July 29, 2006

ARYAN INVASION BITES THE DUST --N.S. Rajaram

July 29, 2006

Report from the U.S.

N.S. Rajaram

In the rewriting of Indian history that is currently underway, the Seminar on Aryan/Non-Aryan Contributions held on June 23 – 25 at the Center of Indic Studies, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth is likely to prove seminal. At the Seminar, now becoming known as the Dartmouth Conference, advocates of the Aryan theories, including the Aryan invasion, were forced to confront data from a wide range of sources including historical, astronomical, genetic and archaeological that simply could not be brushed away by appealing to linguistics.



Most telling of all was the genetic evidence pointing to the fact that Indians have lived where they are today for the better part of 50,000 years and no Aryan invasion took place. The genetic data was presented by two leading workers in the field— Dr. Peter Underhill of Stanford University and Dr. V.K. Kashyap of the National Institute of Biologicals of New Delhi. Their findings overwhelmingly contradict the notion of any Aryan invasion and/or migration for the origin of Indian civilization.



These findings had been anticipated and summarized (based or earlier data) in the just released book Sarasvati River and the Vedic Civilization by N.S. Rajaram (Aditya Prakashan). The book was circulated at the Conference and attracted wide attention. Its author actively participated in the Conference.



Dr. B.B. Lal, India’s seniormost archaeologist, made a masterly presentation summarizing the whole gamut of archaeological discoveries from the Sarasvati river to the various Harappan sites pointing out how they bear the stamp of Vedic ideas and thoroughly contradict the Aryan invasion. Rajaram highlighted the fact that the Rigveda came before the Harappan civilization, and Harappan archaeology belongs to later phase of the Vedic civilization, the period that produced the Brahmanas, Upanishads and the Sutras.



All this means that Harappan archaeology records the material remains of the Vedic civilization, especial of the later phase, when the ideas found the Veda Samhitas saw exposition, consolidation and codification in the Vedantic literature. This is clear from the Vedic symbols like the svastika, om, ashvattha leaves and others found on Harappan artifacts especially the seals.



Rajaram pointed out that it had long been known that the Aryan invasion theory was a political creation. This had later been embraced by academics, especially in the West, who now feel threatened by new discoveries. In particular, he showed that the British themselves acknowledged that it was used to make their rule acceptable to Indians. In support Rajaram cited the British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin’s statement in the House of Commons in 1929:



“Now, after ages, …the two branches of the great Aryan ancestry have again been brought together by Providence… By establishing British rule in India, God said to the British, “I have brought you and the Indians together after a long separation, …it is your duty to raise them to their own level as quickly as possible …brothers as you are…”



This highlighted the preposterous claims of the Aryan theories and brought much laughter. The audience agreed that after this disclosure no one could take these Aryan theories seriously. It was also agreed that after the fall of the Aryan invasion theory, a major topic on the research agenda should be to dispel the dogma that tries to make the Harappan civilization non-Vedic, by studying Harappan archaeology alongside the Vedic and Vedantic literature.



An interesting aspect of the Dartmouth Conference was the joint presence of the Harvard linguist Michael Witzel, a strong proponent of the Aryan theories, and its opponents, notably scientist and historian N.S. Rajaram and archaeologist B.B. Lal. The evidence against the Aryan theories presented by these two (and other participants) was so strong that Witzel for the first time stated in public that he and his colleagues no longer subscribed to the Aryan invasion theory.



At the same time he (and his supporters) are not prepared to give up the idea of the foreign origin of the Indian civilization. This position, as just noted, is easily refuted by a closer study of Harappan artifacts combined with scientific data from natural history, genetics and astronomy.



The date of 1500 B.C. for the Rigveda has also been demolished by astronomical studies using the latest planetary software and celestial-mechanical models. Dr. Narahari Achar, an astrophysicist from The University of Memphis clearly showed with astronomical analysis that the Mahabharata war in 3,067 BC that refutes the idea of an outside Aryan origin of Vedic people dating to 1500 BC. Since Bharata, mentioned in Rigveda was the ancestor of the heroes of the Mahabharata, the Vedas must be much older.



A sour note was introduced by the somewhat abrasive conduct of Michael Witzel who was present but did not present his findings though invited to do so by the organizers. His public behavior, which went to the extent of passing nasty personal comments on speakers, including on some young people who had traveled from different parts of the country left a bad taste in the mouth of the participants. In his press statement (see Appendix below) Dr. Balram Singh was moved to comment:

“Witzel while refusing to present his own data and evidence for his theories despite being invited to do so was nevertheless present for part of the conference, and raised many questions. Some of his personal commentaries questioning the credibility of scholars evoked sharp responses from other participants.” Dr. Singh further stated that he was “appalled at the level of visceral feelings Witzel holds against some of the scholars in the field, but felt satisfied with the overall outcome of the conference.”

Speaking personally, as a veteran of many conferences in both science and technology areas and in the humanities like history and literature, I found Witzel’s public behavior, especially towards young people, to be unbecoming of a scholar of his seniority and standing. I could not help contrasting his behavior with that of my late colleague, the great Vedic scholar and paleographer Dr. Natwar Jha, who never said an unkind word about anyone, and always prefaced any criticism with a statement about a similar error that he himself had committed.

It is of course absurd to compare a true scholar and gentleman like Jha with Witzel, but it struck me since the memory of my eminent colleague who passed away in May was still fresh. In truth it is as absurd as comparing St. Francis of Assissi and Attila the Hun.


APPENDIX: Press release

University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, Center for Indic Studies


Press Release, July 3, 2006

Scientists Collide with Linguists to Assert Indigenous origin of Indian Civilization



Comprehensive population genetics data along with archeological and astronomical evidence presented at June 23-25, 2006 conference in Dartmouth, MA, overwhelmingly concluded that Indian civilization and its human population is indigenous.

In fact, the original people and culture within the Indian Subcontinent may even be a likely pool for the genetic, linguistic, and cultural origin of the most rest of the world, particularly Europe and Asia.

Leading evidences come from population genetics, which were presented by two leading researchers in the field, Dr. V. K. Kashyap, National Institute of Biologicals, India, and Dr. Peter Underhill of Stanford University in California. Their results generally contradict the notion of Aryan invasion/migration theory for the origin of Indian civilization.

Underhill concluded: “…the spatial frequency distributions of both L1 frequency and variance levels show a spreading pattern emanating from India, referring to a Y chromosome marker.” He, however, put several caveats before interpreting genetic data, including Y-ancestry may not always reflect the ancestry of the rest of the genome.

Dr. Kashyap, on the other hand, with the most comprehensive set of genetic data (of both mtDNA and Y-chromosome) was quite emphatic in his assertion that there is “no clear genetic evidence for an intrusion of Indo-Aryan people into India, [and] establishment of caste system and gene flow.”

Michael Witzel, a Harvard linguist, who is known to lead the idea of Aryan invasion/migration/influx theory in more recent times, continued to question genetic evidence on the basis that it does not provide the time resolution to explain events that may have been involved in Aryan presence in India.

Dr. Kashyap’s reply was that even though the time resolution needs further work, the fact that there are clear and distinct differences in the gene pools of Indian population and those of Central Asian and European groups, the evidence nevertheless negates any Aryan invasion or migration into Indian Subcontinent.

Witzel while refusing to present his own data and evidence for his theories despite being invited to do so was nevertheless present for part of the conference, and raised many questions. Some of his personal commentaries questioning the credibility of scholars evoked sharp responses from other participants.

Rig Veda has been dated to 1,500 BC by those who use linguistics to claim its origin Aryans coming out of Central Asia and Europe. Archaeologist B.B. Lal, and scientist and historian N.S. Rajaram disagreed with the position of linguists, in particular of Witzel, who claimed literary and linguistic evidence for the non-Indian origin of the Vedic civilization. Lal and Rajaram disputed this on scientific, literary and historical grounds.

Dr. Narahari Achar, a physicist from The University of Memphis clearly showed with astronomical analysis that the Mahabharata war in 3,067 BC, thus poking a major hole in the outside Aryan origin of Vedic people dating to 1500 BC.

Interestingly, Witzel stated, for the first time to many in the audience, that he and his colleagues no longer subscribe to Aryan invasion theory, though he continues to hold to a foreign origin for the people and civilization of India. As noted previously, he presented no data in support of his position though invited to do so by the organizers.

Dr. Bal Ram Singh, Director, Center for Indic Studies at UMass Dartmouth, which organized the conference was appalled at the level of visceral feelings Witzel holds against some of the scholars in the field, but felt satisfied with the overall outcome of the conference.

“I am glad to see people who have been scholarly shooting at each other for about a decade are finally in one room, and this should be counted as progress,” said Singh in conclusion.

The conference brought together in one room for the first time experts from genetics, archeology, physics, linguistics, anthropology, history, and philosophy. A proceedings of the conference is expected to come out soon, detailing various arguments on the origin of Indian civilization.

9 comments:

me2 said...

Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)/Y-chromosome phylogeography has corroborated paleo-archeological evidence that homo sapiens originated in Africa. This thus confirmed "Out of Africa" thesis corroborates my thesis at www.nodrift.com/vol_5/5.1.pdf and, more importantly, the corroboration is mutual.

The correlations of my ebook's paper 5.1 Figs 1 & 2 lead to explanations of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis, how and why African descendents of homo erectus were more successful than Asian descendents and so on, with an important corollary:

Sexual selection may have been more important than natural selection in evolution of homo sapiens, in contrast to evolution of homo erectus, where natural selection may have been more important than sexual selection.

The correlations: Earth's Impact Hemisphere (IH), antipodal Africa (AA), & intermediate region (IR) correlate with the New World/Oceania, Original World, & Old World, respectively, and the distribution of so-called Yellow, Black, & White coarse race categories respectively, before an ~500 year period of world colonisation which has been undoing these probably causal associations.

Hieronymus said...

This is a major revision for most of our western history. I can't think of anything that is more important than a re-writing. It makes so much sense when you look at supposed Sumerian origins

Rijul said...

Refer to my blog, I myself follow this theory..

thecafe17.blogspot.com

cheers,

Rijul Singh Puri

Anonymous said...

Hi
Join for free. Most of 2 millions members.List of most popular hot girls in your area. Find today sex partner here from list of most hot girls in your area. Adult only.
hotgirls xanax sex sexcam phentermine xanax phentermine sex hotbabe sexforadult sex sexygirlsfree sexygirls sexfree adult hotgirlsonline freeadult sexvideo
viagra valium meridia adipex ativan xanax drugs valium tramadol viagra drug store free hosting viagra levitra cialis
Have fun

Anonymous said...

Hello
xanax phentermine xanax xanax phentermine phentermine phentermine tramadol tramadol tramadol levaquin levaquin levaquin lnorvasc sex babe casino casino
lroulette blackjack lpoker phentermine
Bye

Anonymous said...

Hi .List of most popular hot girls in your area. Adult only.
hotgirls cialis xanax sex sexcam phentermine xanax phentermine sex hotbabe sexforadult sex sexygirlsfree sexygirls sexfree adult hotgirlsonline freeadult
/sexvideo--.blogspot.com>sexvideo

valium meridia ativan xanax drugs valium tramadol viagra drug store viagra levitra cialis
Check prices of these useful pills:
tramadol pharmacy search cialis soma ambien meridia ultram tramadol carisoprodol viagra
Enjoy

Anonymous said...

Hi all!
xanax phentermine xanax xanax phentermine phentermine phentermine tramadol tramadol tramadol levaquin levaquin levaquin norvasc sex babe casino casino
lroulette blackjack lpoker phentermine
G'night

Anonymous said...

Hi all!


G'night

viagra said...

Disaster is likely to wreak havoc in the life of an individual as soon as he becomes victim to erectile dysfunction and the most significant dreadful consequence of erectile dysfunction is that the afflicted man becomes incapable of facilitating erections required for sexual intercourse. The sexual vacuum resulted from erectile dysfunction prompts the sufferer to opt for anti-impotency pills, most especially the viagra medication that was approved by FDA (Food and Drugs Administration) as a clinically effective drug to cure erectile dysfunction in men. Viagra is meant to be administered by patients only after availing of viagra prescription from the doctor. The prescription for Viagra provided by the doctor spells out that the patient suffering from erectile dysfunction seriously need Viagra to treat his disorder and further authorizes the patient to avail of Viagra from the pharmacist.Disaster is likely to wreak havoc in the life of an individual as soon as he becomes victim to erectile dysfunction and the most significant dreadful consequence of erectile dysfunction is that the afflicted man becomes incapable of facilitating erections required for sexual intercourse. The sexual vacuum resulted from erectile dysfunction prompts the sufferer to opt for anti-impotency pills, most especially the viagra medication that was approved by FDA (Food and Drugs Administration) as a clinically effective drug to cure erectile dysfunction in men. Viagra is meant to be administered by patients only after availing of viagra prescription from the doctor. The prescription for Viagra provided by the doctor spells out that the patient suffering from erectile dysfunction seriously need Viagra to treat his disorder and further authorizes the patient to avail of Viagra from the pharmacist.