his command. The Pope
himself had outfitted twelve galleys and the depth of his war chest
had paid for many more. Don John's eye must have gazed with pride on
the 80 galleys and 22 other ships that had been provided by his half-
brother Philip II of Spain.

Each of these Spanish galleys held a hundred soldiers on top of the
rowers who propelled the ship through the water and no less than
30,000 men in the service of Spain would fight at Lepanto. The next
largest contingent was that of Venice.
Thought they were no longer the dominating power of yesteryear, the
Venetians could still assemble a fleet of more than a hundred
vessels beneath the winged Lion of St. Mark standard. provided the
technological cutting edge that was to win the battle.

The Turkish fleet under the command of Ali Pasha had been reinforced
by a Calabrian traitor fisherman who had turned Moslem. His name was
Uluch Ali and he was now the Bey of Algiers, that notorious nest of
the Muslim corsairs feared by all Christian ships plying their trade
in the Mediterranean. Don John moved his force towards the anchorage
of Lepanto where he knew the Turks to be waiting and during the
night of October 6th, with a favourable wind behind him, Ali Pasha
moved his fleet westward towards the mouth of the Gulf of Patras and
the approaching ships of the Holy League.

The action that was to follow was the biggest naval engagement
anywhere on the globe till then. The Turks, initially arrayed in a
giant crescent-shaped formation, quickly separated into three
sections also. The centre, under Ali Pasha, pushed forward and the
action opened when the cannon of Don John's two centre galleasses
(gunships) began to do great execution among Ali Pasha's advancing
ships. Seven or more Turkish galleys went down almost immediately as
a result of the longer range of the Christian fleet. The Turks were
not lacking in courage, however, and they pressed on in the face of
intense fire from the galleasses, the galleys' guns and crossbowmen
on the Christian decks. Ali Pasha tried to come alongside the
Christian ships in the hope of boarding and here the legendary
steadfastness under fire of the 16th and 17th century Spanish
infantryman came to the fore and attack after attack was beaten off
by killing shots from their guns and engaging in hand to hand combat
by the Spanish swordsmen. Then Don John gave the order to board Ali
Pasha's flagship. In a wild melee of attack, retreat and
counterattack played out on decks awash with the blood of the slain,
the air rent by the screams of the wounded and dying the Spaniards
forced their way onto the Turkish galley three times. Twice they
were beaten back but finally they stormed the Turkish poop and a
wounded Ali Pasha was beheaded on the spot. His head was spitted on
a pike and held aloft for all the Turkish fleet to see and the
Ottoman battle flag, never before lost in battle, was pulled down
from the mainmast. The Muslim centre broke and retired as best it
could, their courage forgotten in face of the grisly sight of their
admirals head held aloft by the elated Spaniards.

Lessons of the Battle of Lepanto

The Christians had now learnt their lessons. It was a battle to
death for both sides. Negotiations were never on the agenda. The
options were fight, flight or death. The first mistake made by
Rodrigo in Spain when he faced the first Muslim Jihad in 711, he had
tried to walk his out by negotiating his freedom, only to be
betrayed and having his head sawed off to be paraded before the
demoralized Spanish army at the Battle of the Guadalete river
between the Muslims and the Spaniards.

In this case the Christians
never forgot nor forgave the Muslims. And so mercy was a quality not
much in vogue any longer in the wars between the crescent and the
cross. The Christians were quick to learn the tactics of foul
warfare from the Muslims and turn their new earning against a
ruthless adversary. Apart from the bravery of soldiers on both
sides, the tactic that clinched victory was the gruesome act of
beheading of the Turkish Admiral Ali Pasha and his deputy Uluch Ali.
These were unchristian and
uncivilized practices, but it was the Muslim who had introduced them
into Europe, and the Christians were quick to learn and use them
against the Muslims.

The engagement at Lepanto had lasted for more than four hours and
when the smoke finally cleared it became apparent that this was a
major victory for the Holy League and a bitter defeat for the
Ottoman Turks. Almost 8,000 of the men who had sailed with Don John
were dead and another 16,000 wounded. On the brighter side 12,000
Christian galley slaves had been released from their servitude to
the Ottomans. The Turks and Uluch Ali's Algerines had suffered much
more grievously. Of the three hundred and thirty Turkish ships ,
fewer than fifty managed to escape and most of them were burned
because they could not be made sufficiently seaworthy for further
use; one hundred and seventeen Muslim galleys were captured intact
and the rest were sunk or destroyed after they had been run ashore
by the fleeing Turks. A large majority of the seventy-five thousand
men who had entered the battle on the Muslim side were killed, five
thousand were taken prisoner (with at least teice that number of
Christian galley slaves liberated), and only a few were able to
escape either by ship or by swimming ashore. Turkey, for the first
time in several centuries , was left without a navy

The day belonged to Don John, the Holy League and Christendom. When
the news of the victory broke, church bells were rung all over in
Europe in a spontaneous outburst of joy and thanksgiving. The
victory at Lepanto, put paid any further Turkish adventure to invade
Italy by sea. More so it left the European powers without any
formidable rival on the seas, paving the way for aggressive and
bolder forays by the European maritime powers to sail across all the
oceans and establish colonies in the
Americas, Australia, Africa and Asia. The Jihad had a penultimate
Jihad against Italy

By the mid 7th century, after overrunning North Africa, the Arab
Muslims turned their attention towards the North Mediterranean coast
in an effort to invade the Byzantine Empire from the West. By then
the Arabs, who already controlled the North African coast and Spain,
considered Sicily a highly strategic step for their expansion
towards the north of Italy and an advance into Europe. The Arabs who
had started developing pretensions to becoming a naval power, sent a
fleet to Sicily and conquered the undefended fortress of Palermo in
Sicily in 830. With Sicily as a base they started harassing the
mercantile shipping in the Mediterranean, and more importantly they
tried repeatedly to invade Italy from Sicily.

The Battle of Palermo

The Christian resistance began immediately to recapture the island
of Sicily. The Franks tried to take back the island in the 7th
century, but failed. By the 11th century, the baton of resistance to
the Saracens was taken up by the Normans. The Normans undertook an
attempt to liberate Sicily by sending in an expeditionary assault in
1068 with just sixty knights, but with their shock tactics, they
gave a stunning blow to the Arab chieftain Ayub ibn Temim at the
Battle of Misilmeri (then called by the Arabs Menzil el Emir),
outside Palermo. This was followed by the main Norman assault in
1071, when they attacked and defeated the Arabs at Palermo. This
fortress whose very name derived from the Arab Balarm - defines its
origins as an Arab city. Palermo, when it was an Arab emirate for
five hundred years, was described as "the city of the 300 mosques,
very few of which survive today, with most of them having been
converted into Churches.

The Battle of Palermo stands as one of the most astounding Norman
escapades in Italy against the Muslims. It rivals the Battle of
Hastings (1066) in importance. Socially, the Normans' occupation of
Arab Palermo was far more significant than their conquest of Saxon
London, as it brought Sicily back into the European orbit, a
development which eventually established an Italianate presence in
the central Mediterranean. The Normans had taken Messina during an
early morning battle in Spring 1061. In the ten years since, they
had sought to consolidate their control of
Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, fighting the
Arabs in a string of skirmishes. At Palermo, the Arabs were again
led by their wily and intrepid commander Ayub ibn Temim and the
Normans by a young and energetic leader named Robert Guiscard de
Hauteville and his younger brother, Roger de Hauteville. But the
Normans with their conquests in other parts of Europe, notably
England , where they fought the battle of hasting in 1066 and
defeated the Saxons, were chronically short of trained knights.
(Indeed, it would be years following the Battle of
Palermo before they could wrest back control of Enna, from the
Muslims. Enna had been an Arab-Muslim stronghold in east-central
Sicily

In 1072 Palermo had something over a hundred thousand residents. On
the morning of 5 January, Robert's cavalry attacked the al Kasr
district (high ground near what became the cathedral, Piazza
Vittoria and the Norman Palace). Fighting was fierce, and
penetrating the walls seemed like an impossible feat. Leaving his
brother, Roger, to maintain the attack on al Kasr, Robert and some
knights attacked al Khalesa, the
administrative district on the coast, built around the emir's
fortress.

This was taken by nightfall, though most of the adjacent al Kasr
district, further inland, remained in Saracen hands. Nevertheless, a
Saracen delegation surrendered to the Normans the following morning.
Specifically, the Normans first entered al Khalesa over a wall near
what is now the Spasimo. (In a corner of this structure the vestiges
of a eight-century Mosque that the Normans changed into a church.
The traces of this change can be seen even today.) The ceremonial
entry of the Norman
Christians into Palermo took place on 10 January, with a Greek Rite
mass celebrated by the Orthodox bishop Nicodemus of Palermo in the
old cathedral (on the site of the present one), hastily re-converted
into a church from its use as a mosque. Here was a historic juncture
where Robert and Roger chose to defy convention and their own
Christian tradition. All mosques that had been churches (before the
Arabs' arrival two centuries earlier) were re-converted into
Churches. With the conquest of Palermo,
the Normans had liberated only a part of Sicily, the rest of the
island still lay under Arab occupation.

But in spite of the Norman attack, the Arabs in Sicily were divided,
and taking advantage of the situation, Count Roger, after a series
of campaigns, subdued the rest of the island and brought it under
Norman Rule. Count Roger also invaded other islands to make sure his
southern flank was secure from a possible Arab attack, having
reduced the Arabs to a state of vassalage and releasing the foreign
Christian slaves, he returned to Sicily without even bothering to
garrison his prize. In 1127,
Roger II the son of Count Roger, led a second invasion of Malta;
having overrun the Island he placed it under a more secure Norman
domination under the charge of a Norman governor. He also garrisoned
with Norman soldiers the three castles then on the islands. From
about this period the Maltese moved back gradually into the European
orbit to which they had belonged for a five hundred years prior to
the Arab interlude.

Lessons from the Battle of Palermo

Sicily had been under Muslim occupation for nearly three centuries
from 812 up to 1071. the population had been wholly converted to
Islam, and there was not a single church left standing. They had
either been reduced to rubble or had been converted into Mosques.
When the Normans retook Sicily, they reversed history in equal
measure and with equal ruthlessness. After the Norman liberation,
there were no Muslim left in Sicily, Malta, Sardina and any other
surrounding islands that had been under Muslim occupation. This
ensured that the population forgot about the Islamic interlude. The
Norman acted as an exorcist to exorcize the influence of Islam on
the population and returned the lands to Christendom.

The Battle of Lepanto

Although Sicily was never directly threatened again, the shadow of
the Islamic Jihad loomed once again when the Ottoman Turks started
moving into the Mediterranean after 1500. With the fall of
Constantinople in 1453, the prospect of the conquest of Europe was
reignited in Muslim hearts. This prospect had been defeated at
Poitiers, Palermo and had been rolled back by the Reconquista in
Spain. The Ottomans now moved toward Malta which had remained a
peaceful Christian bastion for four more centuries after its
liberation by the Normans in 1127. In the meanwhile Malta had become
the base for the Crusader knights of Malta and it played an
important role as a transit point for the crusaders to go to the
holy land. Malta was a marked fortress for the Muslims who bided
their time to seek revenge when they could again come within
striking distance.

And so it s if to prove the point, the Turks launched two attacks
against the island in 1547, and again in 1551, 1565 till they were
finally routed decisively at the naval battle of Lepanto in 1571.
The Turks had a policy of ravaging the Maltese countryside they
ignored the fortified towns, and turned their attention to the
island of Gozo and carried away the entire Christian population into
slavery, the children being brought up as Muslims who were to be
thrown into battle as suicide warriors named Janissaries (from Jan =
life and Nisar = given away). That same year the Turks drove the
Knights out of Tripoli. these attacks stung the Knights into
feverish activity to improve the islands' defenses in anticipation
of another, and possibly bigger, attack.

On the 18th May, 1565, the Ottoman Turks and their allies pitted
48,000 of their best troops against the islands with the intention
of invading them, and afterwards to make a thrust into Southern
Europe by way of Sicily and Italy. Against them were drawn up some
8,000 men: 540 Knights; 4,000 Maltese; and the rest made up of
Spanish and Italian mercenaries. Landing unopposed, the first
objective of the Turks was to secure a safe anchorage for their
large invasion fleet, and with that in mind,
launched their attack on St.Elmo. After a heroic resistance of
thirty one days the fort succumbed to the massive bombardment and
continuous attacks of the Turks. After the fort had been reduced,
the Ottomans turned their to the two badly fortified towns
overlooking the harbour. Subjected to a ceaseless bombardment, and
repulsing attack; behind the crumbling walls, the Christian forces,
against all odds, kept the enemy at bay until a small relief force
of some 8,000 troops arrived from Sicily (a smaller relief force of
600 men had previously landed at about the time that St.Elmo had
fallen). Totally demoralized, as the Turks were, by losses from
disease, fire and steel, added to the fact that their supplies were
running low, they were in no position to offer an effective
resistance, and the Turks retreated never again to attempt another
invasion in that part of the Mediterranean.

In 1571, Don John of Austria commanding the fleet of the Holy
League, met the Ottoman Turks in the waters at the mouth of the Gulf
of Patros. Don John of Austria met his fleet off Messina and saw
that he had 300 ships, great and small, under his command. The Pope
himself had outfitted twelve galleys and the depth of his war chest
had paid for many more. Don John's eye must have gazed with pride on
the 80 galleys and 22 other ships that had been provided by his half-
brother Philip II of Spain.

Each of these Spanish galleys held a hundred soldiers on top of the
rowers who propelled the ship through the water and no less than
30,000 men in the service of Spain would fight at Lepanto. The next
largest contingent was that of Venice.
Thought they were no longer the dominating power of yesteryear, the
Venetians could still assemble a fleet of more than a hundred
vessels beneath the winged Lion of St. Mark standard. provided the
technological cutting edge that was to win the battle.

The Turkish fleet under the command of Ali Pasha had been reinforced
by a Calabrian traitor fisherman who had turned Moslem. His name was
Uluch Ali and he was now the Bey of Algiers, that notorious nest of
the Muslim corsairs feared by all Christian ships plying their trade
in the Mediterranean. Don John moved his force towards the anchorage
of Lepanto where he knew the Turks to be waiting and during the
night of October 6th, with a favourable wind behind him, Ali Pasha
moved his fleet westward towards the mouth of the Gulf of Patras and
the approaching ships of
the Holy League.

The action that was to follow was the biggest naval engagement
anywhere on the globe till then. The Turks, initially arrayed in a
giant crescent-shaped formation, quickly separated into three
sections also. The centre, under Ali Pasha, pushed forward and the
action opened when the cannon of Don John's two centre galleasses
(gunships) began to do great execution among Ali Pasha's advancing
ships. Seven or more Turkish galleys went down almost immediately as
a result of the longer range of the Christian fleet. The Turks were
not lacking in courage, however, and they pressed on in the face of
intense fire from the galleasses, the galleys' guns and crossbowmen
on the Christian decks. Ali Pasha tried to come alongside the
Christian ships in the hope of boarding and here the legendary
steadfastness under fire of the 16th and 17th century Spanish
infantryman came to the fore and attack after attack was beaten off
by killing shots from their guns and engaging in hand to hand combat
by the Spanish swordsmen. Then Don John gave the order to board Ali
Pasha's flagship. In a wild melee of attack, retreat and
counterattack played out on decks awash with the blood of the slain,
the air rent by the screams of the wounded and dying the Spaniards
forced their way onto the Turkish galley three times. Twice they
were beaten back but finally they stormed the Turkish poop and a
wounded Ali Pasha was beheaded on the spot. His head was spitted on
a pike and held aloft for all the Turkish fleet to see and the
Ottoman battle flag, never before lost in battle, was pulled down
from the mainmast. The Muslim centre broke and retired as best it
could, their courage forgotten in face of the grisly sight of their
admirals head held aloft by the elated Spaniards.

Lessons of the Battle of Lepanto

The Christians had now learnt their lessons. It was a battle to
death for both sides. Negotiations were never on the agenda. The
options were fight, flight or death. The first mistake made by
Rodrigo in Spain when he faced the first Muslim Jihad in 711, he had
tried to walk his out by negotiating his freedom, only to be
betrayed and having his head sawed off to be paraded before the
demoralized Spanish army at the Battle of the Guadalete river
between the Muslims and the Spaniards. In this case the Christians
never forgot nor forgave the Muslims. And so mercy was a quality not
much in vogue any longer in the wars between the crescent and the
cross. The Christians were quick to learn the tactics of foul
warfare from the Muslims and turn their new earning against a
ruthless adversary. Apart from the bravery of soldiers on both
sides, the tactic that clinched victory was the gruesome act of
beheading of the Turkish Admiral Ali Pasha and his deputy Uluch Ali.
These were unchristian and
uncivilized practices, but it was the Muslim who had introduced them
into Europe, and the Christians were quick to learn and use them
against the Muslims.

The engagement at Lepanto had lasted for more than four hours and
when the smoke finally cleared it became apparent that this was a
major victory for the Holy League and a bitter defeat for the
Ottoman Turks. Almost 8,000 of the men who had sailed with Don John
were dead and another 16,000 wounded. On the brighter side 12,000
Christian galley slaves had been released from their servitude to
the Ottomans. The Turks and Uluch Ali's Algerines had suffered much
more grievously. Of the three hundred and thirty Turkish ships ,
fewer than fifty managed to escape and most of them were burned
because they could not be made sufficiently seaworthy for further
use; one hundred and seventeen Muslim galleys were captured intact
and the rest were sunk or destroyed after they had been run ashore
by the fleeing Turks. A large majority of the seventy-five thousand
men who had entered the battle on the Muslim side were killed, five
thousand were taken prisoner (with at least teice that number of
Christian galley slaves liberated), and only a few were able to
escape either by ship or by swimming ashore. Turkey, for the first
time in several centuries , was left without a navy

The day belonged to Don John, the Holy League and Christendom. When
the news of the victory broke, church bells were rung all over in
Europe in a spontaneous outburst of joy and thanksgiving. The
victory at Lepanto, put paid any further Turkish adventure to invade
Italy by sea. More so it left the European powers without any
formidable rival on the seas, paving the way for aggressive and
bolder forays by the European maritime powers to sail across all the
oceans and establish colonies in the
Americas, Australia, Africa and Asia. The Jihad had a penultimate
break at Lepanto, the final one was to come a century later at
Vienna in 1683, that put paid all attempts of the Muslims to overrun
Europe. Muslim rule was thenceforth confined to the south eastern
corner of Europe in the Balkans where the seed of Islam was not
uprooted when the Christians liberated those lands between 1850 and
1920. Modern liberalism had set the lethargy in motion a lethargy
that came to roost at Mostar and other
cities in the Balkans which saw the slaughter by the Muslims and
Christians of each other. Howsoever ideal may liberalism be, it is
of no value when dealing with the blood-thirsty Muslims. This is the
lesson which the Serbs and Croats learnt in the 1990s. But these
being Christian lands originally, it was the Muslim who were the
occupiers and even if we forget the concept of anyone being an
occupier, since the world belongs to all humans, with their
beastlike behavior, the Muslims became unwelcome citizens wherever
they lived, with whomsoever they lived. The quarreled and fought
with everyone, and when there were no non-Muslims around they fought
among themselves. Such is the warlike legacy that Islam has given
the modern age.

But the overarching relevance of the Battles of Palermo and Lepanto
was that they saved the Italian mainland from a Muslim invasion and
so also indirectly the Islamization of Europe when there was no
power strong enough in Central Europe in the 10th to the 15th
centuries to resist a successful Muslim onslaught.break at Lepanto, the final one was to come a century later at
Vienna in 1683, that put paid all attempts of the Muslims to overrun
Europe. Muslim rule was thenceforth confined to the south eastern
corner of Europe in the Balkans where the seed of Islam was not
uprooted when the Christians liberated those lands between 1850 and
1920. Modern liberalism had set the lethargy in motion a lethargy
that came to roost at Mostar and other
cities in the Balkans which saw the slaughter by the Muslims and
Christians of each other. Howsoever ideal may liberalism be, it is
of no value when dealing with the blood-thirsty Muslims. This is the
lesson which the Serbs and Croats learnt in the 1990s. But these
being Christian lands originally, it was the Muslim who were the
occupiers and even if we forget the concept of anyone being an
occupier, since the world belongs to all humans, with their
beastlike behavior, the Muslims became unwelcome citizens wherever
they lived, with whomsoever they lived. The quarreled and fought
with everyone, and when there were no non-Muslims around they fought
among themselves. Such is the warlike legacy that Islam has given
the modern age.

But the overarching relevance of the Battles of Palermo and Lepanto
was that they saved the Italian mainland from a Muslim invasion and
so also indirectly the Islamization of Europe when there was no
power strong enough in Central Europe in the 10th to the 15th
centuries to resist a successful Muslim onslaught.

KGB documents expose ugly face of Indian Communists

Source : http://psi.ece.jhu.edu/~kaplan/IRUSS/BUK/GBARC/buk.html


Date : 10-Oct-80
Document : CT232/53
Subject : Request from CP( Communist Party) of India for money exchange
Link : http://psi.ece.jhu.edu/~kaplan/IRUSS/BUK/GBARC/pdfs/com-com/ct232-80.pdf


Date : 29-Apr-83
Document No. : No. 797
Subject : Publishing equipment for CP (Communist Party) of India.
Link: http://psi.ece.jhu.edu/~kaplan/IRUSS/BUK/GBARC/pdfs/com-com/sovmin-83.pdf


Date : May 26, 1980
Document No. : CT212/68
Subject : Assistance to Indian Peace organization
Link : http://psi.ece.jhu.edu/~kaplan/IRUSS/BUK/GBARC/pdfs/peace/ct212a80.pdf



Date : 28-Aug-69
Document : No.2169-A
Subject : Demonstration in India organized by KGB (Communist Terror to the World)
Link : http://psi.ece.jhu.edu/~kaplan/IRUSS/BUK/GBARC/pdfs/terr-wd/isr69-1.pdf



Leonid Chernikhov : chernikl@aol.com
http://psi.ece.jhu.edu/~kaplan/IRUSS/BUK/GBARC/intro.html


Please note that English letters preceding the document numbers mean:
"CT" - documents by Secretariat of Central Committee;
"P" - protocols of Politburo ;
No. w/o preceding letter identify documents from the Central Committee;
In English titles "CP" is as abbreviation used for any communist party.




Arms to Pakistan : Sheer American hypocrisy

http://www.dailypioneer.com/indexn12.asp?main_variable=OPED&file_name=opd4%2Etxt&counter_img=4

Sheer American hypocrisy

Rahul Bedi India Correspondent,
Jane's Defence Weekly

It is interesting to see how the United States has reneged on all its commitments on proliferation when it comes to Pakistan. The decision of the Bush administration to waive sanctions and reopen the floodgates of arms supply to Pakistan smacks of hypocrisy. Pakistan has been accorded the status of Major Non-Nato Ally. Washington has decided to forget about the Abdul Qadir Khan case. This is a disgrace.

It is clear that the US would like to keep Pakistan fully armed. This will help them overcome their shortfall in conventional weapons. It must be remembered that though India has numerical superiority, the hardware at the disposal of the Pakistani armed forces is younger. They also have the advantage of possessing a swifter and more efficient decision making process. Unlike in India where the armed forces are under bureaucratic and political control, Pakistan's military controls that nation even under democratic systems.

At the present juncture India's military muscle is awesome. In the last few years India has acquired an advantage over all other Asian countries. In the 1970s and 1980s, the Indo-Pak disparity was in the region of 1: 1.75 in favour of India. Now it has come down a little to 1:1.17. The US decision to fit out the Pakistanis with P3C Orions, anti-tank missiles may considerably reduce this margin in the short term. The Pakistanis may have under half the number of tanks at the disposal of the Indian Army, but their tanks have night-fighting capabilities whereas India's don't. Their artillery has self-propelled guns which India has started negotiations with South Africa only recently to acquire. Add to that the prospect of Washington finally honouring its old commitment to deliver F-16s to the Pakistani Armed Forces and you have a problem on your hands.

Still, the redeeming feature is that there are few countries other than the US who are willing to sell military hardware to India. China is the only consistent supplier and they have started collaborations on developing a main battle tank and jet trainer. The Israelis, Russians and South Africans are wary of dealing with them for fear of losing the Indian market. New Delhi has this stated policy of not buying from countries which equip Pakistan. So, for fear of losing the far more lucrative Indian market nobody ventures to do business with Pakistan.

It is time, therefore, India reconsidered its priorities. We express apprehensions over an arms race in the neighbourhood while everybody acknowledges the rapid changes in the security profile. Defence Minister Pranab Mukherjee's statement, "Do you need F-16s to fight terrorists?," is true of India as well. Do we need Sukois to fight Maoist insurgency in Andhra Pradesh? Or Groshkov aircraft carriers to combat terrorists in J&K?

Hindu as a Nation: Roots of Hindu Janajaati, Gotra

Hindu as a nation: roots of hindu janajaati, gotra

There are many facets of bharatiya itihas which have been left
unexplored, thanks to the interrugnum caused by invading islamists and
colonial traders. One such facet is janajaati.

Gotra or got, as a set of jaati, can be roughly translated as lineage
and is an organizing principle which can be traced to the practices
related to respect for ancestors, among exogamous kinship units called
hindu janajaati. [Gotra is an exogamous (septs) patrilineal sibship
whose members trace their descent to a common ancestor. Pravara is
constituted by the Sage or Sages who lived in the remotest past, who
were most illustrious and who are generally the ancestors of the Gotra
Sages or in some cases the remotest ancestor alone. (cf. P.V. Kane,
History of Dharma Sastra, Poona Vol.II, Part I, p.497). Endogamous-
marriages occur within the boundaries of the domestic group (between
members of the same group); not the same as incest; Exogamous-
marriages occur outside of the domestic group (between members of
different groups). Since all members of an exogamous consider
themselves to be relatives, marriages are recommended outside such a
kinship group, kinship being generally patrilineal and traced through
the male lineage or phratries (also known as khandan, kutumba or kula;
in some cases also as vams'a or s'a_kha_). Hindu lineages are strictly
exogamous and any marriage within such a lineage is considered
incestuous. http://www.kalabhavanshow.info/world_ref/india/in0084.htm
In many cases, the marriages are recommended to be village-exogamous,
thus establishing the enlargement of the self-reproducing kinship
group beyond a village boundary. "After comparing the social
organization of a wide range of primates, including humans, in terms
of the distribution in groups of males and females, kin and nonkin,
they have concluded that humans are distinctive among primates in that
both sexes maintain lifelong relationships with consanguineal
kin-regardless of which sex leaves its natal group or whether both
sexes do so. Among other primates, by contrast, only one sex (the one
that stays put and does not disperse) maintains these lifelong ties
with kin." (Lars Rodseth et al., 1991).
http://www.dhushara.com/book/socio/kin/kinship.htm
Thus, broadly, gotra defines a family's paternal lineage. A rishi rn.a
is discharged by remembering the gotra, pravara rishi-s during
sandhya_vandanam or s'ra_ddha. An identity of a dvija is also
established by his citing if he is a r.ks'a_kha_dhya_yi or an adhya_yi
of another veda and a particular su_tra. A deceased person is cremated
with enormous respect and his a_tman is invoked in recurring festivals
and in songs of remembrance of the tradition of ancestors. Reverential
worship of ancestors is a powerful bonding among kindship groups and a
reinforcement of the heritage passed on from generation to generation.
Go is a difficult word to interpret in the R.gveda; it may connote a
'cow' and also a 'constellation' on the skies. Hence, it will be
simplistic to assume if go-tra connoted 'cow-pen' in the R.gvedic
times, in all contexts. Considering the sapta-rishi-man.d.ala concept,
it is possible that go-tra refers to the particular
rishi-constellation of a person's ja_takam. Gocaara, for example, is a
technical vedangajyotis.a term. The Buddha refers to
pa_timokkhasamvara s'i_la: 'Naturally seeing the harm of even the
slightest fault [dosa], Bhikkhus in this saasanaa undertake the study
of the sikkhaapadas; the restraint through paatimokkha [a collection
of sikkhaapadas in the Vinaya], with flawless aacaara [conduct] and
gocaara' (Vbh. 244) [vibha. 508; di_. ni. 1.193 -
http://www.tipitaka.org/tipitaka/e0101n/e0101n-frm.html Siilaniddeso
Section 3]. Gocara is an object of perception. (e.g. s'ruti gocara_ =
for understanding S'Br. 1.4.25).

Jaati is derived from the root janmam 'birth'; in almost all bharatiya
languages and dialects, the word jaati connotes an extended kinship
group; this social organization has been categorized by indologists,
following the British colonial and evangelical proselytisers' practice
of using derogatory terms such as tribes, castes (a Portuguese term),
aborigines, animists, pagans, kufr, idolators, clans. Jaati is a term
which relates to all varn.a, all categories currently mentioned in the
Constitution of Bharat, that is India as scheduled castes, scheduled
tribes (because they are listed in schedules appended to the
Constitution, following the practice of the Government of India Act,
1935) and in many commissions' reports as Backward Classes, Other
Backward Classes even after the nation attained independence in 1947.
Brough, J., 1953, The early Brahmanical system of Gotra and Pravara,
(ranslation of the "Gotra-Pravara-Manjari" of Purushottama Pandita)
ambridge Univ. Press is one view of the social organization in early
Bharat; social reality is much more complex than a view contained in a
text by Purushottama Pandita.

Hindu janajaati simply refers to the social organization of people
into exogamous communities. Kirata, for example, is a trading
community, who worshipped S'iva, included pulinda, sabara, mutiba
people considered to be descendants of Vis'vamitra (Aitareya Brahman.a
VII.18). The finds of s'ivalinga at Harappa and Kalibangan point to
the tradition of worship of S'iva dating back to the Sarasvati
civilization [circa 3500 Before Common Era (BCE)]. S'ivalinga is
shaped like the summit of Mt. Kailas; the tradition is that S'iva is
in penance on top of the summit of Mt. Kailasa and out of his jat.a
emerges River Ganga, thus the shape of s'ivalinga with arrangements
for continuous abhis.ekam of water from a pot tied over it, is indeed
a metaphor for a water-giving divinity from the Himalayan glaciers,
yielding the glacial rivers like S'utudri, Lohitya (Brahmaputra),
Bhagirathi and Alaknanda. It is not a mere coincidence that Pa_rvati
is parvataputri_, a metaphor for a daughter of a mountain and there
are people called Parvati-s in Har-ki-dun valley (Svargarohini
Himalayan range called Bandarpurnch massif in W. Garhwal, Uttaranchal)
who celebrate Duryodhana as their divinity in an annual mela even to
this day, attesting to the historicity of kuruvams'a of Mahabharata.

Many hindu practices can be traced to the age-old janajaati
traditions: for example, the worship of jagannath, khandoba, muruga,
na_ga, devi, ma_riamman or sitaladevi as the village boundary
divinity, the institution of hindu mandiram in almost every village of
Bharat, the practices of a_gama, the puja vidha_nam with flower
offerings and abhis.ekam, the procedures for settlement of marriage
contracts by exchange of ta_mbu_la (betel-leaves and betel-nut) and
na_rikela (coconut), offering puja to tulasi plant, decorating the
frontal of a house with rangoli (cf. Tamil kolam), painting svastika_
on walls of mandirams, wearing of yajnopavi_tam (sacred thread), the
wearing of sindhur at the parting of the hair, the wearing of bangles,
nose-ring, bathing with turmeric powder, observance of a vrata for
three days prior to marriage ceremony day at an auspicious muhurtam,
the wearing of mangalasu_tra (tiruma_ngalya) pectoral, the marriage
practices using the stepping on stone, sighting of arundhati and
dhruva naks.atra, both the bride and bridegroom carrying the yoke on
their shoulder, offer of the bride carried on the shoulder of the
maternal uncle, sprinkling of pa_l.i (navadha_nya as a replication of
the processing of farming grains), creation of the marriage man.t.apa
decorated with plantain leaves, saptapadi_ (seven steps) around the
sacred fire-altar to consummate a marriage (pa_n.igra_han.ika_ mantra_
niyatam da_ralaks.an.am tes.a_m nis.t.ha_ vijneya_ viva_ha_tsaptame
pade: Manu VIII.227), celebration of tirthasthana-s, celebration of
kumbhamela every 12 years at prayagraj. Among the samska_ra-s related
to stages of life such as conception in a mother's womb, child-birth,
naming of a child, annapra_s'anam, vidya_bhya_sam, attaining puberty,
sanya_sa, cremation, the most notable are the social customs related
to the treatment of a corpse of a deceased. Four persons carry the
corpse to the smas'a_na (cremation ground). These four persons become
an idiom, for example, in Tamil: na_luper. The social rectitude of
every action in life is judged with reference to the query: na_luper
enna colluva_? 'What will the four people say?' That is, the four
people who are enjoined as close relatives to carry the bier are the
touchstone for judging if an action is morally right or wrong. Only
the close relatives upto seven patrilineal generations are entitled to
pin.d.a prada_nam and are referred to as gotraja sapin.d.a (agnate),
those enjoined to offer pin.d.a to the deceased. The property of a son
dying without any issues (Manu IX.217) can pass to his mother. Manu
IX. 187 says: anantaram sapin.d.a_dyastasya tasya haredddhanam 'to the
nearest sapin.d.a, the inheritance next belongs'. Commentator Kullu_ka
expounded that the term sapin.d.a includes puma_n stri_ va_ 'either
male or female'. The performance of annual s'raddha ceremonies in
honour of the departed ancestors is a tradition common among all
janajaati in Bharat. A purchased wife (that is, a bride-price paid in
an a_sura type of marriage) continues to be part of her father's gotra
and sons born of her are not entitled to offer oblations to her
husband's ancestors (krayakri_ta_ ca ya_ kanya_ na sa_ patni_
vidhi_yate tasya_m ja_ta_h suta_stes.a_m pitr.pin.d.o na vidyate:
Atri, 384. A gotra was thus an extended recognition of sapin.d.a
relationship among people of a particular gotra patri-lineage. It
should, however, be noted that there was no gender bias; this is
evidenced by Brihadaranyaka Upanis.ad IV.4.18: atha ya icched duhita_
me pan.d.ita_ ja_yeta, tilaudanau pa_cayitva_ as'ni_ya_ta_miti, while
a gr.hasta prays for the birth of a scholarly daughter. It is notable
that during Balarama's pariyatra along the River Saravati (described
in S'alyaparva in about 200 s'loka), the elder brother of Krishna
offers homage to the ancestors and visits the ashram of many rishi-s
and muni-s and offers homage to them, apart from offering maatru
tarpan.am at Pruthudaka (Pehoa). To this day, the tradition continues;
Siddhapura on Little River Sarasvati in Gujarat is revered as
Maatrugaya as a tirthasthana. The roots of early
philosophical/spiritual thoughts exemplified by the terms: dharma,
vrata, yajna, yoga, rita, rina have to be traced to the traditions of
the hindu janajaati. The tradition continues to celebrate rinamochan
(on Karthika Purnima day) at a place called Rinamochan (Kapalamochan)
on the road between Jagadhri and Adi Badri. During a mela held on this
day, about 8 lakh pilgrims take a holy dip in the Somasarovar. The
tradition is that Pandavas washed their arms in this sarovar. Nearby
in Kurukshetra is Brahmasarovar where 10 lakh pilgrims gather during
every solar eclipse day to pay their homage to the ancestors.

Marriages among close relations were not encouraged. For example,
sapin.d.a marriages were barred. Sapin.d.a is a relationship within
seven generations on the father's side and five generations on the
mother's side. In many regions of southern Bharat, the custom was to
marry a male with his maternal uncle's daughter; this was in not in
consonance with the sapin.d.a bar for marriages. Nirn.ayasindhu refers
to the bar on marrying one's wife's sister's daughter or one's
paternal aunt's sister. (dampatyormivah pitruma_trusa_mye
viruddhasambandhah yava_ bha_rya_svasurduhita_ pituvyapatni_svasa_
ca).

It can be posited that there was a dynamic interaction among janajaati
of Bharat which resulted in the patterns and practices of Bharatiya
culture and identity. Redfield Robert and Milton B. Singer, The
cultural role of cities, Economic Development and Cultural Change,
1954 note: "This…is perhaps the most important conclusion of recent
anthropological studies of Hinduism…the unity of Hinduism does not
exclusively reside in an exemplary set of norms and scriptures, such
as those defined by Sanskritic Hinduism, or in an alternative 'lower
level' popular Hinduism of the uncultivated masses. The unity is to be
found rather in the continuities that can be traced vin the concrete
media of song, dance, play, sculpture, painting, religious story and
rite that connect the rituals and beliefs of the villager with those
of the townsman and urbanite, one region with another, and the
educated with the uneducated." Irawati Karve (Hindu Society – an
interpretation, 1961, Poona, Deccan College) contests the received
wisdom that the proliferation of jaati in Bharat is the result of
fission, sub-fission of a limited number of varn.a. The alternative
view offered by her is that jaati is an extended family or kin group,
an exogamous kinship, normally tied to a hereditary occupation and
that the birth of jaati as an institution preceded the birth of varn.a
framework in society.

The practice of barring marriages with another sept or kili (cf. Tamil
kil.ai 'branch of tree'), among many janajaati may have been
elaborated as a prohibition of sagotra marriages. Gotra names indicate
that belonging to one gotra is not always related to a family progeny.
While some gotra names are linked to rishi-s (e.g., vasis.t.ha,
vis'va_mitra, bha_radva_ja), there are names which indicate
territories (e.g., gandha_ra, panca_la, kaus'a_mbeya), or professional
names (e.g. mes.apa, hastipa, hota_, ya_jaka) or personal traits (e.g.
matsyagandhi, ka_n.a, di_rghajangha, ja_yavis'vambhara).

Sandhya Jain notes (Sandhya Jain, 2004, Adi Deo Arya Devata, Delhi,
Rupa and co., pp. 45-46, p. 60, p. 266): "Ibbetson, DCJ, Report on the
Census of Punjab, 1881, Vol. 1, Calcutta, 1883…concluded, caste was
more a social than religious institution…its allegedly hereditary
nature ws nothing more than a presumption; that castes were
essentially guilds; and that the earliest guild was a tribe based on
common descent. A large number of caste division or sub-caste units,
such as gotras, were essentially tribal in origin…The Manbhum Bhumij
have forgotten their native speech and speak Bengali. Risley found the
tribe far advanced on the road to caste-hood; they were employing
Brahmins of low status in their rites of passage (Risley, H., The
People of India, 2nd ed., by W. Crook, 1915: 75). Yet old social and
cultural patterns can still be discerned. Like the allied Munda tribe
of Ranchi, the Bhumij are grouped in patrilineal exogamous clans
(gotras) affiliated to the respective ancestral villages where the
clan ossuaries are located (Sinha, Surajit, State formation and Rajput
myth in tribal central India in: The state in India 1000-1700 ed,
Herman Kulke, OUP, 1995: 310-11). Gotra is thus clearly the organizing
principle of tribal societies.…the Mundas of Chotanagpur, who were
organized in exogamous septs called Kilis, changed their kilis into
Gotras, Sandi Kili becoming Sandil Gotra and Nom Tutu Kili developing
into Bhoj-Raj-Gotra (Roy, Saratchandra, 1912, The Mundas and their
Country: 410). The Koch tribes of Assam used their creativity to
emerge as Bhanga-Kshatriya or Rajbansi, and claim affinity with
Rajputs (Risley, 1915: 74-76, 92)…In Manipur, the Meitheis consider
the seven lairemas (goddesses) as the female ancestors of the seven
clans (viz., Ningthouja, Angom, Khimal, Moirang, Lu-wang,
Sarang-Leisangthem and Khaba-a-Ngenba), which came to be identified
with the seven Brahminical gotras under Hindu influence."

There was no bar on inter-caste marriages or inter-dining. Anuloma
marriages were common, right down to the eighth century Common Era
(CE). Baudha_yana S'rauta Su_tra 2.2.19 lays out the shares of
inheritance of sons born from wives of different castes:
na_na_varn.astri_samava_ye da_yam das'a_ms'a_nkr.tva_
caturastri_ndva_vevekamiti yaya_kramam vibhajet. A bra_hman.a, Soma
who was the progenitor of Hastivarman, a Va_ka_t.aka minister, had
married a ks.atriya lady, 'in accordance with the precepts of s'ruti
and smr.ti' says a 5th century inscription: somastatah soma
iva_parobhu_tsa bra_hman.ah ks.atriyavams'aja_su s'rutismr.tibhya_m
vihita_ryaka_ri_ dvayi_su bha_ya_msu mano dagha_ra (Archaeological
Survey of Western India, Vol. 4, p. 140). King Harichandra, founder of
Prati_ha_ra family (circa 550 CE), had both a ks.atriya and a
bra_hman.a wife (tena s'ri_haricandren.a parin.i_ta_ dvija_tmana_
dviti_ya_ ks.atriya_ bhadra_ maha_kulagun.a_nvita_: Epigraphica
Indica, XVIII, p. 87). Katha_saritsa_gara has many episodes where a
father asks his daughter as to which of the suitors belonging to the
four varn.a she approves (eva_m caturga_m varn.a_na_m putrid
kobhimatastava: 53, 108).

Altekar further adds (AS Altekar, 1938, The position of women in Hindu
Civilization, repr. Motilal Banarsidass, 1959, pp. 77-78): "Intercaste
marriages were permitted down to the 10th century because the cultural
differences between the members of the different twice-born castes
were not many or far-reaching. They all performed upanayana, and
observed the various sacraments laid down for them…A number of new
vratas came to be prescribed. The brahmana community as a whole used
to conform to the new standard as much as possible. Other castes,
however, could not only not follow the new standard, but found it
difficult to maintain the old one. Thus all dvijas, i.e., brahmanas,
kshatriyas and vais'yas, were authorized to study the Vedas…Our social
reformers should not forget that the observation of the Mahabharata
still holds good, viz. an alliance of friendship or of marriage is
possible between those two parties only who are evenly matched as far
as character, education, culture and wealth are concerned: yayoreva
samam vr.ttam yayoreva samams'rutam tayomaitri_ viva_has'ca na tu
pus.t.avipus.t.ayoh (MBh. I.131.10)."

S. Kalyanaraman
18 Dec. 2004

December 17, 2004

Iranian army's ground forces conducted biggest ever war games

Iranian army's ground forces start war games

TEHRAN (AFP) Dec 03, 2004
The Iranian army's ground forces on Friday started their "biggest ever" war games in five western and southern provinces, some of them bordering Iraq, state television reported.
Ten army divisions as well as artillery, missile and electronic warfare units were taking part in the "Followers of Guardianship" exercises, said the army's ground forces commander, Brigadier General Nasser Mohammadi-Far.

The operations, backed by C-130 tactical aircrafts, were being carried out in Kermanshah, Ilam, Hamedan, Lorestan and Khuzestan provinces, covering an area of 100,000 square kilometers (3,800 square miles), the report said.

Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei said on Wednesday that knowledge and perseverance in the way of God Almighty are two features which have grave role in the military related issues and in the big “Followers of Velayat (Guardianship)” maneuver.

Addressing the army commanders and troops, involved in the war game, Ayatollah Khamenei called on the audience to try to follow knowledge and perseverance in their performance.

The Supreme Leader hailed the military exercise as "good and praiseworthy" on the whole and said such maneuvers would further increase vibrancy, joy and combat readiness of the troops and different regiments.

He said the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps (IRGC) and the Islamic Republic Army should put staging such maneuvers on their agenda.

Referring to the tactics employed in the war game, the Supreme Leader stressed the need for the army and the IRGC units to maintain their links and raise their speed of action, while adopting latest military tactics, initiatives and methods.

The last stage of the “Followers of Velayat” war game is staged on one of the general operation zones of the maneuver south of the country on Wednesday in presence of the Supreme Leader.

The Supreme Leader inspected certain military and armored equipment deployed in the area as well as a well-equipped camp hospital, designed and set up by the Islamic Republic Army's experts.

In the last stage of the war game, the rapid deployment forces of the Islamic Republic Army went into action and launched ambush and defense operations against the hypothetical enemy upon noticing its movements and the troop deployment operations.

Concurrently, the Islamic Republic Army's air forces bombarded the positions of the enemy, as its positions, equipment and helicopters were targeted by shoulder missiles.

Many tactics of asymmetrical wars were used in that stage of the war game and several surface-to-air missile and Naze'at surface-to-surface missile were fired on the enemy targets.

The Supreme Leader closely watched the operations, while being briefed by Commander of the army's ground forces and commander of the military exercise.

Prior to the maneuver, the Supreme Leader attended a meeting, where Commander-in-Chief of the army Major General Salimi provided him with brief account of the operation and the goals behind it.

Salimi said that the operations, the biggest maneuver held by the Army, applied a mix of the tactics of the asymmetrical wars, and of the systemic and unsystemic wars, while building-up and assessing the combat readiness of the forces and commanders.

Commander of the army's ground forces, Brigadier General Nasser Mohammadi-Far and Commander of the army's air forces Brigadier General Qavami had during the war game briefed Ayatollah Khamenei on different operations launched by the Army's ground and air forces.

The Iranian Army's ground forces started their “biggest ever” war games in five western and southern provinces, some of them bordering Iraq, on Friday.

Mohammadi-Far had said upon start of the operations that ten army divisions as well as artillery, missile and electronic warfare units were taking part in the “Followers of Velayat (Guardianship)” exercises.

The operations, backed by C-130 tactical aircraft, were being carried out in Kermanshah, Ilam, Hamedan, Lorestan, and Khuzestan provinces, covering an area of 100,000 square kilometers (3,800 square miles).

http://www.iribnews.ir/video/01/09/12/s399.wmv

Current Pic's:

http://www.farsnews.com/plarg.asp?sid=8309150100
http://www.farsnews.com/plarg.asp?sid=8309150187
http://www.farsnews.com/plarg.asp?sid=8309150235

Current Video's:

http://www.iribnews.ir/Full_fa.asp?news_id...96382460213&n=1
http://www.iribnews.ir/Full_fa.asp?news_id...93855750102&n=1

Crisis in Netherlands : Muslim Society under AIVD scan

http://www2.rnw.nl/rnw/en/currentaffairs/dutchaffairs/dut041110

The Netherlands is in an ongoing crisis of racial and religious violence. In just one week the country has seen the apparently religiously inspired murder of a well-known filmmaker and some 20 attempted arson attacks on mosques and churches, including one serious bomb incident.

At the time of writing, the city of The Hague was the scene of one of the largest anti-terrorist operations seen in the country since the 1970s, involving the deployment of elite military troops. The crisis continues; all Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende could do on Wednesday was to call on the Dutch to remain calm.

What went wrong?

So, what has happened to this relatively small but well-off nation with a centuries-long reputation for tolerance? There’s no simple answer to that question, because the problems which the country now faces are themselves so complicated. Take, for example, the growing problem of terrorism. For years, the Dutch Intelligence and Security Service (AIVD) has been saying that an increasing radicalisation is taking place among Muslim youths, particularly those of Moroccan descent. This process is thought to be not only a consequence of an identity crisis among a section of this particular group - many of whom are well-educated and can identify neither with the standards and values of their parents nor with Dutch society - but also, according to the AIVD, of active recruiting in this group by terrorist networks.

Stirring emotions

It is one such ‘radicalised’ youth - a Dutchman of Moroccan descent - who now stands accused of last week’s murder of filmmaker and writer Theo van Gogh. In recent years Theo van Gogh made extensive use of - some argue that he extensively abused - another Dutch tradition: freedom of speech. As he became increasingly sidelined by the mainstream media, Van Gogh's tone became more and more cutting, until little more remained than unbridled verbal abuse directed at Muslims in the Netherlands. Then there was his short film - broadcast on television earlier this year, and designed to focus attention on the abuse of women by Muslim men - featuring images of a half-naked woman with passages from the Koran painted on her body. Emotions in Dutch Muslim circles ran high.

Gut feelings
The killing of Theo van Gogh caused a shockwave in Dutch society comparable to the one that followed the assassination of politician Pim Fortuyn in 2002. The latest murder, however, appears to involve two new elements: religion and ethnicity. Add to this the primitive gut feelings of those sections of the white Dutch population who believe the nation is being inundated by ‘backward’ Muslims from North Africa and Turkey, and the arson attacks on mosques and Islamic schools are hardly a mystery. The same applies to the attempts to set light to churches and Christian schools which have come in response. Despite the violence, the number of incidents remains small, and is by no means sufficient to warrant the term ‘pogrom’ which Danish newspaper Politiken recently used to describe the situation.

Naive
A conclusion which is warranted, however, is that for many years the Dutch political world has been naïve: naive in its approach to the encroaching radicalisation of young Dutch Muslims; naive as regards the increasing social and other divisions in the underprivileged neighbourhoods of the country’s main towns and cities; naive in its response to the growing presence of Islamic terrorist cells on Dutch soil inside the country; and naïve once again even in the face of a string of warnings on that very subject from the intelligence and security service. Only now do the government and parliament find themselves forced to contemplate a radical rethink of their approach. This week, Spanish newspaper El Mundo wrote, and not without reason, that “all of Europe should look at Holland in order to ward off an evil which could spread still further.”

Dutch secret service ran three cover organisations during 1960-1980

Source : Radio Netherlands

From the late 1960s until well into the 1980s, the Dutch secret service established not one, but three cover organisations which targeted communist China. In September this year, a former member of Dutch intelligence revealed that the Marxist-Leninist Party of the Netherlands (“Marxistisch-Leninistische Partij Nederland”) had been used as a cover for the BVD security service, currently known as the AIVD.


Click Listen to Audio




It now appears that two pressure groups - the Netherlands-Albania and the Netherlands-Kampuchea foundations - were also BVD covers, which were created so that the Dutch intelligence service and the American CIA could obtain more information about China’s influence inside Western Europe. In the Netherlands, this intelligence project, which remained secret for a long time, was known as 'Operation Mongol', while it reportedly went under the name of 'Operation Red Herring' within the CIA.

Now, for the first time, one of the few 'genuine' members of these three organisations has given an interview. From 1969 to 1981, Paul Wartena (61), then a committed Maoist, played an active role in the three groups, only to discover in September this year that the secret service had been 'using' him all that time as part of the camouflage for their activities. This discovery followed publication of the memoirs of former BVD member Frits Hoekstra, who m ade the first disclosures about 'Operation Mongol'.


Audio_Real1.jpg Listen to the full interview with Paul Wartena by Hans de Vreij (6'25")
Conversion
In an interview he gave to Radio Netherlands just this week, Paul Wartena explained how, as a young man, he joined the Communist Party of the Netherlands (CPN), then began to develop more sympathy for the Chinese version of communism after the famous ideological split between Moscow and Beijing. He eventually laid eyes on his first copy of 'The Communist', a newspaper published by the Marxist-Leninist Party of the Netherlands. What he didn’t know was that this paper was put together and published by the secret service. He wrote a letter asking to join the organisation, and subsequently met the ‘secretary-general’ of the MLPN, a man who called himself Chris Petersen, but who was in fact Peter Bouvé, a BVD operative.

Paul Wartena joined one of the party’s 'cells', and - as he says himself - became one of the MLPN’s most fanatical activists. He never once suspected or noticed any involvement by the secret service, and only now has he discovered that the ‘party’ never had more than between five and ten 'real' members. The rest of the MLPN was made up of intelligence officers and agents working for the BVD.

Speaking to Radio Netherlands, Mr Wartena said the party never really did very much. According to him, party meetings were held on either a weekly or monthly basis, and occasionally they would distribute leaflets. However, on one occasion in 1974 he and fellow 'party member' Chris Petersen did pay an official visit to Beijing. Later on, he and 'Petersen' both joined two other organisations with a pro-China line; both of them actually BVD cover operations.

“I was on the board of the Netherlands-Albania foundation for a while, and I visited Albania together with Chris Petersen. We stood on the same podium as dictator Enver Hoxha at the country’s May Day celebrations, and I also translated his books from English to Dutch. I don’t think anybody ever read them.”

"Murder is not part of communism"
Mr Wartena also told Radio Netherlands about the contacts between the Maoist organisations and the radical Marxist 'Red Youth' movement, which was pushing the idea of a more violent 'class war' in the Netherlands.

“There was even talk of murdering certain individuals in the Netherlands, and I always strongly opposed that. I was always against violence, and I even said at the time that it wasn’t Communist, it was Fascist.”

His version of events is backed up by earlier revelations by former BVD operative Frits Hoekstra, who said the Red Youth had also been infiltrated by the BVD. At one point, the intelligence service even supplied the group with weapons for an attack in order to maintain the credibility of its own 'plant' inside the movement. Of course, the attack - or attacks - never materialised.

In the second half of the 1970s, the BVD used 'Chris Petersen' to set up a new organisation, the Netherlands-Kampuchea (Cambodia) foundation, in which Paul Wartena was also to play an active part. This group toed the Chinese Communist Party line in backing Cambodia's then dictator Pol Pot. In late 1978, Vienamese troops invaded 'Democratic Kampuchea' and ended the Pol Pot regime, although Pol Pot himself did not officially give up his position untill 1985. In 1981, the many reports about the 'Killing Fields', the mass murders committed by the Pol Pot regime, caused Paul Wartena to end his membership of the foundation::

“I was principally opposed to violence and, after all the reports about the mass murders, I quit, turning my back on politics completely.”

Paul Wartena began to study religion and psychology, became an assistant at the University of Utrecht, and currently gives lectures on subjects such as the future of religion and the relationship between culture and how people experience happiness.

Shocked
In a recent interview with the Wall Street Journal, former BVD member Peter Bouvé described Paul Wartena as an idiot. Despite all the other revelations, Paul Wartena - a mild-mannered man with a remarkable political past - is still quite shocked by that description. During the 12 years which they were in contact, Mr Petersen became a good friend, and even spoke at Wartena’s wedding.

“I am not bothered at all about the way things went back then. Even I went from being a Communist to being an anti-Communist. But the fact that Peter Bouvé has said that now, that simply shocks me as a human being.”

Paul Wartena would like it if he could get back the money he contributed to the 'party' over a period of 12 years. “I gave a considerable part of my meagre income to the party”. In September of this year it became clear that this money went straight to the Dutch secret service. Not only that, but his contribution was a mere drop in the ocean compared to the amounts which the authorities in China and Albania gave to ‘Marxist-Leninist Party of the Netherlands' - whereby the two Communist nations were unwittingly subsidising one of the West’s most successful intelligence campaigns, of which they were the main targets.

Arab Christians Between Thoughts of Subjugation and Freedom

http://www.aina.org/news/20041213195251.htm

Christian communities native to the Middle East are passing through
turbulent times. In Egypt, where the Copts constitute the largest
concentration of Christian Arabs anywhere in the region, the
community finds itself caught in the crossfire between an
authoritarian government and radical Islamist groups. The Copts,
despite sharing strong sentiments of Egyptian nationalism with the
Muslim majority, are often beset upon by both the authorities and the
fanatics because they are perceived as a convenient scapegoat. In
southern Sudan, though a peace agreement may be near, Christians were
locked in a 20-year civil war with an Islamist government in Khartoum
bent on imposing Sharia on them by force.

Christians in growing numbers are daily fleeing the chaos in Iraq,
where their churches have been bombed and their livelihoods
threatened by Islamist militants leading the armed insurgency against
U.S. and coalition forces. In the Holy Land, in places where ancient
Christian communities reside, like Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth,
the Christian presence has shrunk dramatically due mainly to
emigration, as Christians see themselves being marginalized by a
conflict increasingly defined in terms of Jews versus Muslims. And in
Lebanon, following 15 years of war that resulted in open-ended Syrian
domination, the Christians, who number close to 40 percent of the
population, have seen their freedoms steadily erode, their numbers
dwindle, and their political influence shrivel.

Two distinct historical narratives define the way of life and the
destiny of the Middle East's diverse indigenous Christian
communities: a narrative of subjugation and a narrative of freedom.
On one side lies the vast majority of Christian Arabs - over 90
percent - in their respective regional and cultural contexts. Since
the rise and spread of Islam these communities have been relentlessly
reduced to dhimmi status, or second-class status in their own
homelands, being forced to forfeit any semblance of free existence.
The Christians of Egypt, Sudan, Iraq, Syria and the Holy Land belong
to this vanquished category.

On the other side stand the Christians of Lebanon, numerically a
minority, but with a unique historical experience of freedom that was
defended and preserved over the centuries at a high cost in terms of
blood and treasure. Here the entrenched Maronites, affiliated with
Rome since the year 1180, serve as spearhead for a host of other
lesser denominations who have thrown in their lot with them to form
an exceptionally rooted and tenacious Christian community largely
resistant to the ravages of "dhimmitude." However, the combined toll
in recent years of war, foreign occupation, economic deterioration,
and attrition through emigration has weighed heavily on Lebanon's
Christians, causing them for the first time since the mid-19th
century to experience an appreciable loss in the precious freedoms to
which they have clung so fiercely for so long.

One way to begin to appreciate the qualitative difference in mindset
and outlook between dhimmi Christians and free Christians in the
Middle East is to look at attitudes of Christians on both sides of
the Syrian-Lebanese border. In Syria, where Christians have lived as
dhimmis for centuries, even the slightest improvement in their
overall situation, as happened under the late President Hafez al-
Assad, was hailed as a tremendous achievement and a great leap
forward by the community, which has offered its complete allegiance
to the present regime. Not having known real freedom, Syrian
Christians reacted to even the smallest dimension of breathing room
with an outpouring of gratitude.

Move across the border into neighboring Lebanon and the inexorable
reduction in the community's personal and communal freedoms over the
last quarter century is viewed by Christians as nothing short of
calamitous. For a people who have tasted the fruits of real freedom
and sacrificed much to protect them, even the minutest diminution of
such a valuable commodity is greatly felt and lamented.

The future of Christian Arabs hangs in the balance today. The
majority, which initially was offered order in place of freedom, is
now being handed insecurity everywhere throughout the Arab world.
Those few who risked everything to embrace freedom face, at best, an
uncertain course as pressures mount to deprive them of what is left
of their hard-won liberties. Invariably, the stigma of being
alleged "agents of the West" or "closet Crusaders" continues to loom
menacingly over these communities and rears its lethal head whenever
religious passions rage uncontrollably.

The future will remain bleak for Christian Arabs if their plight
continues to be neglected by the rest of the world; if the so-called
war on terror falters and fanaticism gains the upper hand against
moderate forces in the Muslim world; if something remotely resembling
democracy does not strike root in a pacified Iraq; and if the line of
freedom's erosion is not held in Lebanon, where a homegrown exception
to the freedom-starved regional norm managed to flourish in the face
of overwhelming odds.

Thus stand the spiritual descendants of the apostles 2,000 years
later in the lands surrounding the sacred spot where Jesus chose to
appear as a lowly carpenter.

By Habib C. Malik
Daily Star, Lebanon

Habib Malik teaches history and cultural studies at the Lebanese
American University in Lebanon. This commentary is taken from
bitterlemons-international, an online newsletter

© 2004, Assyrian International News Agency

Post-Modern Terrorism

By Antero Leitzinger
Global Politician
12/14/2004

Individual perpetrators of terrorist acts may be psychopaths or suicidal
personalities, but their mentors, protectors, and managers, are rational
political players. Not only the techniques, but also the strategies of terrorism
will follow general development, to suit better to the modern society.

Terrorism is the art of manipulating political opinions and decisions by the use
of violence and mass psychology, specially in a democracy - in dictatorships,
carefully targeted assassinations would be more efficient. There are basically
two strategies:

1) collective blackmail;
2) provocations.

In the former, the enemy is forced to pay such a high price for peace and
security, that compromises or appeasement will get wide support. This is clearly
the intention of the IRA against the United Kingdom, or the ETA against Spain.
In some cases, the enemy may become a political pariah, shunned by potential
allies. This is the case of various terrorist groups operating against Turkey
(to prevent EU membership), Israel, and the USA.

The latter method was used for the "Bulgarian agitation" in 1876, and became the
favourite strategy of Russian secret services throughout the 20th century.
Provocations aim at compromising the "ordinary" suspects. Even the German
National Socialists were tempted to use Jews as scapegoats for staged acts of
terrorism.

Both traditional terrorist strategies are, however, messy and risky. Terrorists
have learned, that the victims tend to react unexpectedly, by rallying around
their political leaders and accepting tougher counter-terrorist policies. Many
good men (from the terrorist perspective) have to risk their lives for
committing terrorist acts, and even the most fanatic groups have a limited
supply of voluntary suicide-bombers. In the case of provocations, on the other
hand, terrorists may save man-power, but they have to sacrifice women and
children in an attempt to earn sympathy and accuse their enemies for brutality.
Would it not be possible to achieve the same results by less actual
blood-shedding?

Terrorism needs media attention like plants need sunshine. If an airplane is
destroyed, but everybody assumes it an accident by technical failure, terrorism
gained nothing. If the reason of an air crash remains unsolved or doubted, a
terrorist group may claim responsibility and celebrate it as their achievement.
Why do the hard work of actually planting bombs in airplanes, if the most
important factor is, to what and whom the media subscribes the incident?

Terrorists need journalists, but journalists too live of bad news and threats.
Terrorists and journalists live in a symbiosis, mutually profitable
relationship. Ideally, journalists provide terrorists with headlines and
resulting public outcry, while terrorists provide journalists with the evidence
required for verification. A maximal sensationalist "yellow press" needs a
minimum of real bodies. If public hysteria can be created bloodlessly, just by
media reports and threats, why fill the mortuaries?

In Iraq, coalition soldiers and civilians are killed almost daily. This has been
chosen instead of open resistance, because killing 30 men in a battle once a
month would, paradoxically, not produce the same net result. The ultimate aim is
not to destroy the occupying military forces (Americans could easily afford to
loose a thousand men in the whole war), but to keep the media occupied, and to
make the "home front" tired of the whole issue. Killing military personnel would
not be terrorism as such, but when the aim is to frighten the great public by
continuous media attention, it could be classified as terrorism.

The remnants of the former Iraqi government and security forces are not the only
people to have learned the might of the media, and how to influence it
effectively. Terrorism is spreading all over the world as a substitute for
old-fashioned fighting. High-profile kidnapping cases provide similar publicity,
without body counts. During the Anthrax letter scare and SARS epidemics,
ordinary people felt the temptation of jokes that could paralyze air traffic,
mailing, private and public businesses. The media can be held hostage by so many
different ways.

In long term, virtual terrorism may become a business-conscious enterprise.
Advertisement and campaign bureaus, consults and lobbyists, belong to the 20th
century, while the 21st century will see the privatization of full-service
secret agencies with their trusted professional terrorists, provocateurs, media
connections, stock exchange experts, life guards, arms merchants, human rights
lawyers, and documentation centres. Disinformation is not even illegal.

Although this development may clean up terrorism somewhat, and save lives and
limbs, there will follow the same problems that plague every expanding
organization. Some terrorists become common criminals, but others may find the
manipulation of financial markets more interesting. Airlines and insurance
companies react to terrorist acts, and threats of such. There will be rivalries,
and some terrorist organizations may turn into honest protection business.

Terrorism is a globally unevenly distributed phenomena. The natural objects are
free and democratic societies, where the media is not censored, justice is
clement, and the decision-making process is open and predictable. The most
successful organizers and sponsors, however, are internationally protected
dictatorships with closed borders, secretive administration, hierarchical power
structures, and cheap work force. This inequality determinates that terrorists
will be harboured by dictatorships against democracies, until the latter make
serious counter-threats of promoting democracy by force, which will prevent
dictatorships of exploiting their natural advantage too far.

Countries like Turkmenistan and North Korea know, that their real or supposed
capability to retaliate are their best guarantees against foreign demands of
liberalization, but the recent fate of Afghanistan and Iraq warn them of testing
the patience of democracies beyond all limits. Peaceful coexistence of
dictatorships and democracies is possible only in a state of mutual balance of
terror.

Russia has by far the longest tradition of state terrorism, global network of
agents, propaganda machinery through international front organizations, and all
kind of subversive tactics. The restoration of Soviet-style centralization, and
the possession of destructive potential, accompanied with continuing economical
and demographical problems, make terrorism a temptation hard to resist. What
would Russia have to loose by protecting terrorist groups and regimes?

In a postmodern world, Russia will cultivate and export the know-how and
techniques it knows best. This will not necessarily mean, that Russia would sell
too much nuclear technology to Iran, because it prefers to keep a monopoly.
Russia will not need to harbour Usama bin Ladin or Saddam Hussein in Moscow,
because there are enough client states and nominally independent military bases
to store them outside its borders. Most likely, postmodern Russian terrorism
will appeal to the media, and avoid unnecessary brutality. Why blow up innocent
people, when all critical opposition by democratic societies can be paralyzed
and eliminated by the mere threat of risking world peace? Who would seriously
oppose bold demands of further credits, or the extradition of individual
terrorists, if Russia would fully use all its potential? Journalists,
researchers, and politicians could be relieved by the prospect of saving lives -
perhaps even their own - through appeasement at the cost of taxpayers.
Nevertheless, this would be the end of democracy.

The article was originally written in January 2004.

Antero Leitzinger is a political historian and a researcher for the Finnish
Directorate of Immigration. He wrote several books on Turkey, the Middle East
and the Caucasus