December 10, 2005

Why do 50-odd 'international academics' humiliate the hindu?

Open letter to the 50-odd 'international academics' who were co-signatories of Nov.8, Nov. 26 Witzel letters

This is from a hindu, with two grandchildren studying in US schools. This is a plea for vinaya, a plea submitted in all humility. This is a plea to remember the Tamil saying: naalu per enna solluvaa? (Trans. What will four people say?) The four people are the four who will carry my corpse to the smas'aanam, the cremation grounds. They are the social conscience who dictate my social responsibility. I am sure that there are perceptions of similar social morality in all societies in all civilizations as guides to action in a framework of vratam, human responsibility beyond human rights.

You are scholars, please decide for yourself, touching your conscience -- aatman --, on what type of legacy you would like to leave behind you, as a contributor to the whole gamut of human thought.

Aryan hoax was a British colonial creation. Evidence: William Jones shown on a marble panel on Oxford College Chapel wearing a skull-cap; that is, he was a christian missionary and no Sanskrit lover. So was the 'caste system' a British colonial creation with the start of the 1871 census. (Caste itself is not a bharatiya word but a Portuguese word, casta, meaning 'race'). The words used in hindu tradition to discuss social groups are varna and jaati. Jaati refers to birth, to species, to genus as seen from innumerable references in texts in the veda-bauddha-jaina continuum of hindu tradition. Jaati in Telug means 'nation'. Varna is derived from dhaatu, root vr. 'to choose'; that is choice of skills and professions based on one's proclivities and preferences for social participation.

The roots of the Aryan hoax lie in the belief of christians in creation in 5th millennium BCE. To perpetuate this hoax in this day and age of DNA studies shows that many 'international academics' are living in a world of their own making, Alice's wonderland, removed from the reality of accumulating evidence and not only the discovery but also the rebirth of River Sarasvati, on the banks of which hindu civilization was nurtured and continues even today in an unparalleled continuum of over 5 millennia. 'International academics' seem to read only what suits their pet hallucinations about a eurocentric world. There are 'scholars' who are in a state of denial; who want to deny River Sarasvati as a myth; it is like what is said in a Tamil proverb: muzhu poosanikkaaye sottile maraikka paarkkiraanga (Trans. they are attempting to hide an entire pumpkin in a morsel of rice). Do the 50-odd 'international academics' know the meaning of satyam? The pitru vaakyam is: na brooyaat satyam apriyam. Go figure out.

We are dealing with the future of children and what learning is imparted to them. This is a mahaavratam we are engaged in and the vratam should be performed with a high sense of responsibility. Not by indulging in politicking and trying to score 'scholarly' points. We need vinaya (rough translation: humility), that treasure which all vidyaa, all education is supposed to impart.
In the process indulged in wittingly or unwittingly by 50-odd 'international academics', the hindu community has been defamed.
There are good reasons why Witzel nurtures the Aryan hoax; his knowledge of Sanskrit, of Sayana, of Panini, of hindu civilization is rather warped, apart from being limited. But why do 50-odd 'international academics' join the Witzel bandwagon to nurture the Aryan hoax? In Witzel's letters of Nov. 8 and Nov. 26, the reasons become clear. They are concerned about 'hindutva'. They misunderstand the word. As in tat-tva, the suffix -tva in hindu-tva connotes just 'essence'. That are You (tat tvam asi) is a tat-tva, a philosophical inquiry. Similarly hindu-tva means 'essence of hindu, being hindu, or something like hindu-ness). They also seem to be politically and religiously motivated. They are not really concerned about conveying to children through school textbooks the glory and heritage of hindu civilization. They want to present a distorted, biased, warped picture of the civilization using stereotypes and prejudiced opinions and false theories or myths. They have arrogated to themselves (they think they have the adhikaara) the role of arbitrators of 'scholarship'.

What is scholarship? In hindu civilizational tradition, scholarship is that which contributes to loka hitam. The phrase loka hitam is used in many ancient texts as the author tries to explain in the last s'loka or statement as to why he wrote down what he or she did. The author would say: I am doing this for loka hitam.

Are these 'international academics' contributing to loka hitam by threatening an international scandal if the Califorina School Board of Education (SBE) presents hindu-tva through meanings understood in hindu tradition? The subjects being dealt with in the review process are not isssues of 'scholarship' but about the meanings of the traditions, in the grand narrative called hindu civilization. The issues were not merely about historical facts or historical chronologies; they were substantially about meanings which can be comprehended only by practitioners of sanaatana dharma (which is also called in Bauddha continuum esha dhammo sanantano). Only the hindu have the adhikaara to provide a fair representation of hindu-tva, of being hindu.

The 50-odd 'international academics' who have signed the Witzel letter in haste should retract their signatures. They should distance themselves from Witzel. This should be the minimum demand of the hindu communities world-over. Their midnight interjection in a due process of review put in place by SBE is a denial of due process and equal opportunity protections under US laws. More than the defamation which their participation in the Witzel letter involves, they have crossed the line of universal ethical principle: respect for the ability of groups of people to creatively develop their own world-view, gestalt (A physical, biological, psychological, or symbolic configuration or pattern of elements so unified as a whole that its properties cannot be derived from a simple summation of its parts.) The meaning of the lives and traditions of the hindu cannot be subjected to ridicule by non-hindu, they do NOT have the adhikaara to pontificate and cast aspersions on being hindu, on hindu-tva.

The 50-odd 'international academics' owe a public apology to the hindu samajam; they should also do prayas'cittam for their hasty involvement with crude attempts at perpetuation of an Aryan hoax, castigating a hindu samajam with false representations such as 'caste system' and interjecting in a process which could have profound effects on the hindu children's future and their self-identity.

BBC website has recorded the reasons why Aryan Invasion/Migraiton Theory is pursued with such doggedness

'Scholars' who pursue this theory are exemplified by Michael Witzel. It is a moot question if all the 50-odd 'scholars' who signed the bigoted Witzel letter ( This pdf has list of signatories and also their emails) also believed with Witzel in the Aryan hoax.

As BBC report notes, the theory continues to be the 'mantra' because it included racist ideas'. To put it mildly, do the 50-odd 'international academics desire to protect their own superstitions and notions of superiority of their own 'faiths'? Do the 50-odd 'international academics' desire to control the discourse on hindu civilization by repeating that hindu are heathen or kafir, savage, needing their souls to be saved? Why do the 50-odd 'international academics' try to intimidate many school-teachers who are Curiculum Commissioners in California trying to determine what the hindu children should be told about hindu civilization? Aren't the 50-odd 'international academics' accountable to the community that they are supposed to serve? The hindu community in USA may be a minority, but they are a significant minority with over 3 million hindu in America and over 15 million Americans who practice hindu traditions of yoga, meditation, ayurveda. Are the 50-odd 'international academics' opposed to these hindu traditions just because they are hindu-tva, the essence of being hindu; don't they care for hindu sentiments and the future of hindu children who will search for their hindu identity after being deluded through biased, bigoted, prejudiced views represented in the classrooms?

An effective way to counter racism is to review the results produced by genetic investigations. This is what Stan Metzenberg, Commissioner of California Curriculum Commission did (see appended note).

BBC's views on why Aryan hoax is sought to be perpetuated

[quote] The theory was not just wrong, it included unacceptably racist ideas:
it suggested that Indian culture was not a culture in its own right, but a synthesis of elements from other cultures
it implied that Hinduism was not an authentically Indian religion but the result of cultural imperialism
it suggested that Indian culture was static, and only changed under outside influences
it suggested that the dark-skinned Dravidian people of the South of India had got their faith from light-skinned Aryan invaders
it implied that indigenous people were incapable of creatively developing their faith
it suggested that indigenous peoples could only acquire new religious and cultural ideas from other races, by invasion or other processes
it accepted that race was a biologically based concept (rather than, at least in part, a social construct) that provided a sensible way of ranking people in a hierarchy, which provided a partial basis for the caste system
it provided a basis for racism in the Imperial context by suggesting that the peoples of Northern India were descended from invaders from Europe and so racially closer to the British Raj
it gave a historical precedent to justify the role and status of the British Raj, who could argue that they were transforming India for the better in the same way that the Aryans had done thousands of years earlier
it downgraded the intellectual status of India and its people by giving a falsely late date to elements of Indian science and culture

Thanking you for your consideration and with the fond hope that vinaya will prevail,


S. Kalyanaraman Sarasvati Research Centre, Chennai 600015.

On genetics which can effectively counter racist ideas, see :

Thanks to Aravindan Nilakandan for this post. Posted on Dec. 10, 2005 by Aravindan Nilakandan

Dr. Stan Metzenberg was kind enough to inform me what he read to the committee: It was from a 1999 paper by Kivisild, et al. (Current Biology, vol 9 pp.1331-1334):

"A commonly held hypothesis, albeit not the only one, suggests a massive Indo-Aryan invasion to India some 4,000 years ago [1]. Recent limited analysis of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Indian populations has been interpreted as supporting this concept [2 and 3]. Here, this interpretation is questioned. We found an extensive deep late Pleistocene genetic link between contemporary Europeans and Indians, provided by the mtDNA haplogroup U, which encompasses roughly a fifth of mtDNA lineages of both populations.Our estimate for this split is close to the suggested time for the peopling of Asia and the first expansion of anatomically modern humans in Eurasia [4, 5, 6, 7 and 8] and likely pre-dates their spread to Europe. Only a small fraction of the �Caucasoid-specific� mtDNA lineages found in Indian populations can be ascribed to a relatively recent admixture."

He also read from the same paper:

"Thus, we have shown that the overwhelming majority of the so-called western-Eurasian-specific mtDNA lineages in Indian populations, estimated here to be carried by more than a hundred million contemporary Indians, belong in fact to an Indian-specific variety of haplogroup U of a late Pleistocene origin. The latter exhibits a direct common phylogenetic origin with its sister groups found in western Eurasia (Figure 1), but it should not be interpreted in terms of a recent admixture of western Caucasoids with Indians caused by a putative Indo-Aryan invasion 3,000 �4,000 years BP. From the deep time depth of the split between the predominant Indian and European haplogroup U varieties, it could be speculated that haplogroup U arose in neither of the two regions. This split could have already happened in Africa, for example, in Ethiopia, where haplogroup U was recently described [21]."

See also:
Fwd. A note on Michael Witzel's ignorance of Sayana and Panini. K.

Panini's Grammar, Sayanacharya's Vedic Bhashyas

& Michael Witzel's 'Philology'

While criticizing David Frawley's interpretation of samudra 'ocean' in the Rigveda (The Hindu, Open page, 06 August 2002) Mr. Michael Witzel , Harvard University, has stated, "That Vedic language, like all others, did change from the Rigveda to the Upanishads" …… He further continues, "The Rigveda has many grammatical forms that had simply disappeared by the time of Panini. He and Sayana do not know e.g. of the injunctive (e.g. han Indro' him han)". By this above allegation Mr. Witzel tells his readers, in unambiguous language, that Panini and Sayana are ignorant of several Vedic grammatical forms of which the Rigvedic passage – bracketed in the above citation – illustrates one. We shall now undertake a close study of Panini and Sayana and see what result it will yield.

Panini recognizes two distinct phases of Sanskrit, Chandas (the Vedic) and Bhasha (the post Vedic) and he wrote his grammar, ashtadhyayi, for both the phases of Sanskrit. He had even taken into consideration the dialectal variations of the Sanskrit of his time, reckoning two prominent dialects – the Eastern and the Northern. He had traversed the entire ground not leaving anything to be taken up by future grammarians, as a careful study of his grammar would reveal. On the Vedic side he had taken due note of all the threefold divisions of the Vedas, viz. Samhita, Brahmana and Aranyaka.

Panini's grammar has been considered as one among the six ancillary disciplines indispensable for a correct understanding or interpretation of the Vedas; therefore nothing in the Vedic language could have escaped the notice of Panini. Patanjali's (author of the Mahabhashya, an ancient commentary on Panini's grammar) observations on the relation of Panini's grammar to the Vedas deserve special mention in this connection -

'Panini's grammar teaches formation of words belonging to both the Vedic and spoken Sanskrit'. 'Grammar is the foremost among the six ancillaries of the Veda'. 'One ought to study (Panini's) grammar for preserving the purity of the Vedas, both in form and sense'. 'Words such as usha, tera, chakra and pecha are not found in use in the current language since there are other words that could replace them'. 'In fact the words said to be not in use are found in frequent use in the Vedas.' ' Even formation of words that had fallen into disuse ought to be taught.'

Patanjali's observations clearly highlight the importance of knowledge of Panini's grammar for the study of the Vedas and bring to the fore the fact that Panini had accounted for the formation of all the Vedic words though a good number of them had ceased to exist in the Sanskrit of his time.

Panini was fully aware of the richness of the grammatical forms in and the distinctive features of the Vedic language. The language of the Vedas is accented and Panini has framed hundreds of rules dealing with the Vedic accent though accentuation has almost disappeared from the language of his time. He has reckoned twelve infinitives of which eleven had become extinct in classical Sanskrit. The subjunctive forms, though frequently met with in the Vedas, had vanished from the post Vedic language without leaving any trace; and yet, Panini has formulated a number of rules dealing with subjunctive forms.

Instances of Panini noticing the peculiarities of the Vedic language are too numerous. While evidences of Panini's comprehensive and penetrating study of the grammatical forms of the Vedic language are overwhelming, Mr. Witzel's above allegation attributing ignorance to Panini can hardly sustain.

The injunctive had survived; it had not become defunct. Right from the Rigveda the use of the injunctive in association with the prohibitive negative particle ma has been a continuous flow, down the ages, till date, for an e.g., ma gam, ma karshih, ma bhut, ma sma bhut, ma sma bhavat etc. It defies one's understanding as to how Panini, who has spared no pains to record and explain the formation of even antiquated and obsolete forms, had not taken cognizance of the injunctive which has been in regular use both in the Vedic and post-Vedic Sanskrit.

Injunctive is a term by which European orientalists refer to the forms of the non-augmented past tense forms, viz. the imperfect, aorist and pluperfect; it conveys the same sense as the subjunctive or the imperative or the optative or the precative does. In form, the injunctive is identical with the non-augmented imperfect, aorist and pluperfect and therefore Panini has not framed separate rules for deriving the injunctive forms. He does not treat the pluperfect as a distinct tense since he regards the pluperfect as a variety of the aorist for the reason that it admits only secondary terminations.

The Vedic language presents the forms of the past tenses under two different types - the augmented and the non-augmented. The augmented past tense: The augment is a prefix of the past tense forms and is taught by P.VI-4-71 and 72. Since the terminations for all the augmented past tense verbs are almost the same, Panini teaches the respective verbal formations by the same set of rules; The active forms by III. 4.78,99-101, 109-111 and VII.1.3,4 and 45 and the middle forms by III.4.78, VII.1.3 and 5 and VII.2.81.

The non-augmented past tense form, which falls under two heads – the one with and the other without the prohibitive particle ma - is obtained by dropping the augment according P.VI.4.74 and 75. The non-augmented past without ma is restricted to the Vedic (bahulam chhandasi amanyogepi VI.4.75) whereas the other one, i.e. with ma, is freely used in both the Vedic and post-Vedic Sanskrit ( na man yoge VI.4.74)

The non-augmented past tense form accompanied by ma is always used as injunctive. e.g. ma vidam, mas stham, ma gah, ma isata, ma vadhit and so on. Whereas the unaugmented past tense form without ma is used as injunctive as well as past indicative.

Indicative usage : e.g. dhatam, jani, paprathat, sidan, manvata etc.

Injunctive usage : e.g. vocam, dhah, takshat, vadhit, gat etc.

The aorist is used to express a past action in general (P III.2.110 ), the imperfect an action of the near past (III-2-111) and the perfect an action of the remote past (P III.2.115). The terms aorist, imperfect (and perfect ), in the rules cited, stand for both the augmented and non-augmented forms because the rules do not contain any qualifying term that might restrict their scope to any one of the two. Further, the past tenses – the aorist, imperfect and perfect – are employed optionally, in the Vedas, in the sense of other tenses and moods (P III.4.6) i.e. they are used as past, present and future indicatives and also as the subjunctive, imperative, optative and precative moods. From the four rules referred to above, it transpires that Panini has noticed the usage of the augmented and non-augmented past tenses in both the temporal and modal senses. Confining ourselves to the matter on hand, it is obvious that Panini had seen and recorded in his grammar the Vedic usage of the non-augmented imperfect, aorist and pluperfect in the sense of the injunctive, subjunctive, imperative, optative or precative and the past indicative - "In sense the forms that drop the augment are either indicative or injunctive".

Panini does not employ any special term to refer to the injunctive (unaugmented past tense) of the European Orientalists because it does not possess a sense of its own that is distinct from those conveyed by the subjunctive, imperative, optative and precative - "The general meaning of the injunctive expresses a desire, combining the senses of the subjunctive, the optative and the imperative".

It is highly significant, in this connection, to pay our attention on P VIII.3.50 wherein Panini notices the injunctive, subjunctive and the imperative forms of the root kri- kah, karat, karati, kridhi and kritam

Sayana is the well-known exegete of all the four Vedas. The excellence of his Vedic commentaries has largely thrown the earlier commentaries into oblivion. Every page of his commentaries unfailingly convinces the reader of the earnestness in his approach and the devotion and sincerity he exhibits in accomplishing the stupendous task he has set before himself. In his lengthy introduction to his commentary on the Rigveda Samhita he has explained in clear terms the method he has followed in writing his commentary. He has made full use of the traditional ancillary sciences, fourteen in number, and has also consulted the earlier commentaries on the Vedas. He has not failed to tap any source connected with the Vedas, directly or indirectly and closely or remotely, wherefrom he could derive the material necessary for achieving his target. Even a cursory reader of his Vedic commentaries will be astonished at his mastery over the fourteen disciplines and the utmost ease with which he quotes from them. At times he differs from the earlier authorities, while always expressing his views in all humility and politeness. Nothing has been left out unexplained. As a responsible commentator he has been extremely cautious in utilizing the available sources, starting with the padapatha and Brahmanas down to the works of his times. One of the main principles he strictly adheres to in his commentaries is due consideration of the context. He explains the text in harmony with the context; he carefully avoids whatever that runs repugnant to the context.

Since the non-augmented past tense and the injunctive are identical in from one will find it extremely difficult to fix the identify of the given non-augmented verbal formation from its mere form.. One will have to necessarily seek the help of the context in fixing the nature of the verb – temporal or modal. In other words the context is the infallible guide under such circumstances.

Sayana is cognizant of the dual function of the non-augmented past tense forms. Referring to the pertinent rules of Panini he accounts for their formation and gives their meanings in accordance with the context in which they occur.

Examples of non-augmented past tense forms :

sakat ( RV.I.10.6 ), jushata (I.25.18), cyavanta (I.48.2), ni-kramih (I.51.6), bhinat ( I.52.5), ni-barhayah (I.53.7), srijat (I.55.6), bharat (I-60-1), vidhyat (I.61.7), anu-dayi (I.61.15 ), kah (VI.26.5), Sayana gives the meanings of these non-augmented past tense forms either by their corresponding augmented ( indicative ) forms and past active participle in the case of familiar verbs and by means of the augmented past tense forms and past active participle forms of verbs having the same meaning in the case of the not familiar verbs.

Examples of injunctive forms :

jushanta (RV.I.3.9 ), dat (I.24.1), dat (I.24.2), rinoh (I-30-14 ), mimrishah (I-31-16), tarishtam (I-34-11), mrikshatam ( I.34.11), Karat (I.43.2), tatananta (I.52.11), Kshipat ( X.182.1-3), pari-gat (II.33-14). Citing the relevant rules of Panini, Sayana accounts for these injunctive forms and gives their meaning accordingly. He is at liberty to indicate the meaning of the injunctive by any one of the four modal forms – subj., imp, opt or prec – according to P III.3.157, III-3-159, III-3-161, III-3-162, III-3-173 and III.4.7. (It has been pointed out already that the injunctive is used in the sense of the other four moods). But he presents the meaning of the injunctive by means of the corresponding imperative or optative (or less frequently precative) forms. The reason behind Sayana's choice is quite clear. To a student of classical Sanskrit who is well acquainted only with the imperative, optative and precative moods and not with the subjunctive it is reasonable to present the meanings through the known modal forms and not through the unknown.

It will be of much interest to know how Sayana deals with ' dat' which occurs twice among the examples for the injunctive. In the first instance i.e. R.V.I.24.1, the context suggests uncertainty and therefore he gives the meaning by the optative, dadyat and in the second instance, I.24.2 the context implies a wish and hence by the imperative dadatu. In both the instances the meaning given are vouched by the context. The paramount importance that Sayana attaches to the context is well brought out by this example.

The illustration as presented by Mr. Michael Witzel (i.e. the three words 'indro him han' in immediate succession) as an evidence of Panini's ignorance of the Vedic injunctive is to be met with nowhere in the Rigveda Samhita. In RV.V.29.2 the two words ahim and han are found to be in immediate succession. Here han is an non-augmented imperfect form expressing a past action and as such it cannot be taken as an injunctive form. Our concern here is only with han; we need not bother about the sentence of which it may be a member.

Instances of the use of the non-augmented han as both indicative and injunctive are met with in the Rigveda and duly noticed by Sayana. The verbal form han may be either II person singular or III person singular since the II and III person singular forms of the root han are identical.

The non-augmented han is used as past indicative in the following instances. RV.V-29-2, VI-18-5, VI-20-2, VI-26-5, VI-27-5 and VI-47-2. Quoting the relevant rules from Panini, Sayana accounts for the form and gives their meaning by either the corresponding augmented past tense form or the past active participle of the root han. The non-augmented han is used as injunctive in RV.VII.9.6, and X.182. 1-3. With a reference to the concerned rules of Panini, Sayana explains the formation and presents the meaning by the imperative II and III person singular forms, as demanded by the context. i.e., jahi and apa-hantu respectively.

From the above, the reader will find that, contrary to Mr. Witzel's allegation, Panini and Sayana possess a thorough knowledge of the grammatical forms which, according to Mr. Witzel, are unknown to both of them. Further, the foregoing study conclusively establishes Mr. Witzel's own innocence of Panini and Sayana. That he has not made a serious study of either Panini or Sayana in the original needs no mention. His attribution of ignorance to both of them is a disclosure of his own ignorance of the monumental works of these outstanding ancient Indian authors. It is not fair on the part of Mr. Witzel to indulge in pernicious allegation against the exalted personalities of Panini and Sayana and mislead the reading public thereby.

Mr. Witzel accepts the usefulness of the ancillary disciplines in the interpretation of the Vedic texts. But he has denied to himself the advantageous utilization of the ancillary sciences when he dubs Panini, with a single stroke of his pen, as ignorant of many grammatical forms in the Vedas. As a Vedic scholar he should have made a thorough study of Panini and Sayana before passing any judgment over their writings. Witzel formulates a number of rules, in the Open Page referred to already, for the guidance of a researcher in regard to the utilization of the material he has got on hand. But he conveniently sets them aside in his own case; perhaps he meant them exclusively for others. We refrain from referring to some more contradictory and inconsistent statements as they fall outside the scope of our write up.

[Note: All the references preceded by 'P' refer to Panini's Ashtadhyayi]

V. Swaminathan (Retd. Principal, Guruvayur Sanskrit Vidyapeeth) (From Google cached page).

50-odd signatories (as cited in witzelletter.pdf at Witzel's website):

Homi Bhabha, Prof., Harvard University,
Win van Binsbergen, Prof., Anthropology, Universities of Leiden and Rotterdam, Netherlands,
Kalpana Desai, Indus Valley Heritage Center,
Madhav Deshpande, Indian Studies, Prof., University of Michigan,
Patricia Donegan, Prof., Linguistics, University of Hawaii, Manoa,
Dr. Caren Dreyer, Institut Fuer Indische Philogie und Kunstgeschichte, Berlin, Germany,
Shingo Einoo, Prof., Indian Studies, University of Tokyo, Japan,
Garrett Fagan, Prof., History, Pennsylvania State University,
Harry Falk, Prof., Indology, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany,
Dr.Steve Farmer, Comparative History, Portola Valley, California,
Dr. Lars Martin Fosse, Lecturer in Sanskrit, University of Oslo, Norway,
Robert Goldman, Prof. of Sanskrit and Director of the University of California Study Abroad Center in India, University of California at Berkeley,
Sally Sutherland Goldman, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer in Sanskrit, University of California at Berkeley.
Phyllis Herman, Prof., California State University Northridge,
Pochi Huang, Prof., National Chenchen University, Taipei, Taiwan,
Dwijendra Jha, Prof., History, Delhi University, New Delhi, India,
Jonathan Kenoyer, Prof., Archaeology, and co-director of the excavation at Harappa, (HARP),
Joanna Kirkpatrick, Professor of Anthropology (retired), Bennington College
Rajesh Kocchar, former Director, NISTADS (CSIR) New Delhi, India,
Agnes Korn, Department of Linguistics, University of Frankfurt a M., Germany
Hiroshi Marui, Prof., University of Tokyo, Japan,
Richard Meadow, Sen. Lecturer of Archaeology, and co-director of the excavations at Harappa (HARP), Harvard University,
Rafique Mughal, Prof., archaeology and former Director of Archaeology, Pakistan; Boston University,
Hideaki Nakatani, Prof., Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Tokyo, Japan.
S. Palaniappan, University of Pennsylvania Ph.D.,
Asko Parpola, Prof. emer., Indology, University of Helsinki, Finland,
Parimal Patil, Prof., Harvard University,
Sheldon Pollock, Prof., Indian Studies, Columbia University, NY,
Boris Oguibenine, Prof. Indology, University of Strasbourg, France,
Patrick Olivelle, Prof., Indian Studies, University of Texas, Austin,
Shereen Ratnagar, Prof. emeriga, History, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India,
Don Ringe, Prof., Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania,
Hartmut Scharfe, Prof Emeritus of Vedic and Indo-European Studies, UCLA,
Sudha R. Shenoy, Ph.D., School of Economics & Politics, University of Newcastle, Australia
Georg von Simson, Prof. Emer., Indology, University of Oslo, Norway,
Fred Smith, Prof., Indology, University of Iowa,
Frank Southworth, Prof. Emer., Indian Studies, University of Pennsylvania,
David Stampe, Prof., Linguistics, University of Hawaii, Manoa,
Romila Thapar, Prof. Emer., History, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India,
Muneo Tokunaga, Prof. Indology, University of Kyoto, Japan,
Maurizio Tosi, Prof. of Archaeology, University of Bologna, Italy
Alexander Vovin, Prof. Linguistics, University of Hawaii, Manoa,
Stanley Wolpert, Prof., History, University of California, Los Angeles,
Dr. Dominik Wujastyk, Senior Research Fellow, University College London,
Michael Witzel, Wales Prof. of Sanskrit, Harvard University,
Stefan Zimmer, Prof. Linguistics, Free University, Berlin, Germany,
Claus Peter Zoller, Prof. Hindi Section, Department of Culture Studies and Oriental Lnguages, University of Oslo, Norway,


Copies of Nov. 26 letter of Witzel were sent to:

Arlo Griffiths Prof. of Sanskrit, Leiden Univ.,

Raka Ray, Chair in Indian Studies Associate Professor of Sociology and South and Southeast Asian Studies , UCAL, Berkeley,
Leonard van der Kuijp Chairman of the Department of Sanskrit and Indian Studies and Professor of Tibetan and Himalayan Studies at Harvard University ,

Head of the School of Asian Studies (1998-1999), Univ. of Edinburgh, JLBrockington@


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