October 06, 2005

‘Yeh Hain Asaliyat’ (This is Reality)

www.hinduweb.org/home/general_sites/sita/images/bharatma.jpg


Om Sri Durgayai Namah!
Jay Hindu Rashtra!

‘Yeh Hain Asaliyat’ (This is Reality) is one of the pamphlets published in Hindi by the Ahmedabad-based Bharat Jagrati Morcha >

Excerpts from Yeh Hai Asaliyat:

Missionaries want to convert poor and innocent Hindu tribals and destroy our Vaidik Hindu religion, culture. Missionaries use our money to convert Hindus. Missionaries create enmity among the people. Through conversion, they want to create a vote bank and want to make us slaves again. Missionaries talk about secularism of Hindu religion but they misuse it. We have been tolerating all their dirty games and now we will not allow any missionaries to convert Hindus anymore. If you do not protect the Hindu religion then who will protect it?

‘We have been slaves for so many years, and now the time has come to free ourselves and others. Let us wake up and not allow missionaries to fulfill their agenda…..

‘Is the Bible a religious book? Was Jesus the Messiah of love?

‘This is an open challenge to all missionaries to debate on scriptures.

‘Missionaries’ conspiracy to create trouble in India.

‘Missionaries abuse Mothers Gayatri, Kalika, Amba, God Krishna and Shiv, some times Guru Nanak, Kabirji, Buddha and Hindu saints, and create disbelief among the Hindus and convert them. Missionaries spread Christianity in India through TV and print media. They have captured Nagaland, Manipur,and Meghalaya and they succeeded in raising a vote bank there. They take support of anti-Hindu Sonia Gandhi and others directly or indirectly and plan to create trouble in the country.

‘Missionaries try to play a dirty game to rule in India. They try to create trouble between Hindus and Sikhs. While serving the poor and innocent people, they say Jesus is your only saviour, do not worship others Gods. Missionaries take advantage of innocent Hindus and spread Christianity. Oh, missionaries, there are many sick people in European countries. There are many priests who are suffering from AIDS and they need your service there.

‘Now, our Hindus will know of your conspiracy and will teach you a lesson. Our print and electronic media were sold and you use the media for your dirty game. Now be careful. Now our Hindus will wake up and destroy your plan. You have disgraced Hindus through publishing cartoons and wrong information. Some women and ideal people demonstrated and took out a rally against conversion and missionaries. They burnt all the newspapers articles and shouted slogans against the media and went to their offices. At last the newspaper owner of the newspapers had to say ‘Sorry’ for it.

‘Kindly read ‘RUSHI’ magazine which is based on foreign newspaper articles that will tell you about the missionaries’ behaviour and their work. You are most welcome to debate on Jesus and conversion. Is it a true picture of Jesus what you are showing? Your secrets are revealed by your own scientists. Your own country is sending priests to jail. If you continue to convert Hindus and create trouble in India, you would be punished for it.

A Conspiracy To Make India a Christian Nation (Isahi Rashtra)

‘Excess is bad in every sector. A bad thing is Bad only, and there is no question of immorality or excess. When tolerance crosses the limit then it is considered a bad thing.

‘Religious tolerance is a good quality. No one should interfere with other’s religious activities. Only Hindus have put into practice religious tolerance in the world. There is no exaggeration in saying that other religions’ followers and priests have taught only intolerance. But for the last so many years, the Hindus have experienced the interference of other religions, and now it has crossed the border of their tolerance. Now Hindus feel that missionaries think that it is their right and duty to interfere into Hindu religion.

‘Nowadays missionaries attack the Hindu religion which Hindus cannot forget.

‘India is a secular country and the government protects secularism. According to the Constitution all religions have the right to spread their religion in the country. But it does not mean that you should speak against any other religion. Missionaries abuse the Hindu religion and try to establish Christianity.

‘It is an open conspiracy to destroy the Hindu religion by missionaries in India and this has been going on for a long time. We have neglected this and so, day by day, it becomes stronger and stronger... What is their intention, to spread Christianity? Kindly read this leaflet and understand their intention.

‘‘Light of Life’ (July 1964) a Catholic magazine, says to all young Christians "All Christian school students and graduate students It is your duty to write articles on Christianity in different secular magazines. It is not necessary to write articles about Christianity in the beginning but start with different subjects and slowly write about Christianity.

‘What is this? This is an open challenge and invitation to write articles for secular magazines in India. It is a conspiracy. When the country wants to bring all religions together under secularism, but missionaries provoke all young Christians in the name of religion.

‘This is the time for all non-Christian religions to challenge the missionaries’ conspiracy. To protect your religion and national unity, do we all (non Christian religions) realise that this is the time to raise our voice and try to destroy the missionaries’ dirty games? If you ignore such a situation, then one day missionaries will destroy all Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims and will rule in India.

‘It is true that it is not easy for missionaries to deceive Hindus or Muslims easily. Due to religious tolerance of Hindus, missionaries want to convert only Hindus. And due to this tolerance, more Hindus are involved in conversion.

‘Missionaries cannot convert people from other religions because they are very conservative in their religion. But, be aware! Now you are also not safe any more. Other religions also should not ignore the conspiracy of missionaries. The missionaries feel jealous seeing a big population of non-Christians in India. Missionaries cannot see this and so they dream of establishing Christianity in India and want to make "Isai Bharat" at any cost….

‘It is the Hindu’s religious duty to protect themselves and spend their whole life to stop the missionaries’ conspiracy otherwise you would be in danger.

‘It is true that Western countries send their agents to India and try to rule in the name of religion. Let us join hands and protect ourselves against the missionaries’ conspiracy.

Shree Ram Sharma Acharya:

‘Roman and Greek culture were destroyed due to conversion.

‘Conversion is part of the conspiracy to destroy Hindu culture. Stop it and bring awareness.

‘Conversion creates animus between two brothers.

‘Conversion is unconstitutional.

‘Missionaries do not serve the poor people but they bring partition.

‘Conversion not only reduces Hindus but is also a conspiracy to increase enmity.

‘Swami Vivekanand, Mahatma Gandhi, many Hindu priests and social prominent leaders protested against conversion. So stop the conversion and protect your country.

‘Conversion divides the country. There is a ban on conversion in Muslim countries.

‘When a Hindu becomes a Muslim or a Christian, it does not mean that there is one Hindu less in society but that one more enemy has increased for Hindu society…

‘Many innocent Hindu women, men and children were killed by missionaries in Goa. They demolished 280 temples. They banned Hindu marriage, culture, belief etc. Some women refused to surrender their lives to missionaries and did not submit to adultery, so all women were put behind bars and declared criminal, and were burnt alive. (The Goa Inquisition AK Priyalakar, Pg. 175)

‘Christian missionary Mother Teresa tried to convert Ms. Kusum and Kishori others too. (Tarun Bharat: Mumbai Letter 12.24. 1991)

‘When Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister of India, home minister Mr. Yogendra Macwana ordered Mother Teresa to leave Madhya Pradesh for a case of conversion.

‘When Mother Teresa was asked, why do you not help poor without conversion, she said that it is written in the Bible that only the baptised people will be saved and others will be killed. The BBC declared Mother Teresa as a ‘fairy of hell’ (Vatican Teresa– Sovera, BDB Pg. 131)

‘When Rajiv Gandhi married Sonia, he was converted. And now Sonia is helping all missionaries and working as a Watch Dog’. She hopes that the government may not put a ban on conversion. (Vatican Teresa-Sonia, Pg. 19 and Young India special supplement 15-8-94).

‘There is a conspiracy to convert the hilly area of UP in a Yoga Ashram, and also 120 kilometres away from Ahmedabad there is a Sanyash Ashram where conversion is going on. In both these places there is a statue of Jesus seated on a lotus.

‘What is the intention of missionaries? First, convert Hindu people and make all states like Nagaland and follow the East India Company’s policy to enslave the country.

(Note: For further information, kindly read Satyarth Prakash by Maharshi Dayanandji)…

‘So we want to warn you that do not leave your own Vedie religion.

‘We want our demands to be fulfilled as follows:

‘1. Like in Madhya Pradesh, a ban on all religious conversion and all foreign missionaries and priests.

‘2. According to the Constitution’s Article 343, all government offices must stop speaking in English and must speak Hindi only. Symbols of slavery – the black coat, tie, the "English" year, the word "India", etc. should be stopped completely.

‘3. English language and foreign leaders should be removed from government publications and only freedom fighters’ photos should be published...

‘4. Publish history, photos of freedom fighters, Ramayan, Manusmruti and Chanakya stories in the text books and teach students about them. Remove names like Babur, Timur, Chenghis Khan, Clive and other foreigners and their histories.

‘5. Implement an equal law for all. Those who have more than two children should not be given any help from the government. Ban cemeteries and stop making graves like developed countries, Singapore, Japan and China.

‘6. Hindi should be the main language in all sectors and a ban on convent schools and schools which create divisions like English medium schools should be effected.

‘Missionaries have been abusing and condemning our gods and the Hindu religion for so many years. The Niyogi commission report (3.55) says that Christian priests preach that ‘Ram and Krishna can not be saviours because Krishna was a thief and Ram was a sinner. Only the Christian religion can save you."

‘The Intention of conversion:

‘Missionaries want to convert poor people in 5 lakh villages and break India into small pieces so you can rob all the time. Sonia Gandhi wants to make India a ‘Christian land’ and hand it over to the Pope, so missionaries can build 9 lakh churches in India.

‘Conversion has increased since Sonia became the president of Congress (I). Mother Teresa has never tried to remove the sorrow of people and wanted the poor to always remain poor so she can continue conversion. And still our Hindus are sleeping.

‘Distorted of Western culture:

‘Today in the world we see hatred, no peace; injustice, terrorism, war, bombs and sex, selfishness, AIDS, divorce, insult of parents, these have come from western culture. The Christian religion has no spirituality, control and truth so you will find adultery, divorce, etc. in Western countries. When missionaries claim that Jesus is the only saviour why can you not save Western culture?..

‘Forcible and fraudulent religious conversions:

‘The Church is giving money, food and cloth on credit to the poor and if they do not return the money the poor are converted. Missionary schools teach only about Jesus and preach hatred against the Hindu religion. Missionaries give testimony that many patients are cured, a blind can see now and a handicapped walk and talk about miracles to convert innocent tribals. Christians get married to Hindu girls and convert them. Many missionaries wear saffron uniforms like Hindu Sadhus and have an arti in the church and convert ignorant Hindus.

The church has a big and secret plan to convert people. Information about this is given below:

‘(1) 41 lakhs preachers and priests (2) Annual budget of 65,000 crores (3) 1,800 private TV and radio stations (4) 13,000 Libraries regarding the Christian religion.

’(1) Make 1 lakh new preachers (2) Distribute 10 crore Bibles in North India (3) Build a church in every village and give a Bible to each person.

‘1,200 institutions received Rs. 1,400 crore from foreign countries in India. Today they receive more than this.

‘According to their plan, from 1971 to 1981 the population increased by 1068% in Arunachal Pradesh. (Organiser 27-9-1998) According to ‘Observer’ opinion, missionaries could convert lakhs of poor people from Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Delhi alone. Missionaries could convert 23 crore people from all over the world. It happened because we Hindus are not aware of the situation. We are cowards…

‘This is the reality of Christian missionaries schools

‘The Gujarat Samachar (July 17, 2003) reported that the Hossana School which is run by Christian missionary in Odhav banned the wearing of bangles and chains and anklets and putting "tilaks" and also the national anthem in the school. And also ordered students to wear a particular uniform. Missionaries know very well that if the students do not follow all the above things then they will remain Hindu and later on they will find it difficult to convert the students. If students do not follow the rules and break the law the they will be punished.

‘Recently, one student came dressed in a salvar with a tilak, so she was beaten. When some teachers protested this punishment, they were dismissed from the school immediately. Many parents and students demonstrated and shouted slogans against the injustice. Later on, the education department and police took action against the school.

‘We can see that missionaries teach students about Christianity and destroy the Hindu culture. All parents think that convent and missionaries schools teach high level and good education for a better future but parents do not know that missionaries schools teach to destroy Hindu culture and our gods…

‘If Hindus do not protect the Hindu religion then who will protect it?



‘Opinion of Jack T Chink: When Roman Catholics are in a minority, they become bashful like sheep. But when they become the majority, they attack others.

‘One’s own religion is the best. To die in one’s own religion is good. The religion of others causes fear. (Shreemad Bhagvat Geeta 3/35)

Naxal supporter, Sandeep Pandey's itinerary in USA , some questions

The confessional email reveals additional info.

His itinerary includes 20 places with $40 in his pocket. What are the 20 places?

Who is Sanat whose contact address and Tel. no. Sandeep Pandey had?

What is Prof. A.H. Nayar the nuclear scientist of Pakistan? What is South Asia Nuclear Audit?

The enquiry was also about Asha. 'I explained how Asha was a closely knit group and how my friends would be there everywhere at the airports to pick me up.'

Who is Netika?

Shouldn't ASHA and AID Inc. chapters all over the world be informed of the nice reception Sandeep Pandey had on his arrival at San Francisco airport in USA?

Shouldn't ASHA and AID Inc. supporters and donors be informed that the inquiry took place because he was associated with ASHA, that ASHA was enquired bout, and all this special reception occurred because he was a naxalite/terrorist?

Hopefully these two steps may scare some neutral AID/ASHA volunteers and also some sucker donors (not the hardcore naxal guys, though).

Some thoughts to ponder.

K.

On July 9, 2004, A.H. Nayar was reported to be from Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan http://www.bostonsocialforum.org/content.php?content.43

March 27, 2005 report claims he is Professor A.H. Nayyar, formerly of the Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad and senior peace activist. http://lists.aidindia.org/pipermail/indo_pak_peace/2005-March/000002.html

http://indiapakistanpeace.org/announcement2005.html claims he is Professor Emeritus.

Naturally, I am confused. Nuclear audit? Wow ! Geiger counters should be ringing

Hindustan Times aims to coverup plan of KGB revelation

Hindustan Times carried a news piece "Mitrokhin revelations silly, say Indian spies"
Our IntelliBriefs experts and intelligence sources say this is a cover up and planted story . Here is an analysis of this article , which is incoherent and inconsistent .

, http://www.hindustantimes.
com/news/181_1496029,0008.htm

START

Retired joint director of the Intelligence Bureau, M.K. Dhar :

"It is a matter of record that Mrs G did use the communists to stabilise her government and negotiate with Moscow, but for anyone to say that she directly received material benefit from any quarter is ridiculous," he told HT.

Former Intelligence Bureau director, V.G. Vaidya, now in Pune, was unwilling to comment on the allegations since he had not read the book. He, however, said,

"Anyone can write anything. It does not mean that the world has to accept it as Gospel truth. One must remember that American author Seymour Hersh had written that Morarji Desai was on the CIA payroll when he (Desai) was Indira Gandhi's deputy. But then Morarji Desai sued him,"

Serving intelligence officials are, similarly, dismissive about the Mitrokhin book. A few admitted that they wanted to read the book "out of curiosity" but maintained that the allegations publicised so far appeared to lack credibility.

[END ]

ANALYSIS

[ SO WITHOUT READING THE BOOK " serving intelligence officials " are making sweeping statements and questioning credibility ] , IntelliBriefs request " serving intelligence officials " to visit http://intellibriefs.com/mitrokhin and read for FREE .


The question immediately arises is whether these news items are planted by CONGRESS and COMMUNIST friendly journalists .

Intelligence sources in India told told IntelliBriefs , this is a planted story to divert and coverup the real facts by people who's stakes are very high .

" All this is diversionary. The issue is not Indira Gandhi, but her son Rajiv and his family's dependence on the KGB. We have a scholar of the caliber of Yvgenia Albats-- a Harvard based Russian expert and a member of the KGB Comission set up by Boris Yeltsin, citing the exact memo in the KGB Archives showing a business relationship between the Gandhi family and Soviet trading companies.

That is the issue. This gives President Putin and other high ranking Russian officials a formidable hold on the 'Dynasty.' They are not going to lose it by blowing her cover.

Note also that the KGB's successor, the Federal Bureau of Security has again stonewalled the Netaji inquiry by refusing to open the archives to the Mukherji Comission. "

The mysterious death of Roberto Calvi - trial opens in Rome

by Aart Heering, 6 October 2005
RADIO NETHERLNDS

On the evening of 18 June 1982, the lifeless body of Roberto Calvi - the director of Banco Ambrosiano, an Italian bank on the verge of bankruptcy and with strong and extensive connections to the Roman Catholic church - was found hanging under Blackfriar's Bridge across the River Thames in London. The banker, who was found with bricks in his pockets, was thought to have committed suicide, probably out of a sense of personal responsibility for the bank's collapse.

That, at least, was the original outcome of the forensic investigation carried out at remarkable speed by the British authorities. However, from the very beginning there were those who doubted the accuracy of the findings, and today - 6 October - legal proceedings commenced in Italy which should establish how and by whom the main figure in one of the largest financial scandals in the past 50 years was murdered. Those standing trial for their alleged involvement in his death are a senior member of the Sicilian Mafia and four accomplices.

The trial at a high security prison in Rome opened on 6 October but was almost immediately adjourned on technical grounds

Dubious deals

In the 1970s, Roberto Calvi was an ambitious banker who had excellent connections within the Vatican and a group known as P2, a secretive lodge of freemasons which formed a state within the state of Italy. It later emerged that, during this period, Mr Calvi's bank spent hundreds of millions of dollars speculating in South America, on financing weapons deals for Argentina and Chile (then ruled by the Pinochet regime), on secret contributions to Poland's free trade union Solidarity, to Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza and to Italy's Christian Democrats.

The capital used for these ends was raised using written guarantees from the Vatican's own bank, the Istituto per le Opere di Religione (IOR), which later bought off its liabilities with a payment of 251 million dollars. The head of the IOR, Monsignor Marcinkus, was subsequently discredited as a result of the scandal and was demoted to the humble position of priest in Chicago.



Monsignor Marcinkus
Death on bail
The Banco Ambrosiano finally went bankrupt in 1982, leaving debts of 1200 million dollars. One year before, Roberto Calvi was convicted on currency violation charges, but released on bail waiting appeal. On 10 June 1982, when it became clear that the Banco Ambrosiano could not be saved, he disappeared, apparently in an attempt to evade his creditors. Eight days later he was found dead in London.

The suicide theory was finally dismissed completely a few years ago, when a Mafia informant told the authorities that Robert Calvi had indeed been murdered - by the Cosa Nostra, which had also ploughed millions of its illegal earnings into the bank. Meanwhile, new investigations revealed that it was almost impossible that Robert Calvi could have hanged himself under Blackfriar's bridge. The significance of the bricks found in his pockets is also said to have become clear - a warning to the freemasons.

The men behind the killing

The two people now thought to have actually killed him, and the man who rented the boat on which - according to the informant - Roberto Calvi was actually murdered, were themselves murdered in 1983, possibly by the Mafia. The alleged murderer was killed by a bomb planted in his car. However, the persons believed to have ordered the killing are still alive. Those standing trial include former Mafia 'treasurer' Pippo Calo - who is already serving a long jail sentence - businessman Francesco Pazienza, who brokered many a dubious deal for the Banco Ambrosiano, and three others.

Now, some 23 years after the murder and with loss of several useful witnesses, the court in Italy faces the difficult task of trying to shed further light on the mysterious death of Roberto Calvi.

Baloch leader Dr. Imdad on Hunger strike : Pakistan in turmoil

Quetta

Our correspondent

Dr. Imdad Baloch, Chairman Baloch students Organization (BSO-United) has announced at a press conference at Karachi Press Culb today, that he is going to start hunger strike till death, starting the October 3rd, 2005, untill all Baloch political workers and student leaders including Dr. Allah Nazar, Abdul Nabi Bangulzai, Ali Nawaz, Akhtar Nadeem, Ali Asghar Bangulzai, Hafiz Saeed, Abid Saleh, Zahid Saleh and others Baloch illehgal detainees are released from Pakistani jails and detention cells.

Dr.Wahid baloch , head of BSO-NA (Baloch Society of North america) , the Lobbying arm in US told Intellibriefs that that his organization extend full support for Dr.Imdad , " We will continue our peaceful struggle for the release of all Baloch illegal detainees. "


Dr. Imdad Baloch was Kidnapped by Pakistani ISI on March 24th, 2005, along with other seven BSO leaders from Karachi, after they had joined a peaceful protest against the military operation in Balochistan, in which 70 Baloch died and more than 200 were injured. Dr. Imdad Baloch and his three friends were released in May 2005, reported toture and degrading unhuman treatment during detention. The other three BSO leaders, including Dr. Allah Nazar are still in Jail and their families have reported that all three men have been tortured using electric shocks. Among these three, the Condition Of Dr. Allah Nazar is said to be especially grave, who is partially paralyzed and reportedly unable to speak or recognize anyone as result of electric shocks and torture. His family has expressed concern that his injuries may result in complete paralysis unless he receives immediate medical treatment in a hospital.However, the authorities have reportedly denied the men access to medical
treatment."

Human Right Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) and Amnesty International have shown concerns over the torture reports. In their press release it says, ?It is obvious that the illegal detentions and torture in custody are one part of a broader strategy of intimidation and harassment being pursued across the country. During the first seven months of the year, political activists, journalists and other citizens expressing dissent have all been picked up and subjected to similar intimidation. It also seems personnel of agencies and police are acting with growing impunity in carrying out such illegal acts."

HRCP demands all illegally detained people held in the country be produced before courts, and charged if they are guilty of any unlawful act. It also calls for civil society groups to be given access to detained persons. The tactic of illegally arresting people can do nothing to dampen dissent, but will only add to the anger and frustration growing in the country, adding to the already existing threat of further violence and
mayhem. ?

After the Press Conference, Dr. Imdad Baloch sat on hunger strike in front of Karachi Press clubs. Many members of Baloch Student Organization (BSO-United) were also with him. "After my Martyrdom, The Secretary General Of BSO-United Saeed Yousuf will continue the Hunger strike till death," said Dr. Imdad Baloch.

Baloch activist Mr.Lal Gehi told to our reporter "I ask all Sindh Baloch media and leaders to make every effort to reach international community and leaders of the other countries to pursue Mr. Musharraf to release the innocent Baloch detainees. I hope the voice of humanity will prevail. "


In a email message he stated :

" I fully agree with you that detention of any Baloch citizen is violation of human rights, and Pakistani military regime must also understand that Baloch and
Balochistan is not a property or prisoner of Pakistan.

Illegal arrests and kidnappings of innocent Baloch intellectuals indicates that Pakistan has no regards for human sentiments, sufferings, and it continues nonstop atrocities and arrests of innocent Baloch citizens.

It is a pity that all efforts of world human rights organizations and appeals have been unsuccessful in pursuing the military regime of Pakistan to release innocent Baloch citizens in their captivity.

I do not know, what will motivate Mr. Musharraf to release Dr. Allah Nazar, Ali Asghar, and all other innocent Baloch intellectuals mentioned on this list. I hope and pray that the sufferings of the captive Baloch citizens and their families will end soon. "

Pakistan is facing a sever Image crisis , both local and international on many fronts . Recent comments by President Musharraf on rape was condemned widely internationally ,added to that dismal performance on containing terror . Analysts say with the emerging trends , where nationalists blowing up the infrastructure of the land and federal government determination to go ahead with their proposed development plans , without heeding to concerns of nationalists , pakistan is heading for a meltdown ,where a competition seems to be going on between federal government and Nationalists , Viz Making(development) and Breaking(Nationalists) .


If this crisis continues , Pakistan will have to concentrate on internal stability , rather than defending its borders and fighting terror . The biggest beneficiary of whole crisis is Afghanistan and India , Indians will get some relief on the border and Kashmir , and Afghans can dream of Puktoonistan at the cost of Baloch nationalists . In the final analysis , Pathans are the biggest beneficiaries of this crisis , probably get slice of cake , free of cost if Pakistan breaks up.

October 05, 2005

Swamy demands inquiry into KGB payoffs

New Delhi | October 05, 2005 3:48:18 PM IST


Janata Party President Subramanian Swamy today assailed the government's decision not to constitute an inquiry commission into the role of Russian espionage agency KGB for subverting Indian democracy by allegedly ''buying up corrupt and unpatritic politicians'', saying it was vital for the nation to know the entire truth.
''The real reason for the UPA's refusal to hold an inquiry is the fear that the allegations in Mitrokhin Archives Vol.II...may be confirmed as facts and truth. Many heads at the highest level would then have to roll as mass anger of the people would demand retribution and justice,'' Dr. Swamy said.

The Janata Party President, who has filed a Special Leave Petition in the Supreme Court on the issue, said he also condemned the government's decision not to come out with a White Paper as demanded by BJP President L K Advani.

''The refusal of the UPA government and the specious plea that the BJP failed to implement the same demand when it was in power, betrays a knowledge of democratic principles and public accountability. That the BJP failed to do its duty to the people is no license for the UPA to do the same,'' he said in a statement.

Dr Swamy said it was ''silly'' to state, as some Congress leaders had done, that the CIA and other intelligence agencies were also active in India. ''No one is stopping the UPA from also investigating the activities of these agencies,'' he said.

The revelations are based on a recently-published book by former KGB agent Vasili Mitrokhin, who defected to the West with a large chunk of the espionage agency's secret archives.

The book, published posthumously, alleges that in the 1970s, the KGB distributed 10.6 million roubles to various Indian politicians to strengthen its influence, and to support the Emergency regime of Indira Gandhi.

It also alleges that in the post-Emergency elections in 1977, as many as 21 non-Communist politicians, including four Ministers of the then Union Cabinet were subsidised by the KGB.

Dr Swamy said the disclosures by the former KGB spy had made it imperative to investigate a number of issues such as whether India declined the 1949 US offer to occupy a seat in the UN Security Council vacated by the Kuomintang goverment in China on the ''Soviet pressure and blackmail'' and whether Mrs Indira Gandhi, in December 1971, refused the Indian Army's demand to smash West Pakistan's military machine, also because of the Russian pressure.

''Taking money from a foreign intelligence agency is not only an offence in itself but it is also a gross betrayal of our national interests when detrimental policies are adopted by their paid gents in the government,'' he said.

INDIA RELATED PAGES OF MITROKHIN II , available at

Iran remains on cusp of entering satellite club

By Alon Ben-David JDW Correspondent
Tel Aviv

The launch into space of Iran's first satellites - reconnaissance satellite Mesbah (Lantern) and research satellite Sina-1 - has been postponed from the scheduled date of 30 September due to a malfunction in the Sina-1 satellite.

The press chief of the Russian Space Troops, Colonel Alexei Kuznetsov, told the Itar-Tass news agency that the launch was postponed because of a delay in the manufacture of the Sina-1, which was assembled by Polyot of Omsk.

However, when the launch does go ahead in the coming weeks, it will make Iran the 43rd country to possess its own satellites and a member of the much more exclusive club of countries with spy satellites.

Iran unveiled its military space programme in 1998, when the then defence minister Admiral Ali Shamkhani declared that the future design of Iran's intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM), the Shahab 4, would be capable of launching payloads into orbit. Iranian television presented a mock-up of a future satellite launch vehicle, dubbed IRIS, which appeared to be a three-stage, constant-diameter launcher based on the Iranian Shahab 3 and North Korean No-dong IRBMs.

Since then, Iran is believed to have abandoned its Shahab 4 programme and instead presented and tested in August 2004 a new Shahab 3 design with a greater range capability.

RUSSIA'S PACIFIC OIL PIPELINE GAME REMAINS INCONCLUSIVE

In a statement on September 29, Russia's Natural Resources Ministry rejected a feasibility study for a Siberia-to-Pacific crude oil pipeline. The pipeline would pass within just 800 meters of Lake Baikal, a violation of Russia's environmental legislation. According to the Ministry, "As the pipeline crosses a number of tributaries [to Baikal], any leakage of oil risks the destruction of a unique ecosystem." The Ministry also said that Transneft's planned route failed to specify a terminus for the pipeline. Valentin Stepankov, a deputy minister, has notified the State Technical Supervisory Agency of the ministry's concerns, according to the statement.

Transneft Vice President Sergei Grigoryev has reportedly rejected the Ministry's ruling. However, the official veto of the planned route leaves Transneft with four options: abandon the pipeline project altogether; draw up a longer and costlier alternative route; push to amend Russia's existing legislation to fit the current route; or proceed with the project and ignore Russia's environmental law (Prime-Tass, Sept. 30).

The Natural Resources Ministry's rejection of the planned route for the Siberia-Pacific pipeline came as a victory for environmentalists, who have long argued that Transneft's stated route poses an environmental risk to Lake Baikal and protected nature reserves near Perevoznaya Bay. Two years ago, the Natural Resources Ministry similarly rejected a Yukos-backed plan for a pipeline from Siberia to China on environmental grounds.

Environmental activists even sought Japanese assistance to analyze the pipeline's route. Last March some 40 environmental groups wrote a letter to Japan's Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi and suggested that Tokyo might be able to convince Russia to change the route of the Pacific oil pipeline.

The activists claimed that Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov's December 31 decision on pipeline routes (to China versus to Japan) was illegal, as it had not been subjected to an environmental impact study. Activists suggested that the Kremlin should consider alternative routes to Nakhodka, Olga, or Strelok Bays as proposed sites for an onshore oil terminal.

The Kremlin saw construction of a Pacific oil pipeline -- with an annual capacity of up to 80 million tons -- as a project that might boost development in Siberia and the Russian Far East. Prime Minister Fradkov approved the Taishet-Nakhodka oil pipeline project at the end of 2004. The pipeline would go from Taishet to the Perevoznaya Bay, crossing Russia's Irkutsk, Chita, Amur, Buryat, and Primor regions. Plans for the Pacific oil pipeline were to be finalized by May 1, 2005.

But in recent months Moscow has seemed to lean towards the rejected China-bound route. At a September meeting with Western analysts and journalists, Russian President Vladimir Putin said that the Pacific oil pipeline would export oil to China first, instead of Japan. "The Daqing pipeline will be built first, but we will also build to Nakhodka," Putin reportedly said.

However, environmental considerations are hardly at the top of Moscow's priority list in terms of the Pacific pipeline game. Putin is on record as saying that "environmental concerns must not hinder the development of the economy."

While Moscow waffles, Beijing is growing impatient to tap Siberia's hydrocarbon resources. Chinese media recently reported plans for China's first private oil pipeline to import oil from Russia. A 30-kilometer, cross-river pipeline, which would connect railway lines between Heihe, a port city in Northeast China's Heilongjiang Province, and Siberia's Blagoveshchensk, is expected to be completed and start operation next year.

The line is to be built by Heihe-based Xinghe Industries in cooperation with the Russian Lanta Oil at a cost of 520 million yuan ($64 million). It is expected to begin operation in September 2006 with an annual capacity of 21 million barrels (3 million tons) of oil. It may reach its full capacity of 5 million tons by the year 2008. Xinghe would invest $43 million, and Lanta Oil will underwrite the remaining $21 million.

Construction will include a rail unloading field and oil transfer station in Blagoveshchensk, four pipelines crossing beneath the Heilongjiang River, and another rail loading field and oil transfer station in Heihe.

China now imports less than 10 million tons of crude oil from Russia each year. The number is due to reach 15 million tons in 2006, according to an agreement signed between the two countries last October. Now China mainly relies on railways, linking the land port of Manzhouli in Northeast China and the port of Erenhot in Inner Mongolia, to import crude oil from Russia. The construction of the private pipeline is aimed at relieving the oil transportation bottlenecks between the two countries (China Daily, September 28).

Amid unresolved Russo-Chinese oil pipeline issues, reported plans of China's first private pipeline look like Beijing's reminder that Moscow needs to back up its pledges to develop a "strategic energy partnership" with China with something concrete.

The rejection of the planned route for a Japan-bound pipeline on environmental grounds may be a convenient pretext to switch to a China-bound pipeline.

--Sergei Blagov

Enquiry at port of entry, of Sandeep Pandey

BELOW MESSAGE FROM SANDEEP PANDEY

"I MUST SAY THAT I WENT THROUGH SOME ANXIOUS MOMENTS AND IT APPEARED AT SOME POINTS IN TIME THAT THEY MAY NOT EVEN ALLOW ME ENTRY IN THE US. I MUST COMMEND THE UNDERSTANDING BEHAVIOUR OF THE US SECURITY PERSONNEL WHO GAVE ME A PATIENT
HEARING AND APPRECIATED MY POSITION AGAINST THEIR COUNTRY" - Sandeep Pandey

I spent some anxious moments at the San Francisco airport yesterday as upon my landing I was whisked away by the US security for a 2 hour thorough interrogation.

It appears that one of the people protesting against my US visit by branding me as a naxalite and terrorist had informed the airport authorities of my arrival. Even while the plane was landing it was announced that there would be a passport check.

Two security personnel were waiting for me. I was taken to a special security office.

First I was enquired about the purpose of my trip and then about Asha. Then I was asked about what I did during my last trip. When I mentioned that I had worked with Prof. A.H. Nayar, the Pakistani Scientist on 'South Asia Nuclear Audit' there were questions about Prof. Nayar and my visits to Pakistan. I had also made two
visits to Iraq when my father was working for the Indian Railways and Indian Railways was constructing Railway for Iraq. My father was stationed in Baghdad in 80's. I was asked to clarify why I opposed the Nuclear Bomb. I explained in detail about my involvement with the peace movement and our association with fellow
Pakistani activists. I did not have any contact address or phone numbers except that of Sanat's and they were quite puzzled that I had landed in the US with an itinerary of about 20 places and $40 in my pocket and did not know where I would stay in the Bay Area. The only information I had was e-mail addresses of people at various
places. I explained how Asha was a closely knit group and how my friends would be there everywhere at the airports to pick me up. After getting convinced they let me go through the immigration.

Then we arrived at the customs. My baggage was opened. There was the anti-Coca Cola agitation literature, CDs, my press clippings file and signatures from India Pakistan Peace March. They were thoroughly puzzled. I was asked at this point to come to private room for further interrogation.

A senior officer started the interrogation all over again. Just as we were finishing and I was told that I would be let out soon, the officer came across a press clipping from Manila wherein during the trip to receive Magsaysay award I had stated in a press conference that 'US was the biggest terrorist state'. The officer asked me why I had made that statement. I told him that when I can protest against the nuclear weapons of my country and US possessing the biggest stockpile of nuclear weapons was a bigger culprit and when without providing evidence as to who was behind the Sept. 11 incidents it went and attacked Afghanistan for no reason, why could I not question the US military policy? To my pleasant surprise he said he could appreciate my position and thanked me for my cooperation in the interrogation.

I was let out of the airport where Netika and friends were waiting and were now beginning to get anxious.

I must say that I went through some anxious moments and it appeared at some points in time that they may not even allow me entry in the US. I must commend the understanding behaviour of the US security personnel who gave me a patient hearing and appreciated my position against their country.

Sandeep

present location: San Francisco

Email: ashaashram@yahoo.com

Rahul Gandhi: Harvard and Hindujas

Sources told IntelliBriefs that Rahul Gandhi got into Harvard on the donor's quota--Hindujas $ 11 million to the Medical School . Once in, Harvard is as rigorous as for anybody in on merit. He failed in that just as his father Late Mr.Rajive Gandhi's stunt in Cambridge University , and finally our Prince Mr.Rahul Gandhi was out of harvard . Sources say ,he had paid his tuition out of a numbered account in Cayman Island. But his alleged B.A. is still a mystery .

Trishul test-fired

Indigenously built India's most sophisticated short range surface-to-air missile 'Trishul' has been successfully test-fired from the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur-on-sea, about 15 km from Balasore.




The missile, especially designed for sea skimming exercise for the Indian Navy, was test-fired from a mobile launch pad at 1517 hours, ITR sources said.

It hit the object in the sky fitted with the Pilotless Target Aircraft(PTA) which was flown from the range just before the test-fire of Trishul.

'Trishul' was one of the five missiles under various stages of development by the Defence Research Development Organisation and a part of the integrated guided missile development programme.

Launched in 1983, the missile has a triple role for the three wings of the defence.

Indigenously developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), 'Trishul' has a triple battlefield role for the army, air force and navy, the sources said.

The solid fuel propelled missile has a range of nine km and can be fitted with fragmented warhead, they said.

'Trishul', which formed part of India's Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP), was about three metres in length and 200 cm in diameter and flew at supersonic speed.

Modifications had been made for the naval version of 'Trishul' by making it a command to line-of-sight guidance missile.

It has been fitted with a sensitive radar altimetre and height lock-loop control on board for the purpose, the sources said.

Probe into Shahabuddin exam row reveals new facts






Investigations into reports of appearance of RJD MP Mohammad Shahabuddin in an examination centre have revealed that the elusive MP did not take the LLB test and Police is looking for four persons, one of whom is believed to be a "ghost writer".

"Police is trying to ascertain the identities of the four persons who had stayed in a hotel here and used a Scorpio jeep to reach the examination centre on all examination dates between 21st September and 28th September," Deputy Inspector General of Police (Tirhut range) Gupteshwar Pandey told reporters.


The investigations have so far revealed that the MP himself did not appear in the examination and a 'ghost writer' appeared the examination, he said, adding police were trying to zero in on the four persons who stayed at a hotel in the town.


"It appears that a racket was going on in the college for quite some time. The police probe will also find out how many more students did a Shahabuddin by engaging ghost writers in the LLB part II examinations," the DIG said.


Meanwhile, raids at the residence of a clerk of the SKJ Law College, called Lochan, who is absconding, yielded a diary containing 12-13 names including that of Shahabuddin, he said.


Out of the 15 invigilators, who were asked to record their statements before superintendent of police Ratan Sanjay, who is probing the case, two deposed today.


Investigations have already revealed that Shahabuddin's answer scripts did not carry any registration number but only the roll number.


There is a nation-wide alert against Shahabuddin for pending non-bailable arrest warrants against him in connection with the seizure of firearms, foreign currencies, stolen vehicles and deer during police raids at his ancestral Pratappur residence in April.

October 04, 2005

AUVs for mine countermeasures shine at UUVS 2005

October, 03 2005

Small, manually launched AUVs were very much in evidence at the 7th UUVS, most conspicuously the little Gavia, a 1.7 m long, torpedo-like vehicle weighing about 44 kg in air and made by Hafmynd Gavia in Reykjavik, Iceland. On the first run on Wednesday, the Hafmynd people had clearly angered the god of demonstrations somehow because the AUV disappeared into the waters of Southampton Docks and refused to communicate despite efforts to contact it with an acoustic modem linked to the ruggedized laptop control station and anxious monitoring of the Iridium satellite phone it calls when it surfaces. Operator error, it turns out, was the cause: the pre-programmed mission plan had somehow combined a high-speed surface run with a steep dive angle. The inevitable consequence was a nose-first entry into the mud about 9 m down. They recovered the fully-functional Gavia and corrected the problem in time for a successful demo the following day.

Make your own modules

Gavia has a pressure hull divided into modules, each machined from aluminium alloy which is gold-anodized for extra corrosion resistance, held together with the proprietary QuickLock mechanism and sealed with double o-rings. From front to rear the module sequence runs: nose cone, battery, control and communication, propulsion and actuators. Payloads can be installed in the nose cone, C2 module (and in a variety of additional modules that can go between the C2 module and the propulsion section.) Customers can specify their own payload modules.

Existing customers include the US Navy's Space and Naval Warfare Systems Centre (SPAWAR) in San Diego and the National Research Council of Canada. SPAWAR ordered one for testing in mine countermeasures applications, and has an option for up to 10 more. The SPAWAR vehicle is equipped with a dual frequency MSTL 900/1800 kHz Side Scan Sonar, camera and strobe, and collision avoidance sonar. Navigation is provided by GPS on the surface and high-precision DVL-aided INS while underwater. An Iridium link, WLAN, and the acoustic modem provide communication.

The NRC's Gavia will be used for inspection of potable water pipes, testing of new sensors and actuators, free-swimming experiments and hydrographic mapping in lakes and oceans.

Hafmynd has also been working with EADS Deutschland GmbH Defence and Communications Systems to integrate Gavia into the mine countermeasures module of EADS's Advanced Naval Combat System (ANCS).

With 10 years of development behind it, Gavia has the feel and smell of a well-developed product and certainly looks the part in its gold anodized finish. It will need to be because it has to compete with the market-leading Remus vehicle developed over several years by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and now manufactured by Pocasset, MA company Hydroid. More than 60 Remus vehicles have been delivered to customers and they have built up thousands of operational hours.

Remus speeds MCM ops

NATO now regards Remus as a viable commercial off-the-shelf system. The vehicle has taken part in NATO mine countermeasures exercises conducted between the Autumn of 2002 and the Spring of 2004 in La Spezia (Italy) Strenraer (Scotland) Rotterdam, (the Netherlands) and Olpenitz (Germany). Along with the larger experimental Ocean Explorer (OEX) AUV from Florida Atlantic University, Remus helped demonstrate convincingly that AUVs can dramatically speed up mine hunting operations in shallow water when used with MCM vessels and EOD divers.

Michael Rothenbach from the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) in La Spezia told the audience at UUVS '05 that 'a gain of at least one order of magnitude in time was demonstrated in all experiments.'

He went on to say that although Remus can easily achieve the positioning accuracy required for EOD divers to re-aquire mines, confined areas may impose restrictions on the best placing of LBL transponders and therefore reduce the vehicle's navigation accuracy, and that obstacles such as piers, navigation buoys and moorings might limit its ability to manoeuvre. He recommended that other navaids such as GPS and INS be used to overcome the limitations of LBL transponders in confined spaces.

Partially buried mines are hard to classify with HF side-scan sonar, but they are detectable and can be classified using multiple images from different angles, a technique that demands very precise navigation to help ensure that the various images really are of the same target, said Rothenbach. Completely buried mines, however, are not detectable with current sonars.

Improvised bombs present particular problems because they come in a wider variety of shapes and sizes than military mines, most of which resemble the kind of objects that typically litter the bottom of commercial ports.

Rothenbach recommends that sensitive areas be surveyed regularly and any new objects noted with the aid of evolving automated change detection techniques. As yet, these are limited to finding objects that can be detected by standard Computer Aided Detection (CAD) algorithms and are susceptible to false alarms, but: 'We do believe that this is the only viable option until better quality and higher frequency sonar are used.'
He also calls for future studies of sensors that might be able to classify mines buried in soft mud, magnetic sensors and chemical sniffers for example.

Towards a 3D future?

Lawrence Langebrake from the University of South Florida's Center for Ocean Technology gave a presentation that concentrated on an innovative sensor suite that a USF team has developed using a mix of its own and commercially available sensors. The Mobile Inspection Package (MIP) contains an 3D imaging sonar from CodaOctopus called the EchoScope Mk II, the USF's own digital video system and 3D Laser Line Scanner (LLS), an image scaling system from Tritech that uses a laser scaling video camera and a DIDSON 2D imaging sonar.

USF developed the MIP under the guidance of the US Office of Naval Research and the US Coast Guard's Research and Development Center (Groton, Connecticut), and tested it on a pole mount from a boat, an ROV and a Blue Fin 32 (32 cm/12.75 in diameter) AUV. Langebrake showed some excellent 3D, geo-referenced images of mine like objects attached to ship hulls, harbour walls, bottoms and jetty structures. Some were single-sensor images taken on one occasion, while others were composite mosaics of output from different sensors at different times, showing the flexibility of the system. The laser scaling camera produced a particularly clear image of a Walmart Christmas tree stand that was doing a very good impression of a limpet mine attached (with permission, of course) to the hull of a Coast Guard cutter. This instrument also provides very accurate size information on objects.

HUGIN in service

Exciting and promising though they are, the events described so far have been trials and experiments. In contrast, Nils Storkensen from the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment presented some lessons learned in the Royal Norwegian Navy's mine hunting operations with the HUGIN family of larger AUVs built by Kongsberg.


Experiments with HUGIN 1 led to an order from the RNoN for a dedicated military HUGIN 1000 vehicle and the installation of the infrastructure needed to run missions aboard the mine hunter KNM Karmøy in the summer of 2002. During 2002 and 03, Karmøy and HUGIN 1 performed several route surveys in key areas around Norway.

In the run-up to NATO Exercise Northern Light 03, the vehicle surveyed a corridor 500 metres wide and 12 nautical miles long in the shallow waters and 3 kt currents of Luce Bay, Scotland, completing four missions successfully in 48 hours, each in the six hours of highest tide, recharging batteries at low tide. The vehicle performed its pre-programmed missions by itself with Karmøy standing off a few miles but the two were able to communicate acoustically at ranges of 2 to 3 nm. Once processed, the data became a set of AML (Additional Military Layers) files for MCMVs to use in clearance operations.

Less than two weeks later, Karmøy and HUGIN 1 were demonstrating route survey, mine mapping and covert Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) operations outside Hanko, Finland, for the Finnish Navy. Change detection software was used to find mine-like objects laid between missions. The AUV completed some of these missions completely on its own. In one it mapped a 3 km2 area in six hours while the crew slept.

Six weeks after the delivery of the military HUGIN 1000, Karmøy and its new AUV completed 13 missions (mainly covert REA and MCM work) off Norway in NATO Exercise Joint Winter 04, then harbour surveys around Arendal, Norway in Blue Game 04.

In the autumn and winter of 04, the two were deployed as part of NATO's Standing MCM Force North, participating in mine clearance operations in the Baltic off Lithuania, Latvia, Germany and Denmark in waters littered with tens of thousands of mines and unexploded ordnance from the last century.

On 20 April this year, HUGIN 1000 was operating off Bergen, Norway. Thanks to acoustic modem communications with Karmøy and a satcom system on the ship, its data was shown in real time at the annual Azalea Festival in Norfolk, Virginia. The two-way link enabled commands to be sent to the AUV from the other side of the Atlantic. On this mission, HUGIN found a US submarine that sank in 1931. By May/June, the two were back in the Baltic off Latvia, where they discovered a couple of live mines that were then neutralised by divers.

Among many lessons learned, Nils Storkensen emphasised the importance of testing at sea and involving the end-user in the development programme as early and as much as possible. One of the main problems was in getting the control system and processor of the main sensor, an EdgeTech 4400-SAS (Synthetic Aperture Sonar), working properly. This system is now performing acceptably in the very challenging waters around the Norwegian coast, says Storkensen.

The RNoN has subsequently ordered a HUGIN 1000-MR AUV, which will be equipped with a 'more robust and capable' SENSORTEK SAS.

Seaglider odysseys

The most elegant vehicles discussed at the conference were undoubtedly the Seagliders presented by Charles C Eriksen from the University of Washington's School of Oceanography. These remarkable little AUVs (1.8 m long, 52 kg in air) can traverse the world's oceans in data gathering missions lasting many months with no obvious means of propulsion or control.

A Seaglider will glide on short wings down to a pre-set depth, then rise to the surface, where it will tip nose down to stick its tail-mounted antenna out of the water to get a GPS fix, then send data home and download new instructions over an Iridium satellite phone.
A Seaglider's propulsion system may not be immediately discernible, but it is effective. It propels itself through varying its buoyancy by pumping compressible oil between high- and low-pressure chambers that together act just like a swim bladder in a fish. Pitch and roll control come courtesy of the battery pack that can be slid back and forth and swung from side to side.

The battery powers the pump, the motor to tip and slide itself, the GPS and satellite phone and its sensors, which measure water temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence and optical backscatter. Knowledge of the glider's hydrodynamics combined with GPS fixes allows researchers to calculate depth-averaged current speeds accurate to 0.01 m/sec over individual dives.
That propulsion system is remarkably efficient, the 10 kJ in the lithium thionyl chloride batteries being enough to power several hundred dives to 1 km. It cruises at 'half a knot on half a Watt,' says Eriksen.

The team at the University of Washington have built 22 gliders, eventually losing eight out of the first 10 built, but only two of the subsequent 12. One of the hazards is running out of battery power, which can happen if a glider gets caught in an eddy current for a long time, but Eriksen says that his team has now learned how to avoid such hazards most of the time.

Future developments include 'Deepglider' capable of diving to 6 km and an under-ice version of Seaglider equipped with an ice avoidance sensor.

AUVs coming of age?

While the ROV sector could be described as 'mature' thanks to the long-standing oil industry acceptance as ROVs as robust tools for tough jobs, the AUV sector is perhaps best thought of as 'adolescent' in that it is showing great promise and has growing real-world experience under its belt, but there are still important areas in which much development is still needed: collision avoidance behaviour, true autonomy, long range underwater communication, precise navigation and sensors capable of finding buried objects are among them.

European student AUV competition kicks off

While the US has the Grand Challenge for UGVs and AUV fest for the underwater robotics community, Europe has lacked a similar vehicle for attracting bright students and developing a base of expertise and enthusiasm to build the future AUVs – until now. The Student Autonomous Underwater Challenge --Europe (SAUCE) has secured support from the UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL), Edinburgh's Heriot Watt University and the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton and the first challenge for student teams 'target location' is set to take place at Pinewood Studios near Slough, Berkshire in July of next year. Industry support for individual teams is invited. Find out more.


Terminology v technology?

In current common use, the term UUV is generally used when people mean a free-swimming vehicle, but logically, the term 'Unmanned Underwater Vehicle' should encompass tethered Remotely Operated Vehicles and the free-swimming vehicles that are generally referred to as Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, whether they have true autonomy (very rare as yet) or whether they operate to a predetermined plan. Developments in sensors and control strategies based on artificial intelligence will lead to more and more 'autonomous' behaviour. Complicating the matter further, modern underwater acoustic communications allow an operator to control a vehicle directly without a cable, so a single vehicle could be an AUV and an ROV in the course of the same mission. Technology always outruns terminology!

Peter Donaldson

US Air Force working on stealthier UAV powered by an alternative energy source

10/3/2005 - U.S. AIR FORCE ACADEMY, Colo. (AFPN) -- Future Air Force leaders here are working to produce a stealthier unmanned aerial vehicle powered by an alternative energy source.

The research project into fuel cells and hydrogen storage materials started about 10 years ago as a collaboration between the academy, Ball Aerospace Corp in Boulder, Colo., and Hydrogen Components, Inc., in Littleton, Colo. The goal of the research is to find an alternative to batteries for personal electric power used in Department of Defense special operations.

The UAV research group here involves the work of 11 academic departments working on individual and collaborative projects. Ball Aerospace focuses on fuel cell development while academy faculty and cadets work with hydrogen components on the chemistry and hardware of the hydrogen generator.

The general idea of the chemical hydrogen generator is to store hydrogen that is

chemically combined with atoms from lithium and aluminum. The hydrogen is then released through chemical reactions that produce hydrogen fuel for a fuel cell. Hydrogen fuel is released at exact rates and amounts matching the electric power needed in a UAV.

"That's the tricky part," said Dr. John Wilkes, Chemistry Research Center director. "It works well, but we want to do better. We are now working to improve the performance of the hydrogen generator by a factor of three by improving the hydrogen yield and using storage materials with higher hydrogen content. Ultimately, we would like to develop a very light hydrogen generator/fuel cell combination that could be used to fly an electrically powered UAV."

Small UAVs using electric propulsion will be the major benefactor of hydrogen fuel cell technology. An electric motor has several advantages over the more common internal combustion engines or turbine engines.

Electric motors are quiet and produce less heat, making them stealthier, and they also start reliably and are extremely compact. But, the required batteries are still too heavy to power an electric UAV for very long.

However, a fuel cell that runs on hydrogen is less than half the weight of conventional batteries with equivalent capacity. Batteries are still relatively inexpensive and more available than other power sources.

"We have already met the first goal of a hydrogen source that produces 6 percent by weight hydrogen," Dr. Wilkes said. "That is, if the hydrogen storage system weighs 100 pounds, then you could get 6 pounds of hydrogen. That may not sound like a lot of hydrogen, but since it is the lightest of all elements, 6 pounds translates to over 30,000 liters of hydrogen. We have ideas to try that could triple that amount."

The chemical process that met the 6 percent goal produces only half of the energy that is potentially available. Cadets are currently doing experiments to solve that problem. The Cadets are attempting to apply nanoparticle technology to make every molecule of the stored hydrogen available. They are also working on catalysts to improve the speed at which hydrogen is produced during the chemical reaction so that more sources of hydrogen may be used.

"The U.S. Army has tested nine of our prototype hydrogen generators with 50-watt fuel cells, and they work," Dr. Wilkes said. "At this stage, the cost is high, the chemical compounds are rare and the storage system cannot be recharged easily. The big positive for our chemical system is that the hydrogen is not contained at thousands of pounds of pressure or at super-low temperatures. It is stable forever at normal temperatures and pressures, just waiting for you to turn on the fuel cell.

"Like many new technologies, the adoption of our hydrogen storage method depends on some further research on improved yield, a lot of engineering development and an investment in manufacturing technology," the doctor said. "It is a long road from basic research to a fielded system, and the journey along that road is usually 20 years or more."

In the future, hydrogen fuel cells could replace petroleum in cars, trucks and trains, and in stationary power such as municipal power plants. The world currently uses electric power at a rate of about 13 terawatts and most of that comes from energy stored as petroleum, coal or natural gas. A terawatt is 1 trillion watts of power.

What Iran did for India and why it is hurt

Revealed: What Iran did for India and why it is hurt

October 03, 2005


Strikingly similar to the crisis that Iran faced at the IAEA Board meeting in Vienna last weekend, India too found itself in a tight spot in April 1994 at the United Nations Human Rights Commission's annual session in Geneva.

Iran vote and after: Complete coverage

Curiously, India and Iran found themselves entangled with each other then too, as of now -- but with an entirely different body language.

If there is a Shakespearean touch to the sense of betrayal that Iran is so evidently harbouring today over India's vote against it at Vienna, how much of that harks back to silent memories of what had transpired between the two countries in 1994, we shall never quite know.

Persians may find it to be in bad taste to be blunt and forthright on such delicate issues as trust and betrayal.

In April 1994, when the UNHRC was assembling in Geneva, India faced an ugly situation. We were just pulling out of a grave economic crisis (of our own making, though) and were extremely vulnerable to the goodwill of international financial institutions.

More importantly, the Kashmir valley was burning -- witnessing some of the bloodiest violence in its unhappy history. The country itself was panting and heaving from the bloodletting of communal violence -- hidden medieval passions were tearing it apart.

Back in 1994, India was not yet possessed with the swagger and all-knowing cockiness of its current middle class optimism -- or, for that matter, its frightening pragmatism that is determined to make every relationship outright profitable.

The politics of reciprocity

Internationally too, the climate was uncertain. Boris Yeltsin's Russia was lurching toward the West in drunken stupor, and there was a big question mark as to the availability of a 'Soviet' veto if the Kashmir file ever again got reopened in the UN's business dealings.

Technically, if the UNHRC in Geneva adopted a resolution condemning India for grave human rights violations in Jammu and Kashmir, a pathway would have opened for any of India's detractors (not only Pakistan) for referral of the 'Kashmir problem' to the UN in New York. The crisis was comparable to what could happen today if the IAEA indeed decided on a UN Security Council referral apropos of the Iran's 'nuclear problem.'

The assessment in the foreign policy establishment in Delhi at that time was that in the event of the Kashmir resolution coming up in Geneva, it had a strong possibility of getting adopted.

The draft resolution enjoyed the support of the 54-member states of the Organisation of Islamic conference and possibly some faraway countries in the Western world. Of course, Pakistan was its prime mover.

Iran clarifies stand on Kashmir

>Thus it was that on a cold wind swept morning in late March in 1994 with the Elbruz Mountain still wrapped in sheets of snow that an Indian military plane landed in Teheran airport bearing the then Indian external affairs minister Dinesh Singh and three accompanying officials from Delhi as his co-passengers.

The minister was visiting Iran to deliver in person an urgent letter from Prime Minister P V Narasimha Rao addressed to Iranian President, Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani. Rao was seeking Iran's last-minute intervention at the OIC with a view to ensuring that the Kashmir resolution did not pass through the UNHRC.

The OIC (like the IAEA) too had a convention that all decisions had to be arrived at through consensus. So, Rao shrewdly assessed that if a prominent OIC member like Iran were to abstain, there would be no 'consensus.' Rao was greatly averse to Dinesh Singh undertaking the mission, as the minister was seriously ill from the multiple strokes he had suffered a few months ago.

India, Iran discuss ways to tackle terrorism

But Dinesh Singh ("Raja Saheb") would have no one else undertake such a crucial mission -- and Rao reluctantly gave in. Sadly, that also happened to be the last mission undertaken by Dinesh Singh in a diplomatic career spread over five decades.

In fact, after one look at Dinesh Singh alighting from the aircraft, Iranian Foreign Minister Dr Ali Akbar Velayati, who was waiting at the tarmac, impulsively asked what on earth could be of such momentous importance for the minister to undertake such a perilous journey in such a poor state of health.

Dinesh Singh went through his 'Kashmir brief' diligently through the day's meetings with his Iranian interlocutors -– apart from Dr Velayati, President Rafsanjani and the Speaker of the Iranian Majlis Nateq-Nouri. The Iranian side politely noted the minister's demarche.

All in all, the business was transacted in a matter of 6 or 7 hours. Dinesh Singh left immediately for the airport for his return journey.

India, Iran sign Tehran Declaration

As he was emplaning, Dr Velayati who had come to the airport, reached out and holding Dinesh Singh's hands together in his, said: 'Ali Hashemi (President Rafsanjani) wanted me to convey his assurance to Prime Minister Rao that Iran will do all it can to ensure that no harm comes to India.'

After the plane took off, Dinesh Singh and his three co-passengers pondered over the import of what Velayati said. Did it mean that Iran would get the OIC resolution watered down? Or, would the resolution leave out any outright condemnation of India that attracted the UN's wrath?

It took 72 anxious hours more for Delhi to realise that instead of a halfway solution, Iran went ahead with surgical skill and literally killed the OIC move to table the resolution at a UN forum. We heard later that as the Pakistani ambassador sought to move the OIC resolution, his Iranian counterpart in Geneva acted on directives from Teheran and made an intervention.

He said that for Iran, both Pakistan and India were close friends, and Iran would be loathe to the idea that problems between friends could not be sorted out between the two of them, and needed instead to be raised at an international forum.

That was the last time that Pakistan sought to get a resolution over Kashmir issue tabled at a UN forum.

Thus, when the head of Iran's National Security Council, Ali Larijani said last Tuesday with a palpable sense of hurt: 'India was our friend. We did not expect India to do so' -- he would have had much more in mind than the 'shock and awe' that India administered to Iran last weekend at Vienna.

Iran talks pipeline, India says security

Larijani's erudite mind could not have missed the dramatic irony of it all -- that Teheran should have salvaged India's day at the OIC 11 years ago, and Delhi having a sudden, unexplained, inexplicable memory lapse in the IAEA.

And, on both occasions, it boiled down to how to kill a mocking bird -- how to keep a festering wound from being prised away for therapy in distant New York.

M K Bhadrakumar is a former Indian ambassador with extensive experience in handling India's relations with Iran

in.rediff.com/news/2005/oct/03spec1.htm

October 03, 2005

Al-Qaeda's Next Generation: Less Visible and More Lethal

By Michael Scheuer

Experts speculate widely about the composition and tactics of the next generation of mujahideen. This speculation stems from the fact that transnational groups are harder collection targets than nation-states. Such ambiguity and imprecision is likely to endure indefinitely, and is particularly worrisome concerning "next-generation" terrorism studies.


Osama bin Laden has been planning for the next generation of mujahideen since he began speaking publicly in the mid-1990s. Bin Laden has always described the "defensive jihad" against the United States as potentially a multi-generational struggle. After the 9/11 attacks, bin Laden explained that, even as the anti-U.S. war intensified, the torch was being passed from his generation to the next. "We have been struggling right from our youth," bin Laden wrote in late 2001:

"We sacrificed our homes, families, and all the luxuries of this worldly life in the path of Allah (was ask Allah to accept our efforts). In our youth, we fought with and defeated the (former) Soviet Union (with the help of Allah), a world super power, and now we are fighting the USA. We have never let the Muslim Ummah down.

"Muslims are being humiliated, tortured and ruthlessly killed all over the world, and its time to fight these satanic forces with the utmost strength and power. Today the whole of the Muslim Ummah is depending (after Allah) upon the Muslim youth, hoping that they would never let them down." [1]

The question arising is, of course, what threat will the next generation of al-Qaeda-inspired mujahideen pose? Based on the admittedly imprecise information available, the answer seems to lie in three discernible trends: a) the next generation will be at least as devout but more professional and less operationally visible; b) it will be larger, with more adherents and potential recruits; and c) it will be better educated and more adept at using the tools of modernity, particularly communications and weapons.

Religiosity and Quiet Professionalism

The next mujahideen generation's piety will equal or exceed that of bin Laden's generation. The new mujahideen, having grown up in an internet and satellite television-dominated world, will be more aware of Muslim struggles around the world, more comfortable with a common Muslim identity, more certain that the U.S.-led West is "oppressing" Muslims, and more inspired by the example bin Laden has set—bin Laden's generation had no bin Laden.

While leaders more pious than bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri are hard to imagine, Western analysts tend to forget that many of bin Laden's first-generation lieutenants did not mirror his intense religiosity. Wali Khan, Abu Zubaidah, Abu Hajir al-Iraqi, Khalid Sheikh Muhammed, Ibn Shaykh al-Libi, and Ramzi Yousef were first generation fighters who were both swashbuckling and Islamist. Unlike bin Laden and Zawahiri, they were flamboyant, multilingual, well-traveled, and eager for personal notoriety. Their operating styles were tinged with arrogance—as if no bullet or jail cell had been made for them—and each was captured, at least in part, because they paid insufficient attention to personal security. Now al-Qaeda is teaching young mujahideen to learn from the security failures that led to the capture of first-generation fighters.

"The security issue was and still is one of the aspects that most influence the practical course of the conflict [with the West] and one of the fronts that most affect the war's outcome. As long as the Islamic movement does not take this aspect seriously, the promised victory will continue to lack the most important means for its realization.

"What is required is that the security consciousness be present with a strength that causes it to mix with the natural course of daily action.… However, a consideration of history and a study of events lead us to conclude that the enemy's gain in the security conflict [with al-Qaeda] basically cannot be due to the extraordinary strength of those organizations or to the superior skill of those in charge of them. They are derived from the state of defenselessness caused by the sickness of [security] laxity in Islamic circles!" [2]

The rising mujahideen are less likely to follow the example of some notorious first-generation fighters, and more likely to model themselves on the smiling, pious, and proficient Mohammed Atef, al-Qaeda's military commander, killed in late 2001 and, to this day, al-Qaeda's most severe individual loss. A former Egyptian security officer, Atef was efficient, intelligent, patient, ruthless—and nearly invisible. He was a combination of warrior, thinker, and bureaucrat, pursuing his leaders' plans with no hint of ego. Atef's successor as military commander, the Egyptian Sayf al-Adl, is cut from the same cloth. Four years after succeeding Atef, for example, Western analysts cannot determine his identity—whether he is in fact a former Egyptian Special Forces colonel named Makkawi—or his location—whether he in South Asia, Iraq, or under arrest in Iran. Similarly, the Saudis' frequent publication of lengthening lists of "most wanted" al-Qaeda fighters—many unknown in the West—suggests the semi-invisible Atef-model is also used by Gulf state Islamists. Finally, the U.K.-born and -raised suicide bombers of July 7, 2005 foreshadow the next mujahideen generation who will operate below the radar of local security services.

Numbers

At the basic level, the steady pace of Islamist insurgencies around the world—Iraq, Chechnya and the northern Caucasus, southern Thailand, Mindanao, Kashmir and Afghanistan—and the incremental "Talibanization" of places like Bangladesh, Pakistan, and northern Nigeria, ensure a bountiful new mujahideen generation. Less-tangible factors will also contribute to this bounty.

-Osama bin Laden remains the unrivaled hero and leader of Muslim youths aspiring to join the mujahideen. His efforts to inspire young Muslims to jihad against the U.S.-led West seem to be proving fruitful.

-Easily accessible satellite television and Internet streaming video will broaden Muslim youths' perception that the West is anti-Islamic. U.S. public diplomacy cannot negate the impressions formed by real-time video from Palestine, Iraq, and Afghanistan that shows Muslims battling "aggressive" Western forces and validating bin Laden‘s claim that the West intends to destroy Islam.

-The adoption of harsher anti-terror laws in America and Europe, along with lurid stories about Guantanamo Bay, Abu Ghraib prison, and the handling of the Qur'an will give credence to bin Laden's claim that the West is persecuting Muslims.

-The ongoing "fundamentalization" of the two great, evangelizing monotheist religions will enhance an environment already conducive to Islamism. The growth of Protestant evangelicalism in Latin America, and the aggressive, "church militant" form of Roman Catholicism in Africa, has and will revitalize the millennium-old Islam-vs.-Christianity confrontation, creating a sense of threat and defensiveness on each side.

Compounding the threat posed by the next, larger generation is the possibility that analysts underestimated the first generation's size. Western leaders have consistently claimed large al-Qaeda-related casualties; currently, totals range from 5,000-7,000 fighters and two-thirds of al-Qaeda's leadership. If the claims are accurate, we should ponder whether the West has ever fought a "terrorist group" that can lose 5,000-7,000 fighters, dozens of leaders, and still be assessed militarily potent and perhaps WMD-capable? The multiple captures of al-Qaeda's "third-in-command"—most recently Abu Ashraf al-Libi—and the remarkable totals of "second- and third-in-commands" from Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's organization suggests the West's accounting of Islamist manpower—at the foot soldier and leadership levels—is, at best, tenuous.

Modernity

Recent scholarship suggests al-Qaeda and its allies draw support primarily from Muslim middle- and upper-middle classes [3]. This helps explain why bin Laden places supreme importance on exploiting the internet for security, intelligence, paramilitary training, communications, propaganda, religious instruction, and news programs. It also points to the West's frequent failure to distinguish between the Islamists' hatred for Westernization—women's rights and secularism, for example—and their openness to modernity's tools, especially communications and weaponry.

Several features of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's forces demonstrate that the mujahideen embrace modern tools. Two-plus years after the U.S. invasion, for example, Zarqawi's technicians continue building Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and car bombs that defeat the detection/jamming technology fielded by U.S. forces. Indeed, each new iteration of defensive technology has been trumped by improved insurgent weaponry.

Zarqawi's media apparatus is likewise the most sophisticated, flexible, and omnipresent U.S.-led forces have encountered since 9/11. Al-Qaeda-in-Iraq's media produce daily combat reports, near real-time video of attacks on coalition targets, interviews with Zarqawi and other leaders, and a steady flow of "news bulletins" to feed 24/7 satellite television networks. In doing so, Zarqawi's media are telling the Muslim world al-Qaeda's version of the war professionally, reliably, and in real-time. So good has Zarqawi's media become since joining al-Qaeda that it is fair to assume the most important help he has received is from bin Laden's world-class media organization.

Conclusion

Despite satellites, electronic intercept equipment, and expanding human intelligence, the West does not understand al-Qaeda the way it knew the Soviet Union. Transnational targets are substantially more difficult collection targets than nation-states. We are, for example, unlikely to build an accurate al-Qaeda order-of-battle or recruit assets to penetrate the al-Qaeda equivalent of Moscow's politburo. As a result, Western analysts must closely track broad trends within al-Qaeda and its allies, and the trends toward greater piety, professionalism, numbers and modernity merit particular attention.

Michael Scheuer served in the CIA for 22 years before resigning in 2004. He served as the Chief of the bin Laden Unit at the Counterterrorist Center from 1996 to 1999. He is the once anonymous author of Imperial Hubris: Why the West is Losing the War on Terror and Through Our Enemies' Eyes: Osama bin Laden, Radical Islam, and the Future of America.

Notes
1. Osama bin Laden, "Message to Muslim Youth," Markaz al-Dawa (Internet), December 13, 2001.
2. Sayf-al-Din al-Ansari, "But Take Your Precautions," Al-Ansar (Internet), March 15, 2002.
3. See especially, Marc Sageman, Understanding Terror Networks, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004), and Robert Pape, Dying to Win. The Logic of Suicide Terrorism, (Random House, 2005).

Accused Russian ex-nuclar minister will leave for the U.S.

14:51 2005-10-03
Swiss authorities have decided to extradite former Russian nuclear minister Yevgeny Adamov to the United States rather than to his homeland, the Justice Ministry affirmed Monday.

In the meanwhile Russia repeatedly expressed fears that Adamov could reveal nuclear secrets while facing charges in the United States of stealing up to US$9 million intended for improvements to Russia's nuclear security.

Adamov has 30 days to file an appeal with the Swiss supreme court, the ministry said in a statement.

Adamov has accepted extradition only to Russia. He started a hunger strike on Monday, ministry spokesman Rudolf Wyss said, without elaborating on the reason.

Swiss authorities arrested Adamov on a U.S. warrant on May 2, while he was visiting his daughter in Bern. A U.S. federal grand jury in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, has since indicted the Russian on charges of conspiracy to transfer stolen money and securities, conspiracy to defraud the United States, money laundering and tax evasion.

U.S. authorities suspect Adamov of embezzling U.S. Energy Department funds and diverting them into private projects in the United States, Ukraine and Russia, the AP reports.

October 02, 2005

Raiganj rape case: Das Munshi plays up to Muslim vote bank

Kolkata, Sept.5 (VSK): She was vibrant, full of youthful energy and enthusiasm; she was only 14 years old. But, Pratima Das’ life was cut short. A student of class VIII, her only crime was that she was born in a Hindu family and lived with her parents in the Muslim-dominated Kasba Maheso village near Raiganj town in North Dinaipur district in the Communist-ruled West Bengal. On August 2, four local notorious Muslim youth abducted Pratima, raped and then murdered her. The criminals are yet to be arrested despite massive public protest against the police inaction.

The rape and murder of Pratima snowballed into a massive agitation all over the district. On August 4, two daysafter her brutal murder, angry local villagers setup road blocks on Raiganj-Balurghat state highway demanding immediate arrest of the culprits. Strangely, instead of arresting the criminals the police resorted to indiscriminate firing to disperse the agitators. Two innocent villagers were killed and at least 100 others injured in police firing on the day.

But Raiganj police firing on thousands of innocent villagers assembled to seek justice from the district administration remained unnoticed by the insensitive so-called secular media fearing a backlash from the Muslims.

The four Muslim goons, Hero Muhammad, Saturja Muhammad, Hussain Ansari and Mukta Ali, are members of a notorious gang of smugglers operating around the Indo-Bangladesh border. These four motorbike riding Muslim goons had made it a daily practice to tease Pratima while she was on her way to school: As the teasing went beyond tolerance, Pratima protested and reported the matter to the school authorities. This enraged the criminals and they openly threatened to rape her soon. The local police was informed about the threat but no action was taken to prevent the crime. It is alleged that the local police have an unholy alliance with the smugglers operating in the border area and that was the reason for police inaction. It is a shame that the district superintendent of police tried to cover-up the police inaction by questioning the moral characterof the victim.

Why blame the police superintendent alone? The village is situated under the Raiganj Parliamentary Constituency that has returned the Union Congress Minister for Water Resources Development in the UPA government, Priya Ranjan Dasmunshi. The high-profile Congress Minister described the incident as a trivial one and he found a conspiracy hatched by the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Paraishad (ABVP) and the BJP to foment communal tension in Raiganj constituency to discredit him. Dasmunshi went to Raiganj on August 25 to preside over a rally in the town organised by the district Chhatra Parishad, a student wing of the Congress. The Union Minister later led Chhatra Parishad activists and himself torn down posters that carried the photograph of Pratima Das alleging her rape and murder by four Muslim youth. He asked his party followers to tear down all the posters. This is the first time in West Bengal that a Union Minister has behaved in such an unruly manner.

Dasmunshi's indecent behaviour led to widespread condemnation all over North Dinaipur district. The ABVP organised a massive protest rally on August 29 in Raiganj town to condemn Dasmunshi's undemocratic action as well as to demand arrest of all the culprits involved in Pratima Das rape and murder. Senior BJP leader, Shri Vinay Katiyar, State BJP President Shri Tathagata Roy and ABVP leaders, Shri Ramnaresh Singh and Shri Rabiranjan Sen, among others, demanded the resignation of Dasmunshi from the Union Cabinet. They unanimously demanded judicial probe into unprovoked police firing on the agitating villagers and asked the administration to release all the persons arrested following the incident.


www.organiser.org/dynamic...98&page=23

1965 war: The Chinese bluff

http://in.rediff.com/
news/2005/sep/30war.htm

The Rediff Special/Claude Arpi



September 30, 2005


Two important factors triggered the 1965 conflict with Pakistan.
The first one was the visit to India of US Assistant Secretary of State Averell Harriman and British Secretary for Commonwealth Relations Duncan Sandys on November 22, 1962.
This was the day China declared a unilateral ceasefire in the war with India. The visit was supposedly to assess India's needs to resist Communist China. But both envoys 'made clear their governments' willingness to provide military assistance to India but pointed out the related need for negotiations to resolve the Kashmir dispute.'
The Kashmir card
Photograph: Indian troops patrol at 14,500 feet in Nathu La, Sikkim. The Indian Army placed a considerable chunk of its forces in the east to check any Chinese attempt to open a 'second front' during the war with Pakistan. Photograph courtesy: Bharat Rakshak
A clear signal was given to India -- yet to recover from the blackest month of her history -- that she had to compromise on Kashmir.
Consequently six rounds of talks between India and Pakistan were held to find a solution for the vexed issue, but to no avail. However, Ayub Khan, the Pakistani president, must have taken the Western intervention as an encouragement for his claim.
The second factor came into the picture soon: Pakistan began a dangerous liaison with China. On March 2 1963, (between the 3rd and 4th round of Indo-Pakistani talks), Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Chen Yi signed an agreement in Beijing graciously offering more than 5,000 sq km of Kashmir territory to China.
This made the US State Department stop to think. With Pakistan getting closer to China, should Washington continue its military assistance to Pakistan?
While continuing to squeeze India on Kashmir, the Western Powers were getting uncomfortable with the strange situation. They were supplying armaments to Pakistan, which in turn was flirting with Communist China.
In a long letter to India's chief ministers on May 23, 1963, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru lucidly pointed out: 'Pakistan has been and continues to be a headache. By a curious quirk of circumstance this has got tied up with the Chinese menace. Surely, there must be few instances in history of a country tying itself up with military alliances against some of the countries, in the present case, Communist countries, and then suddenly turning over and coming to an understanding with one of these Communist countries.'
'They (the US and the British) realise, I suppose, that Pakistan is slowly slipping away from their influence. They try to prevent this by bringing pressure on India to come to a settlement with Pakistan about Kashmir. Because of Chinese aggression on us, Pakistan's appetite has grown tremendously and she feels that now is the time to extract the most from us.'
In Washington, the Kennedy and then the Johnson administration considered 're-balancing' their assistance between Indian and Pakistan. After a visit to the subcontinent in December 1963, General Taylor, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff wrote to the US Defence Secretary: 'But in spite of (Ayub's) strong objections of US help to India, I have the feeling that while he is swallowing hard, it is going down.'
Ayub Khan would have to swallow the pill: if he wanted US support, there was no way that the love story with Beijing could continue. At the same time, the general sensed that Pakistan's dream to rule over the Kashnmir valley was fading away.
He thought of the same solution as Jinnah in 1947: to organise infiltrations into Kashmir by troops in mufti who would create a popular insurrection. The scheme could succeed if it was better prepared than in September/October 1947. The Pakistani planners thought that through an 'Algerian-type' people's struggle for self-determination, it would not be long before the people of the valley started asking for their reattachment to Pakistan.
Air Marshal Asghar Khan, the then Pakistan Air Force chief, wrote that Operation Gibraltar was based on three assumptions: the raiders would receive the support of the local population, India would limit its retaliation to 'Azad Kashmir' and finally and most importantly, that the Indian troops would in no circumstance cross the international border.
One more assumption was that Beijing would intervene in the conflict and support Pakistan by opening another military front against India.
The first assumption failed simply because most of the raiders the Gibraltar Force were foreign to the Kashmir valley, they did not speak the language, and did not even know that the metric system was in use in Kashmir. When the strategic pass of Haji Pir opening the gate to 'Azad Kashmir' fell into Indian hands, the Pakistani military rulers realised that Op Gibraltar would not succeed.
They then hatched a new scheme: Op Grand Slam. The intention was to capture and destroy the Akhnur bridge (in an area known as 'Chicken Neck'); this would cut the road which was the umbilical cord for the valley, completely isolating it from Jammu, 30 km away from Akhnur.
With the fate of Kashmir in the balance, then prime minister Lal Bahadur Shastri took a bold, unexpected decision: India would cross the International Border and advance toward Sialkot. On September 5, 1965 at 5 am, the Indian Army moved into Pakistan.
The rest of the operation is history.
The last assumption was that a Chinese threat would cow down the Indian leadership and eventually force India to reposition some of her limited forces on the new front extending from NEFA (North Eastern Frontier Alliance, now the states of northeast India) to Ladakh.
But despite the close relation newly developing between Pakistan and China, it was not on Beijing's agenda to support Pakistan in a war with India.
The best proof is the transcript of a long meeting between Zhou Enlai, the Chinese premier, and Ayub Khan on April 2, 1965 in Karachi. The entire discussion focused around the US role in Vietnam. Zhou wanted the US to know (through the intermediary of Ayub Khan) that Beijing 'will go to Vietnam if Vietnam is in need, as we did in Korea' and if 'the US expands (the war) to Chinese territory, the war will have no limits.'
A military map recently released by the CIA shows that only 61,000 Chinese troops were deployed in the Tibet military region compared to 151,000 in Kunming and 327,000 in Guangzhou regions. This shows that the real focus of China's military forces in 1965 was to assist Ho Chi Minh's 'people's revolution' in Vietnam.
Around that time a secret report prepared by the CIA stated that the objectives of China's foreign policy were 'to eject the West from Asia… to increase the influence of Communist China in Asia and through the underdeveloped areas of the world and supplant the influence of the USSR in the world.'
If China could weaken an India already entangled in its conflict with Pakistan, without having to recourse to war, Beijing would come closer to some these objectives.
After India crossed the International Border, things moved faster. On September 7, the ambassador of Pakistan to China met Liu Shaoqi, the Chinese head of state, with a letter from Ayub Khan requesting Chinese assistance.
The next day, the epistolary attack on India started. Beijing began accusing Delhi of having sent patrols which trespassed on the Chinese side of the Line of Actual Control in the Aksai Chin region and in Sikkim. For the first time since the 1962 conflict, these alleged intrusions were linked to the situation in Kashmir.
The Note says: 'They are by no means accidental, occurring as they did at a time when the Indian government was carrying out armed suppression against the people in Kashmir and unleashing and expanding its armed aggression against Pakistan. Facts have proved once again that India has not the slightest respect for its neighbours but makes incursions, harassment and encroachments upon them whenever there is a chance.'
Of course, the Indian Army had not intruded into Chinese territory, but allegations did not cost Beijing anything.
On September 12, India replied citing the Pakistani infiltrations and then the full-fledged Pakistani attack (which had been acknowledged by the UN: 'These are facts which are well-known to the world.'
On September 16, the tone mounted again; Beijing accused Delhi to have built structures on the Chinese side of the Sikkim-China border and rejected the Indian denial: '(The Indian note) further shamelessly asserts that Indian troops have never crossed the Sikkim-China boundary... and that India has not built any military works either on the Chinese side of the border... This is a bare faced lie.' The Note ended with a threat, India had to withdraw; 'otherwise, the Indian government must bear full responsibility for all the grave consequences arising therefrom.'
The next day, Delhi which could not afford to start a fresh front, informed Beijing that it was ready for a joint inspection of the Sikkim-China border, 'If any structures are found on the Tibet side of the border, there can be no objection to their being demolished.'
Regarding China's stand on Kashmir, the Note stated: 'it is nothing but interference on the part of China calculated to prolong and to enlarge the conflict.'
The tension continued to mount as the matter was discussed by the Security Council. By that time, Delhi had informed Moscow and Washington of the Chinese ultimatum. For once, the leaders of the two blocs agreed that the Kashmir issue had to be solved through the Security Council and China had no business to interfere.
The Chinese threatening notes however increased the pressure on India to compromise. On September 19, the Chinese sent a new ultimatum (for the day of the ceasfire September 22): 'From their own experience the Chinese people can deeply understand how Pakistan has been bullied by the Indian government. The Chinese government gives all-out support to the people of Kashmir in their struggle for the right of national self-determination.'
The exchange of notes continued during the following days, but as stated in the Indian Official Report of the 1965 War: 'in real sense (China) had neither any intention nor any capacity to strike against India.'
Finally a ceasefire was accepted by India and Pakistan on September 22/23. The exchanges of notes and allegations/denials continued, but the military urgency to defend a second front had disappeared.
Ironically, nobody knew at that time that the Chinese leadership was in total disarray.
Though the Cultural Revolution had not officially started, the leadership struggle between Mao, Jiang Qing (Mao's wife) and Lin Biao (the defence minister) on one side and Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping on the other had started. Mao had sent all his staff and security (known as Group One) in the 'countryside' to work in the fields with the peasants.
Lin Biao was very sick, spending most of his time in hospital. Further there was a violent struggle between Lin Biao and Luo Ruiqing, the PLA chief. Lin Biao believed that ideology was the most important factor in war, while Luo wanted the PLA to acquire modern equipment and receive a proper training.
Around the same time, Yang Shangkun who later became Chinese president was purged by Mao for being too close to Liu Shaoqi. With many of the main players either purged or 'sent to the countryside', Zhou Enlai complained that nothing could be done in Beijing: 'we have so few capable people (left].' In this condition, it is impossible to envisage that the Chinese leadership was serious to open a new front against India.
But the bluff worked well: it tremendously increased the pressure on Shastri and his government, forcing him to agree to a ceasefire just when the tide had turned in India's favour on the battlefield.
Claude Arpi, French dentist turned Tibetologist living in India, is a regular contributor to rediff.com
Photograph courtesy: Bharat Rakshak