June 10, 2006

India, U.S.: Washington Grooms New Delhi

June 07, 2006 20 26 GMT

Summary

India's June 6 announcement that it will test-fire its Agni-III
missile sometime in August came just a day after U.S. Chairman of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Peter Pace said such a firing would not
affect the pending U.S.-Indian civilian nuclear deal. Pace also
indicated that the United States would like India to assume a much
greater role in patrolling the Strait of Malacca. Pace's four-day
visit to New Delhi and his comments have a geopolitical undercurrent:
The United States is developing India into a junior partner in the
Indian Ocean region.

Analysis

U.S. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Peter Pace wrapped up
his four-day visit to India on June 7. Pace indicated June 5 that
Washington would accept India's test-firing of the Agni-III missile;
the next day, New Delhi announced that the test-firing would take
place in August. Pace also said the United States looks forward to
India assuming greater responsibility in patrolling the Strait of
Malacca.

Pace's trip to India marks the first time the highest-ranking U.S.
military commander visited since Washington and New Delhi signed a
10-year defense cooperation agreement in 2005. That agreement set in
motion negotiations of a U.S.-Indian civilian nuclear deal that
involved the United States giving significant help in India's
development of a nuclear power infrastructure in exchange for India's
putting some restrictions on its military nuclear program. The nuclear
deal has been stalled in the U.S. Congress; U.S. President George W.
Bush has found it increasingly difficult to push his international
agenda forward because of his precipitous decline in popularity in
opinion polls. India knows that Bush has faced much opposition to the
nuclear deal, and so put off testing its Agni-III missile for fear of
further endangering the agreement. This is why India did not respond
in kind, as it typically does, when Pakistan tested a missile -- the
ShaheenII/HatfVI ballistic missile -- May 7.

Pace's June 5 announcement that Washington would not see the missile
test as a nuclear-proliferation concern changed New Delhi's reasoning.
India, realizing that the United States likely would not approve the
civilian nuclear deal until at least autumn, was happy to get the
go-ahead from at least the U.S. executive branch.

India's attention to -- and desire for -- U.S. approval suggests that
India is playing its role in the development of a strategic
partnership between Washington and New Delhi. The relationship is a
potentially deep one: the United States will provide India with
nuclear technology, development capital, and military hardware and
training; in return, India will help safeguard U.S. interests in the
Indian Ocean region. The partnership could also powerfully demonstrate
to Pakistani President Gen. Pervez Musharraf that the United States
would not act to block a resurgent India from attacking Pakistan (not
that such a scenario is likely) and also help take New Delhi out of
Iran's orbit.

A formal alliance it is not; India does not want to be seen as being
anti-Moscow or anti-Beijing, even as it develops stronger ties with
the United States. Geopolitically, China and India have been off of
each other's radar screens (despite a piddling border skirmish in
1962), as they are geographically sealed from each other by the
natural wall of the Himalayas and jungle.

India wants to continue to buy arms from Russia, such as parts for the
MiG-29Ks that will be flying off the deck of the INS Vikramaditya
aircraft carrier, which is to be handed over after a Russian refit in
2008. New Delhi wants the United States to continue to train the
pilots of those MiGs for carrier operations. The United States has
also agreed in principle to sell India an Austin-class Landing
Platform Dock, the USS Trenton, significantly enhancing New Delhi's
maritime power-projection capabilities.

In return, Washington would like India to do exactly what it wants to
anyway: shoulder responsibility and become a powerhouse in the Indian
Ocean, second only to the U.S. Navy. The United States hopes that an
India more involved in the Malacca Strait and with an improved navy
will make China nervous. As Malacca is a chokepoint for Chinese trade
and energy supplies, the naval frontier is essentially the only
potential conflict point between New Delhi and Beijing, which
otherwise are for all intents and purposes a continent away from one
another.

Pace's visit merely formalized what has already been occurring: a
coming together of Indian and American interests in a confederation of
convenience. Washington would like New Delhi to break out of its shell
and exert enough influence in the region to at least annoy China and a
recalcitrant Pakistan. India would like to get whatever it can from
its latest patron, the United States, in order to help alleviate its
massive infrastructure problems, which are preventing India from
becoming a major world power.

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Guwahati blast leaves five dead

Police suspect ULFA hand; attack comes days ahead of govt’s proposed talks with the banned outfit


PTI


Guwahati: Five persons were killed and 16 seriously injured when a bomb — which police say was planted by the banned outfit United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) — exploded in the main vegetable market here on Friday evening.

No group, however, has claimed responsibility for the attacks.

The bomb went off at around 4.20 pm when the market at Machkowa was crowded, killing four vegetable vendors on the spot while wounding several others, Senior Superintendent of Police Nitul Gogoi said.

The bomb was suspected to have been hidden in a vegetable basket as no crater was formed when it went off with a deafening sound, Gogoi said.

The injured were admitted to the Guwahati Medical College Hospital in a critical condition. Police said the toll was likely to go up.

The area was cordoned off and all nearby shops and markets closed as panic spread.

On Thursday night, the ULFA had carried out simultaneous attacks in four places in which 32 people were injured.

The police have launched a massive combing operation following these attacks and cracked down on suspected ULFA hideouts.

Special security pickets were posted in and around vital installations and railway tracks, officials said.

The police reviewed the security arrangements across the state and decided to step up vigil to prevent further violence. The Friday's attack came less than two weeks before the third round of talks on June 22 between the Centre and the People's Consultative Group nominated by the ULFA.


WHAT ULFA WANTS

The ULFA has fought a war for the secession of Assam from India for more than 25 years, accusing New Delhi of neglecting the state's economy and taking away its rich natural resources.

Pakistan former spy chief sees U.S hand in Balochistan unrest

Islamabad, June 9, IRNA

Pakistan-US Policy
A former chief of Pakistan's spy agency has said that America is directly or indirectly involved in the unrest in the country's southwestern Balochistan province as part of its long- term strategic interests in the region.

Lt Gen. (Retd) Hameed Gul, Director General of Inter-Service Intelligence told the ARY private TV Channel that Pakistan's policy vis-a-vis the Unites Sates has resulted into enhanced U.S pressure on Pakistan to do more in the so-called anti-terror war.

"We must learn that we can never please US nor we could ever come up to their expectations and it is high time for us to pursue an independent foreign policy," he said.

About Iran, he said stricter Iranian stance against America has compelled Washington to soften its stance against it as Iranians have understood Americans better than Pakistani leadership.

He said that the latest American viewpoint vis-a-vis Iran should serve as an eye opener for those who still argue that Pakistan was left with no option but to join the so-called US-led war on terror.

He said that the Americans have changed their stance against Iran after being panicked the way Iran has been invited in the Shanghai's Co-operation Organization's conference being held on June 15.

General Gul said that Iran has genuine concerns about Afghanistan as it still hosts a considerable number of Afghan refugees.

In the new world order, America feels it should come to negotiating terms with Iran, he added.

'How can Sonia afford to dine in five star hotels?'

Cong chief told EC she only has Rs 20,000 with her, then how did Rahul
spend 10 years in London, asks Amar

Lakshmi Iyer

New Delhi: Samajwadi Party's Amar Singh is curious to know how
Congress chief Sonia Gandhi can afford to dine in five-star hotels
with just Rs 20,000 to her name.

"In her declaration to the Election Commission (EC), Sonia has said
she does not have a car and possesses a cash deposit of only Rs
20,000, but many a time I have seen her eating Chinese food in
five-star hotels. Surely, the sum of Rs 20,000 would not be enough to
afford it," he said at a press conference in Delhi.

Turning his attention to the declaration made by her son Rahul, Singh
alleged that the Lok Sabha MP from Amethi is passionate about speed
biking and that he had spent 10 years in London.

"How did he live in London with 55 pounds in his bank account? Did
mama Quattrocchi pay for it? Was that why his account was frozen? This
is unacceptable. We want the ethics committee of the Rajya Sabha
(headed by Karan Singh of the Congress) to draw up guidelines for all
MPs."

Singh's charges were prompted by the Supreme Court asking Uttar
Pradesh Chief Minister Mulayam Singh Yadav and his family members to
show his income tax returns from 2001-06 and also his investments in
the same period in response to a PIL filed by a Congress leader named
Vishwanath Chaturvedi.

"The apex court's order did not come as a surprise to us. We can fully
comply with it because both Mulayam and his son Akhilesh Singh have
been filing I-T returns every year. But what we cannot countenance is
there being two sets of rules. All those in public life should be
asked to reveal their I-T returns for the past five years," Singh
said.

He said Chaturvedi had been propped by the Congress only to embarrass
Mulayam. "He is very much like Madan Mohan Shukla, the man Congress
set up to unseat Jaya Bachchan (from the Rajya Sabha). Right now,
Chaturvedi is a guest at the chief minister's suite in Haryana
Bhawan."

Singh believes Chaturvedi has drawn most of his material for his PIL
from the declaration made by Mulayam Singh Yadav before the EC.

In between all these allegations, the EC's direction asking Amar Singh
to appear before it on June 16 in connection with the office-of-profit
issue was buried. "I am prepared to face any penal action," Singh
said.


http://www.mumbaimirror.com/

June 09, 2006

Baloch diaspora networking with well wishers , Pakistan and Iran unhappy

Over the past few months IntelliBriefs sources in Europe got in touch with few prominent Baloch activists and leaders . Their concern about ongoing Millitary operations in Pakistan and also Iran which started recently, forced them to lobby European Parlimentarians and also organise demonstrations infront of Pakistani and Iranian Embassies --Not to mention secret meetings with western diplomats and key industry captains .

With Iran simmering with ethnic unrest , we predict US will take full advantage in supporting Baloch nationalists in sistan Baluchistan . A prominent Norway activists written a letter to Israel and US embassies( we are in receipt of that letter) requesting a meeting to discuss possible cooperation that Baloch Diaspora can extend in fighting terrorism . Though we don't know the response of Israel and US , one can be sure that these governments can engage in backdoor negotiations with these activists using their agents.

The younger generation of Baloch leaders have closed their ranks and united in their struggle against Iranian and Pakistani Governments , a feat which was never seen in Baloch Nationalism says some analysts . This time Baloch have realised that the situation is "Now or Never" , so all efforts are underway to mobilize resurces to campaign for a independent state . In this effort they are approaching all well wishers including Hindus and Jews . Sources say hindu groups are in touch with Baloch activists and constantly advising them , however when IntelliBriefs contacted some groups they deny such links .

A Pakistani intelligence official pointed out a Hindutva website, HinduUnity.org's forum and said "these guys are fanning Baloch 'terror' attacks and call them as Freedom Fighters" . A Hindu Unity activist countered by saying "Hindus are just extending moral support to balochis , who are the rightful owners of Baloch land. Time has come to punjabi Jihadis to fold their tail between their legs and leave Balochistan ", and further said that it would be the end of Pakistan as a Nation . IntelliBriefs when spoke with Indians who keep tabs on south asian afairs say Pakistan is in the final stage of balkanization , one can see all signs , and cautioned Indian leadership to take necessary steps.

Speaking on condition of anonymity a retired Pakistani Millitary official said , "this time we are at receiving end , they(baloch) made our army immobile and morale of our guys is at all time low " .

For now Baloch nationalists are in upper hand , not a single day passes without a rocket attack on Pakistani army and blowing up of Railway tracks .

Why Rajive Gandhi was killed ?

Sonia Khan is the Vatican Agent in India. Once Rajiv Khan came to know of this being a true Muslim he started sidelining her. But on the advice of Vatican and with the help of Tamil criminals she got rid of Rajiv Khan. She would have become PM but for stock market Collapse in Mumbai. But now she is more dangerous not being PM. She takes the advice from her Christian friends like punk Rajashekara Reddy Langda Jaipal Reddy, Johns, Oscars, Margarets, Thomases, Chandies, Anthonys and many Kerala antinationals to rapidly convert India into a Christian Nation

Pramod/Rahul Mahajan Conspiracy? Sonia or Dawood

Pramod/Rahul Mahajan Conspiracy? Sonia or Dawood

The conspiracy theory (whispers) is supported by the
following arguments: Last few lines of the article are
very interesting

(A) PRAMOD MAHAJAN CASE

(1) Why did the police assume the argument of pravin
100% true?

(2) Why do the police not disclose the name of
persons those were in contact with Pravin the day
before and on the day of incident?

(3) Why Pravin did take one and a half hour to reach
his brother's house instead of 20 minutes?

(4) Why did the police not tracked the phone records
of the persons with whom Pravin Mahajan was in contact

(5) Why did the police ignore the fact that Pravin
Mahajan has joined congress party one month prior to
the incident

(6) Motive of the murder was not disclosed too.

(7) Two murders and one attempt to murder within one
month but why the Delhi police and Mumbai police are
ignoring the conspiracy angle instead they are
manipulating


(B) RAHUL MAHAJAN CASE

(1) Why were the arguments of three boys (Rahul
Malhotra, Tishay Khanna and Karan Ahuja) assumed as
100% true

(2) Why was the three boys (Rahul Malhotra, Tishay
Khanna and Karan Ahuja) left Scot free. If the case
has belonged to narcotics then it was the duty of the
police to take the boys for medical test to find
weather they too had consumed narcotics or not

(3) The police ignored the fact that the boys (Rahul
Malhotra, Tishay Khanna and Karan Ahuja) went straight
to the "narcotic lawyer". how did they know that
narcotics were responsible for the condition of RAHUL
MAHAJAN/VIVEK MATRA

(4) Why the police did ignored the telephone record
of Sahil which was partially disclosed by AAJ TAK
channel later. According to AAJ TAK the Sahil has made
18 calls to a Mumbai based drug dealer Abdullah that
night. Sahil also made several calls to a famous model
(daughter of a police officer) after the incident. Why
was a film producer also contacted by sahil? Telephone
records of all of the above persons could have yielded
facts.

(5) Abdulla also involved in black dollar scam and
African e-mail scams

(6) Sahil has selected Memon as his lawyer .who is a
lawyer of Dawood.

The surname of Dawood is also memon.
"drug+mumbai+Africa+Saudi Arabia+memon=Dawood" isn't
it?

(7) Why does the police ignore terrorism angle
(because sahil belongs to J&K)

(8) Why didn't the police get tested the blood
samples of servants for consuming narcotics

(9) What was the urgency to question RAHUL in ICU?
The police has arrested RAHUL in ICU itself. he was
denied a meeting with his lawyer

(10) Why did the police pressurized the Apollo doctors
to relieve RAHUL from the hospital even though he was
not fit

(11) IF RAHUL was addicted to drugs why his body
didn't shown any symptom of addiction during his
police custody

(12) The police didn't mentioned the quantity of the
drug seized in FIR but now says it was 7 Gms

(13) The police is providing the court the report of
blood samples of RAHUL as positive but the report is
based on samples of RAHUL in police custody but what
about the previous reports (or the police has
deliberately given him narcotics by some means food
etc.

(14) When the police denied of "police custody of
RAHUL by the courts then the police is eager to lodge
the FIR against Apollo Hospital what was the police
ding up till now

(15)Why the police is trying too much to prove the
victim as culprit but what about the three boys (Rahul
Malhotra, Tishay Khanna and Karan Ahuja)

(16) According to police they have consumed the
narcotics using 500 Rs. notes but did the police
seized the remains of the brunt currency and presented
them before the courts?

(17) Two murders and one attempt to murder within one
month but why the Delhi police and Mumbai police are
ignoring the conspiracy angle instead they are
manipulating

All of the above points show that the police is
working under pressure that is why we listening
whispers of a conspiracy the common names in whispers
are Dawood: read point no. 6 of this article Sonia
Gandhi: she is known to remove all her competitors
from her way (read views of Subramanian swami an
earlier Gandhi family loyalist about the deaths
(murders!) of Madhav Rao Scindia, Rajesh Piolet, and
Jitender Prasad at

http://india.indymedia.org/
en/2004/08/209639.shtml

Do You Know Your Sonia? By Dr. Subramanian Swamy).
Moreover pravin mahajan has joined congress one month
prior to death of Pramod Mahajan


Sharad Pawar: close link with Dawood no secret

Some people are linking recent change of guards in J&K
to the incident (Gulam Nabi Azad)

PRESIDENT’S ADDRESS AT THE FIRST CONVOCATION OF THE DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY

PRESIDENT’S ADDRESS AT THE FIRST CONVOCATION OF THE DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY


Following is the text of the President, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam’s address at the first convocation of the Defence Institute of Advanced Technology in Pune today:



Research-Teaching-Research

“I am delighted to participate in the first Convocation of the Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT) in the serene ambience of Kadakhavasala lake in the beautiful city of Pune. I greet the Chancellor, Vice-chancellor, Scientific Adviser to the Raksha Mantri, Faculty Members, students and distinguished guests. I congratulate the first batch of student officers who are obtaining the masters degree in different disciplines in engineering and technology relevant to defence systems. I compliment the faculty members for shaping the young minds who will be enriching their institutions after joining their parent units. I have selected the topic for discussion as ‘Research-Teaching-Research.’

Su 30 Experience: Just now I was on board in the flight of Su 30 MKI. It is a high performance, high payload carrying capacity, long range fighter system. When the flight advanced and I was in the cruise phase, I realized that Indian Air Force has a unique fighter system in the world. It can be made into a force multiplier through the use of three BrahMos Missile, two on the wings and one under the belly. With mid-air fueling capability, Su 30 MKI integrated with BrahMos configuration will be the best fighter in the world at least for a decade. Of course the aircraft has to go through certain modifications.

I have a message for the students who are graduating today: All the advances in technology in various fields have emerged only by the spirit and enthusiasm of young to think different and to do differently and be creative. I am sure, DIAT has injected this unique trait in all of you. Now I would like to discuss about the capacities to be built among the students of DIAT.

Capacity Building

A good educational model is the need of the hour to ensure that the students from DIAT grow to contribute towards the research and development tasks of the defence services. Can we sow the seeds of capacity building among the students? There will be continuous innovation during the learning process. To realize this, special capacities are required to be built in the DIAT education system for nurturing the students. The capacities which are required to be built are research and enquiry, creativity and innovation, use of high technology, quality and evaluation management and interfacing with the user services.

Research and enquiry: The 21st century is about the management of all the knowledge and information we have generated and the value addition we bring to it. We must give our students the skills with which they find a way through the sea of knowledge that we have created and continue with life long learning. Today, we have the ability, through technology, to really and truly teach ourselves to become the life-long learners. This is required for sustained promotion of quality research and development.

Creativity and innovation: The management of knowledge in the 21st century is beyond the capacity of a single individual. The amount of information that we have around is overwhelming. The management of knowledge therefore must move out of the realm of the individual and shift into the realm of the networked groups. The students must learn how to manage knowledge collectively. When the information is networked the power and utility of the information grows as square as stated by Metcalfe's law. When Information is static, it does not grow. In the new digital economy, information that is transmitted creates innovation and contributes to national wealth.

Capacity to use high technology: Every student in DIAT should learn to know how to use the latest technologies for aiding his or her learning process. DIAT should equip themselves with adequate computing equipment, multi-media laboratory, simulation equipment, state-of-the-art research laboratory, fast access internet facilities and provide an environment for the students to enhance their learning ability through research and development exercises. In the midst of all the technological innovations and revolutions we cannot think that the role of the faculty members will be diminished. In fact the faculty members will become even more important and the research education will become faculty assisted and would help in ‘tele-porting’ the best faculty to every nook and corner of the country and propagate the knowledge in different DRDO laboratories.

Quality and Evaluation Management: The quality and evaluation of research is an important component of research. Students from DIAT have to acquire this knowledge right from the beginning so that spirit of quality is inculcated among the student' which will enable them to ensure quality research output in their subsequent career. In addition the students should be exposed to modern techniques of concurrent engineering and virtual reality walk through, rapid proto-typing etc. so that the total time between concept to design and production is substantially reduce in the competitive world.

Interfacing with user services: Interfacing with user services is a unique feature of defence research and development. We must fully understand that the product has got to be used finally by the users. Hence, the user has got to participate in the development process right from the concept through design, proto-type production and finally quantity production. The user feedback is an important input for ensuring quality development of products. Design team must get acquainted with this philosophy and ensure that they have regular interaction with the user keeping the end goal of the product in mind. Also, it is essential to minimize the design, development and quantity production time so that online changes in the user qualitative requirement of product are minimized. This methodology was adopted in missile programme for design, development and productionization of AGNI, PRITHVI and the integrated electronic warfare system.

In sum, inquiry, creativity, technology, evaluation and quality management and interface with the user services are the five capacities required to be built through the education process in DIAT. If we develop in all our students these five capacities, we will produce "Autonomous Learner" a self-directed, self controlled, lifelong learner who will have the capacity to deliver the best of products for our defence services, thus promoting self-reliance in defence systems. The most important part of the education in DIAT is to imbibe the confidence among the students is the spirit of "we can do it". The students, when they go to their parent establishment, they will have two great qualities.

a. Confidence of using indigenously designed and developed system.

b. The importance of building capacity to promote self-reliance in defence technology.

Now, I would like to discuss the importance of research in our university system.

Research-Teaching-Research

Any University is judged by the level and extent of the research work it accomplishes. This sets in a regenerative cycle of excellence. Experience of research leads to quality teaching and quality teaching imparted to the young in turn enriches the research. Research brings transformation and development and also enhances the quality of education. DIAT should facilitate high end researchers to come and carryout quality research in the DIAT laboratories. This will enable DIAT to attract quality faculty to join them which in turn enable DIAT to attract best talents from the country and abroad. Certain battle scenario of Armed Forces, certain successful experience in indigenous development of defence systems by our scientists and technologists should become part of the curriculum of DIAT. From 2007 onwards, every year, at least 10 students should register for Ph.D. programme in DIAT for research in different areas of challenging defence technologies. Progressively DIAT may like to induct at least 20% students directly from universities, 20% students from DRDO and the balance 60% from the three services. Also, Defence Ministry may like to evolve a policy through which at least 50% of the Armed Forces students work on research and development tasks for a minimum period of three years after completing the DIAT course. Now, I would like to give few examples of how denial and non-availability becomes a research challenge to the human minds and I would like to narrate some experiences.

Meeting the computational challenge: AGNI programme

Let me share with you the development of hypersonic missile system AGNI missile, a long range missile. When AGNI re-enters in the atmosphere, it experiences a high enthalpy with the temperature of 4000oK all around the heat shield and the nose cone. We had then designed and developed the structure using a material based on Carbon-Carbon which can withstand this high temperature. The problem we faced was to simulate the external aerodynamic flow in the subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic speed regime. In India, we can externally simulate subsonic, sonic and supersonic flow. But in 1989, we did not have a hypersonic wind tunnel facility and also for AGNI class of missiles, developed countries did not give their wind tunnel facility to be used because of the technology denial. Hence, in that situation, we had to resolve the problem only through CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). CFD was then a new field. In India, CFD groups were in formation stage at various institutions. Prof SR Deshpande, IISc (Indian Institute of Science), Bangalore and Dr. KP Singh from ADA and their teams were pioneering in this area. About 20 members were in CFD team from various organizations. When CFD problem was formulated initially, the computational time in an IBM computer needed 240 hours. At that time, we neither had so many computers in India nor the adequate time. Prof Deshpande and the DRDL team evolved what is called "kinetic energy split methodology". The problem which needed from very large computer time was solved with 1/10th of the computer time using elegant methods by suitably segmenting the problem. Also, it triggered the necessity of design and development of super computers in the country. This led to the birth of super computers. Today, India has PACE+256, a parallel computing facility with one Terra Flop capacity for advanced CFD solutions. The evolution of Grid Computing which has got tremendous potential in connecting multiple locations and utilizing the computing power from different institutions is in progress in India. I am giving you this example so that when you face such challenges in your institutions you can find innovative methods by which you can progress the development tasks instead of getting defeated due to the non-availability of certain facility. Now I would like to narrate the methodology adopted by LCA team for progressing research when technological sanction was imposed by USA after 1998 event.

Technology denial and management Challenge: LCA

In the year 1992, LCA team decided to go for Digital-Fly-by-Wire Control System (FCS) for the Combat Aircraft as it is an unstable aircraft. At that time, the country did not have the experience in developing FCS. The only two countries who had the experience were France and US. The French company (Dassault System) had expertise in Hybrid systems whereas our need was an all Digital-Fly-by-Wire. Hence, it was thought appropriate to have a US partner who has the capability in design, development and integration of FCS on fighter aircraft. There were three candidates, LMCS, USA; Lear Astronics and Bendix. Finally, we chose LMCS for the contract since they had the experience in designing FCS for F-16 Aircraft. Joint Team for design and development of the FCS was formed with ADE (DRDO Lab) and LMCS. The work share between Indian team and LMCS team was identified. Evolution of the SRS (Software Requirement Specification) was the joint effort. The prototype flight control computer was to be done by ADE. Total system integration of FCS was the joint responsibility. Flight certification was to be provided by LMCS, USA.

The $40 million contract was progressing to meet the required schedule. Then as you all are aware, India became a nuclear weapon state in May 1998. As soon as this event occurred the American Government imposed technological and economic sanction. Due to the sanction, LMCS, USA broke the contract and retained all the Indian equipment, software and the technical information which were in their premises.

This was definitely a challenging mission for the Indian team. There was a crisis. Immediately, we had an urgent task team meeting with Directors and their team from ADA, NAL, ADE, CAIR, HAL, National Flight Test Center, Prof I.G. Sharma of IISc a renowned control system specialist, Prof T.K. Ghoshal of Jadavpur University, a digital control system expert and guidance and control specialists from DRDL and ISRO. We had a full day discussion on the methodology required to be followed through which we can successfully complete the development of digital fly by wire system and fly the LCA. The team, after prolonged deliberations gave a structured method by which the development can be completed and the system can be certified for flight trials. They also mentioned that they will support the programme in whatever capacity they have to work with the ADE and ADA teams.

Based on the recommendations of the specialists we immediately strengthened the ADE software team with additional ten experienced software engineers from ADA. ADA was given the responsibility of verification and validation of software. Integrated flight control system review committee was constituted with Director (ADE) as Chairman and PGD (ADA) as Co-chairman to support development and resolve all the conflicts arising between Control Law Team, Iron Bird, Software, Hardware and simulation. This team met once in a week and brought out all the issues arising in different work centers and solutions were found. In addition, Iron Bird (A test platform of Flight Control System) review team was formed with Project Director Flight Control System as Chairman with members from HAL, ADA, ADE, certification agency (CEMILAC) and Test Pilots from National Flight Test Center as Members. This team also met every week and resolved all the problems arising in the development and Test on Iron Bird. Any deviation in the PERT Chart or any difficulty, team members could directly bring the problem for discussion when I met them every alternate Saturday of the month. We also introduced participation of certification agency (CEMILAC) and inspection agency (CRI) in all these reviews. The aim was to see that any problem in any system is brought into focus at the earliest so that the solution can be found. In addition, we made it a point to have a special agenda in the monthly technical committee meeting on the development of integrated flight control system wherein Director (ADE), Director (NAL), Director (National Flight Test Center), General Manager (HAL) presented the progress and problems. The confidence building took place by intensifying the tests. For example informal Iron Bird test was carried out over thousand hours and the formal Iron Bird test was conducted over hundred and fifty hours. Similarly, Pilot flew the LCA simulator for more than two thousand hours. Thus, what we missed from the foreign partner, we compensated by enhancing the design, critical design review and increasing the test time to ensure safe man rated design of the integrated flight control system. This gave the confidence to the user, the Air Force.

The entire team took the denial as a national challenge. They said if it is going to take three years we will do it in two years. If it is going to take twenty million dollars we will do it in ten million dollars. Our working hours was not eight hours. We will work round the clock and complete the task. That was the time I realized the power of Indian Scientific Community, and the power of our country. I realized that no country can dominate us by imposing technological sanction or economic sanction. The power of scientific team will defeat the denials of any nation. Today I can proudly say that our scientists have designed, developed, tested, evaluated, and integrated the integrated flight control system in the LCA which has logged more than 500 trouble free flight sorties in four different aircrafts. Fifth LCA aircraft is getting ready and LSP (Limited Series Production) has already commenced.

This whole experience how our Indian team worked and faced the managerial and technological challenge should become a part of the course material of DIAT. Now I would like to discuss the need for simulation and virtual reality research facility at DIAT.

Simulation and Virtual Reality

With the advancement in technology and the increasing availability of power in the computer, digital simulation, hardware-in-loop simulation and virtual reality simulation are the important part of warfare both as a training tool and as an operational system. Large simulation facilities should be established in DIAT, including a virtual Reality Laboratory. The experiences of Armed Forces, needs of Armed Forces and the knowledge of Academic Institutions both civil and military must be fully used. This simulation facility including virtual reality laboratory and the experts in the field should become a unique R&D facility in the country. Many courses are to be designed and research area can emanate from the facility available in DIAT. This Virtual Reality Laboratory has to be known to researchers in the world.

High bandwidth and High definition - multimedia system for DIAT

I would like to share with you my recent experience which took place on 31 May 2006. I addressed the US-India summit on Education, Research and Technology organized by University of California, Santiago and Cal-IT2. It is a unique Multimedia Tele-Conference between India and USA through a high bandwidth network. The High Definition systems has been used at both ends and using the Virtual tele-education platform from Rashtrapati Bhavan Multimedia Studio. An integrated action by number of public and private organizations both from India and USA worked together to establish the hassle free high bandwidth connectivity between Rashtrapati Bhavan and UCSD. Through this high bandwidth connectivity the US audience felt my virtual presence in their hall through a high definition projection system in big screen for the whole duration of my lecture and interactive question answer session for around 90 minutes. Even though it was virtual, I felt that the audience was really with me who were really 12,000 km away. During the lecture, I could refer my website, digital library, whiteboard along with my PowerPoint presentation on line through the Virtual Tele-ED platform. This experience made me realize the power of technology as an integrator of minds leading to a borderless world with out the barriers of geography, religion and culture - a symbol of universalisation. This power of networking can be established in DIAT with research input so that it is useful to the research laboratories and Armed Forces.

Conclusion: Indomitable Spirit

On the occasion of the first convocation of DIAT, I thought of conveying an inspiring message to the graduating students. I would like to recall a great clarion call of indomitable spirit, which was given by Sir C V Raman, at the age of 82. The message is still reverberating in my mind: ‘I would like to tell the young men and women before me not to lose hope and courage. Success can only come to you by courageous devotion to the task lying in front of you. I can assert without fear of contradiction that the quality of the Indian mind is equal to the quality of any Teutonic, Nordic or Anglo-Saxon mind. What we lack is perhaps courage, what we lack is perhaps driving force, which takes one anywhere. We have, I think, developed an inferiority complex. I think what is needed in India today is the destruction of that defeatist spirit. We need a spirit of victory, a spirit that will carry us to our rightful place under the sun, a spirit, which will recognize that we, as inheritors of a proud civilization, are entitled to a rightful place on this planet. If that indomitable spirit were to arise, nothing can hold us from achieving our rightful destiny.’

Once again let me congratulate all the students obtaining their masters degree in different disciplines of engineering and technology. My wishes to the members of DIAT for success in their mission of capacity building among students for pursuing high quality missions towards national security.

May God bless you.

June 08, 2006

Why I Said No To Musharraf

Author: Amir Mir

Publication: Outlook

Date: June 12, 2006

URL:
http://www.outlookindia.com

Introduction: Because he has stifled democracy, says Outlook's Lahore
correspondent

"The APNS award in the category of the Best Investigative Report goes to
Mr Amir Mir of the monthly, Herald. But the award cannot be given to him
right now and the president of the All Pakistan Newspapers Society
(APNS), Mir Shakilur Rehman, would honour Amir Mir once the award
distribution ceremony is over," so said the man conducting the annual
APNS award distribution ceremony in Islamabad, on May 26. On the rostrum
stood the chief guest of the function, Pakistan President Pervez
Musharraf, looking as impassive as ever.

But the announcement surprised me. Here I was sitting in the hall of a
five-star hotel, waiting to receive the prestigious award for which I
had travelled all the way from Lahore. Yet, I must confess, I had
prepared myself for any eventuality-the very presence of Musharraf
prompts such caution.

The script for the ceremony was supposed to be a trifle different. Let
me explain: a little before the ceremony began, at the time of entering
the hall, I had handed over a letter to APNS president Mir Shakilur
Rehman. The letter expressed, politely, my inability to receive the
award "from a military dictator-General Pervez Musharraf-who has
violated the Constitution time and again and has no respect for the
supreme law of the land". This apart, ask yourself: can you receive an
award for best investigative report from a man who doesn't believe in
freedom of _expression and can't tolerate opinions different from his?
Farce, too, must have its limits.

Hardly had I handed over the letter, minutes after it had been glanced
at, than the hall buzzed with quivering voices. A veritable war of words
ensued between me and APNS office-bearers. They were unwilling to
"spoil" the ceremony or annoy the man who's both the Chief of Army Staff
and President of Pakistan. It isn't that I detest Musharraf beyond
forgiveness; it's just that I love my principles more.

I don't know what Musharraf loves. But it isn't the Constitution. He
staged a coup following then PM Nawaz Sharif's decision to invoke his
constitutional powers to remove him as army chief. He had himself
elected as president via a farcical referendum, sweeping aside the
constitutional requirement of seeking Parliament's endorsement. Again,
anyone violating the 1973 constitution, under its Article 6, is to be
tried for treason. My dilemma: how do you shake hands and receive an
award from a 'traitor' in uniform?

Adherence to democratic principles has been my inheritance. My father,
Prof Waris Mir, was a fiery journalist who adopted a defiant posture
against Gen Zia-ul Haq, another president in uniform. He died at the age
of 48 because of the pressure, and ensuing mental torture, inflicted on
him by the Zia regime. You can't let your father down, can you?

As APNS office-bearers tried to persuade me to receive the award from
Musharraf, I told them I could but I would also tell him that he's a
usurper. They said either I agree to receive the award from Musharraf or
return home empty-handed. Believing a compromise would violate my
father's memory, I refused to rescind my position.

The general arrived, in a dinner suit, surrounded by commandos. The APNS
president made the opening speech, commending the government for
providing a breathing space to TV channels but holding it guilty for
stifling the print media. His speech kindled the hope in me of not
returning empty-handed from the ceremony.

Then came the general's turn to speak. He said he had liberally granted
freedom of _expression and speech to journalists, even to those
overstepping their limits and hurting the national interest.

Freedom of _expression, overstepping limits, national interest-sweet
words these, conveying noble sentiments.They acquire quite another
meaning when you are removed from the post of editor, as I was from the
Weekly Independent in 2003, under military pressure. My crime? I used
to, as I still do, write for Outlook magazine. That's enough for
Musharraf to label you an 'Indian agent'. In November 2003, my car was
torched. My crime? I had authored a book, The True Face of Jehadis, and
written a piece in Outlook on Dawood Ibrahim's whereabouts. Days before
the incident, at an iftar dinner hosted for newspaper editors in
Islamabad, Musharraf had called me an 'Indian agent' bent upon playing
havoc with the national interest.

Subsequently, I joined the Herald of the Dawn Group of newspapers. Soon,
the owners were convinced by the Musharraf regime about my 'anti-state'
credentials. I was sacked from there as well. Look at the delicious
irony: the freedom-loving general was supposed to award me for an
investigative report I had done for the Herald.

Postscript: at the APNS ceremony, there were plenty of renewed pledges
to freedom of _expression and speech. And, yes, I returned empty-handed
to Lahore.

India's emerging drug market

By Siddharth Srivastava

NEW DELHI - Two recent incidents have brought into focus the rampant abuse and smuggling of drugs in India. In one of the biggest narcotics seizures in the country, the Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) on Sunday seized 200 kilograms of cocaine in Mumbai, valued at close to US$25 million on the international market (according to latest reports the cocaine seized is of the highest value and could be worth over $125 million). The cocaine was seized from a container at Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust in Mumbai.

In the recent past, officials have been keeping a strict vigil as they expected illegal shipments timed to the World Cup, with delirious fans taking to alcohol and drug binges. Officials have said that the seizure is the biggest in Asia, more than the total seized in India



in the past 10 years and overtaking the 142kg confiscated in China this year, after a joint operation with Hong Kong and the United States.

In the other instance, Rahul Mahajan, the son of the late Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) leader Pramod Mahajan, was admitted to a Delhi hospital in serious condition on a suspected drug overdose (either heroin or cocaine).

A political aide who apparently accompanied Rahul died. Pramod, a senior leader of the BJP known for his jet-setting lifestyle and party fundraising ability and a strong contender to take over from stalwarts L K Advani and Atal Bihari Vajpayee, was shot dead by his envious younger brother just a few weeks back.

Rahul, brought up on the quick-riches lifestyle of his father, seems to have fallen prey to the white powder, like many more. Experts say India is home to more than 70 million drug addicts, including a million who use illicit drugs. Although the media have been in a tizzy about the range of possibilities, including attempted murder, there seems to be no doubt that Rahul had consumed contraband drugs.

Police in Mumbai have said that the cocaine seized in the big bust could be for local consumption and was routed from Colombia via Hong Kong.

In a related development, because of persistent efforts by New Delhi, last week Washington added Dawood Ibrahim, India's most wanted criminal, to its narcotics traffickers' list, a move that bars him from using the US financial system to carry out transactions with US firms.

Ibrahim escaped from India more than a decade ago after involvement in the 1993 bomb blasts in Mumbai that killed more than 260 people. But most police officials believe that Dawood is a spent force now, and drug trafficking is now in the hands of other cartels.

The Mumbai seizure brings into focus what has been feared all along - India has turned into a major transit point for drugs (whether heroin or cocaine) from drug-producing countries such as Afghanistan, Pakistan and Myanmar. It has been put under close scrutiny by authorities across the world.

Cocaine parcels originating from Colombia or other South American countries, such as Mexico or Brazil, are being routed through India to countries such as United States, the United Kingdom, Spain and Portugal or for further distribution in the fast-growing economies of Southeast Asia. Otherwise, they are used for internal consumption in the country by an increasingly prosperous Indian youth. The cocaine trade is closely controlled by the Colombian cartel, while 80% of heroin trade is sourced from Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Conservative estimates suggest there are 14 million cocaine users worldwide and the global turnover of the trade is about $200 billion. The illegal trade in heroin via India is estimated to be more than $5 billion.

Mumbai, India's financial capital, port city and the trade gateway on the west coast has been the center of such trade for a long time, earning the dubious distinction of being India's drug gateway.

The police believe that the international drug cartels in India are run by Nigerians (who have an easy access via student visas) who also use New Delhi and Mumbai as transit points for trafficking drugs to most parts of Asia. Others smuggle it to Nigeria, where heroin is refined and sold to Western countries.

In the past 17 months, 36 Nigerians have been arrested with an overall haul of 230kg of heroin and 930 grams of cocaine in New Delhi. Police have also recovered 20,000 tablets of drugs, including Ecstasy. Last October, police seized 35kg of heroin in the capital worth close to $1 million on the international market.

Many Afghans have also been picked up. Indian officials say that despite contrary claims by the US, there has been a huge increase in smuggling of heroin via the land route into the state of Punjab. The Taliban are said to control the poppy cultivating areas. According to reports, in India 100g of cocaine is traded for 1kg of pure heroin, the cost of which is estimated at $250,000 in the international market.

An official has been quoted by the Indo-Asian News Service as saying: "The failure of the governments in Afghanistan and Pakistan to control the drug trade has led to an increase in drug trafficking in India, especially New Delhi. Cartels are focusing on New Delhi as it is the best-connected city in South Asia and also a growing market in itself. Furthermore, these cartels are trying to establish linkages in other metros of the country," he said.

Experts warn that the above episodes should also bring to focus that India is being considered as an emerging drug market by cartels because of high incomes being earned by the younger generation, many gainfully employed in the booming services sector. Cocaine, a stimulant, is seen as the drug of the rich youth.

"The number of drug-abuse cases has gone up by 50% in the last few years and, unlike in the past, most drug-abuse patients these days are adolescents,'' Delhi's leading psychiatrist, Samir Parekh, has been quoted in a newspaper as saying, "Glamorization of drugs and their easy availability are among the major driving forces.''

Conservative estimates peg the total annual intake of cocaine by addicts in the country to about 100-120kg, the bulk of which is consumed by the rich and famous in four cities: Mumbai, Delhi, Pune and Bangalore. The consumption of heroin is estimated to be more than 1,000kg. The figures are expected to increase fast in the near future.

"Because of the decline of cocaine usage in the West, international drug mafias are looking toward India as the new market," NCB zonal director, North Region, A Shankar Rao has said.

A 2005 United Nations report says consumption of cocaine has declined in North America, which until now had two-thirds of the total cocaine users worldwide.

Siddharth Srivastava is a New Delhi-based journalist.

(Copyright 2006 Asia Times Online Ltd. All rights reserved. Please contact us about sales, syndication and republishing .)

June 07, 2006

World Knowledge Platform : APJ Abdul Kalam's address at the Innovation and Leadership Forum

President APJ Abdul Kalam's address at the Innovation and Leadership Forum, Bangalore, 06-06-2006

World Knowledge Platform

I am indeed delighted to participate in the Innovation and Leadership Forum organized by the IBM Corporation. I greet all the business leaders, academicians, financial analysts, young scientists and engineers, investors and members of IBM community.

Visionary Leaders make the nation great

IBM Founder: The phenomenal growth of IBM has arisen due to the motivational and visionary slogan "THINK", of the founder of IBM, Thomas J Watson. This slogan reminds me of my call to the children "Thinking provides knowledge, Knowledge makes you great". During the 20th century, computer industry has undergone very rapid change and the prediction for 21st century is: the performance of the computers may challenge the human mind. When I read the book on "The Maverick and his Machine - Thomas Watson Sr. and the making of IBM", I realize how one man's vision has led the organization to became a global giant in computer science and technology. In reality, I am seeing in front of me, how the vision "THINK" of Watson has crossed the Atlantic Ocean and become global and borderless. Today I am witnessing here the impact of IBM in India and Indian youth which is a beautiful tribute to the founder of IBM. From the tabulating machine business in the early part of 20th century, IBM Corporation today has become a $91 billion information technology company with teams of about 3.5 lakh knowledge workers in 75 countries around the world, serving over 174 clients speaking more than 165 languages.

Indian Space Visionary: Now I would like to share with you, India's great visionary in space science and space technologies Prof. Vikram Sarabhai, who was my Guru. Very rarely, in the life journey, great human beings influence one's life. I was fortunate to work with Prof. Vikram Sarabhai for seven years. While working closely with him, I saw the dawn of the vision for the space programme in a one page statement. Witnessing the evolution of this one page by many years of ceaseless work by a cosmic ray physicist, a great scientific mind was really a great learning for me. Also I was thrilled to see the famous vision statement of Prof Vikram Sarabhai made in the year 1970 which states "India with her mighty scientific knowledge and power house of young, should build her own huge rocket systems (satellite launch vehicles) and also build her own communication, remote sensing and meteorological spacecraft and launch from her own soil to enrich the Indian life in satellite communication, remote sensing and meteorology." When I look at this vision statement now, I am overwhelmed to see the results of this statement. Today, India can build any type of satellite launch vehicle, any type of spacecraft and launch from Indian soil and also it has all the capability with its mighty facilities and powerful human resource. The ICT has made tremendous contribution towards the high performance onboard computers and advanced embedded software systems in the Indian launch vehicles and spacecraft programmes. Through space technology and space science, India can be a partner in the world space programme to enrich the planet earth and further exploration.

These visionary leaders have created great organizations and enriched the nations' economic prosperity. Now let me discuss what our future technological challenges are.

Can computer challenge the Brain?

Most of the computers of the future and accessories will be micro sized, wearable and will have wireless communication with each other. Moderately priced PCs capable of performing about a billion calculations per second today will be able to perform about a trillion calculations per second within next 10 years. It is predicted that by 2019, the computational ability of an ordinary PC would exceed the capability of human brain. By 2029, the capability of a normal PC would be around 1000 times that of the human brain. (Reference: The age of spiritual Machines by Ray Kurzweil)

My view is definitely the creativity of the human mind will always be superior to the most powerful computers in the horizon. Creativity has to be the business of IBM and other knowledge organizations.

By the end of this century, there would be a strong trend towards convergence of human thinking with the world of machine intelligence that the human species initially created. When there would no longer be any clear distinction between human and computers, how would the molecular biologists help us to retain the supremacy of man over machine? Computers are going to give us a challenge. It is not only for the ICT and biotechnologists; the entire scientific community would have greater responsibility of keeping the mankind above the man-made computers, human creativity being the prime mover. Corporations like IBM have to perform and grow in this dynamic and competitive environment.

Borderless world

I would like to share with you my recent experience which took place on 31 May 2006. I addressed the US-India summit on Education, Research and Technology organized by University of California, Santiago and Callit2. It is a unique Multimedia Tele-Conference between India and USA through a high bandwidth network. The High Definition systems has been used at both ends and using the Virtual tele-education platform from Rashtrapati Bhavan Multimedia Studio. An integrated action by a number of public and private organizations both from India and USA worked together to establish the hassle free high bandwidth connectivity between Rashtrapati Bhavan and UCSD. Through this high bandwidth connectivity, the US audience felt my virtual presence in their hall through a high definition projection system in big screen for the whole duration of my lecture and interactive question answer session for around 90 minutes. I felt that the audience was really with me, even though it is virtual and 12,000 km away. During the lecture, I could refer my website, digital library, whiteboard along with my power point presentation on line through the Virtual Tele-ED platform. This experience made me realize the power of technology as an integrator of minds leading to a borderless world without geographical barriers ? a symbol of universalisation. This power of networking can definitely be used by IBM and other knowledge enterprises in India to work for a common goal which leads to economic prosperity.

Creativity

In a knowledge society, we have to make innovations continuously. Innovations come through creativity. Creativity comes from beautiful minds. It can be anywhere and any part of the world. It may start from a fisherman hamlet or a farmer's household or a dairy farm or cattle breeding center or it emanates from class rooms or labs or industries or R&D centers. Creativity has got multi dimensions like inventions, discoveries and innovations. Creative mind has the ability to imagine or invent something new by combining, changing or reapplying existing ideas. Creative person has an attitude to accept change and newness, a willingness to play with ideas and possibilities, a flexibility of outlook, the habit of enjoying the good, while looking for ways to improve it. Creativity is a process through which, we can continuously improve ideas and find unique solutions by making gradual alterations and refinements to our works. The important aspect of creativity is: seeing the same thing as everybody else, but thinking of something different.

Think of a non-linear product jointly

IBM is traditionally driven by Watson's vision of "thinking" as a launch pad. I was thinking what can be launched from IBM's launch pad, particularly from India. Can IBM and an Indian enterprises and academic institutions with their combined core competence launch a system or a product that will be new to the world as Watson's "THINK" slogan made a great change to the world of computers' Can India and IBM think together for design, develop, produce and market nano computers with 10 terabytes/inch2 in 8 nano meters size chip Is it possible? I am sure you may have many experiences. Let me share with you a unique experience of developing a complex system through a joint venture using the core competence of two nations, which may be useful for the people who are assembled here and also who are witnessing the programme in different parts of the world. The technological cooperation of the two countries, the managerial cooperation of the two nations and the investment of around two hundred million dollars by each nation has enabled the realization of Supersonic Cruise missile called BrahMos within 5 years. This is the only supersonic cruise missile in the world today. Let me discuss about the joint venture experience between India and Russia.

Supersonic Cruise Missile

One of the significant technological breakthroughs of 2005 is the design, development and productionization of Supersonic Cruise Missile-BRAHMOS by an Indo-Russian joint venture. BrahMos is the first supersonic operational cruise missile in the world which can be launched from multiple platforms such as ships, submarines, road mobile and silo, and with modifications from aircraft. This is indeed the result of technological co-operation leading to operational system. The supersonic speed is achieved by a liquid ramjet engine and the guidance is through powerful software embedded in the on-board avionics integrated with high performance sensors. The fast response Inertial guidance system with software injected sensors and agile homing head enables the missile to achieve variety of trajectories flying at speed Mach 2.8 and destroy the target with high accuracy.

The flight trajectories are simulated through a modular, digital and fully automated Fire Control System which has advanced software for way point maneuvering, with supersonic speed to provide high operational capabilities. This technological innovation is the trend setter in the cruise missile field. The robust design of the missile, elaborate ground tests and simulation has ensured 100 percent success rate in all the flight tests conducted for the Armed Forces by the joint venture company. In successful design, development, production and marketing of BRAHMOS missile, an innovative way of technology co-operation has emerged between India and other countries for multi-billion dollar business. Based on this experience, I am suggesting the creation of a World Knowledge Platform for realization of world class products for commercial applications using the core competencies of partner countries which will meet the needs of many nations. I am seeing in front of me, an IBM Indian environment, I would like to discuss with you friends, how to evolve commercially competitive, world class products or systems that can come out of certain unique core competence of IBM Corporation and Indian knowledge industries. This is indeed a great challenge, something bigger than BrahMos for commercial world. How to achieve it? I am putting forth certain thoughts.

World Knowledge Platform

During my recent visit to Singapore, Philippines and Republic of Korea, I put forward the concept of "World Knowledge Platform", which will integrate the core competencies of the partner countries to develop knowledge products. I have also proposed this concept in my address to the US-India Summit, organized by University of California, Santiago on 31 May 2006. This world knowledge platform will enable joint design, development, cost effective production and marketing of the knowledge products in various domains.

Global Knowledge Connectivity: Initially, the mission of World Knowledge Platform is to connect and network the R&D Institutions, Universities and Industries using fiber broadband from the partner nations on selected R&D missions. The underground fiber cable infrastructure already exists among many partners. This global knowledge connectivity will support multitude of seamless connections supporting both synchronous and asynchronous communication, carrying either text or audio and video in a multimedia environment. We can then use this network in the academic environments to teach courses online and share expensive equipments remotely. In the Industrial environment, it can be used to design complex systems ? even ones that are as complex as an aircraft in a collaborative way using virtual prototyping concepts in the cyber space. I realize, the impact of ICT and the power of networks in every domain of our life. For the development of any system or products the power of connectivity and collaborative effort is the key, which is the basic foundation for the World Knowledge Platform.

Missions of World Knowledge Platform: The convergence of Bio, Nano and ICT is expected to touch every area of concern to the humanity. The "World Knowledge Platform" will take up missions, in some of the areas given below, which are of utmost urgency to all of us to make our world a safe, sustainable and peaceful and prosperous place to live:

1. Energy: exploration, storage, production and conversion

2. Water: treatment and desalination

3. Healthcare: Diagnosis and drug delivery system

4. Food: preservation, storage and distribution

5. Knowledge products :Hardware, Software and Networking Products

6. Automobile: Hardware and embedded software integration

7. Gene characterization, stem cell research and molecule to drug development towards the diagnosis and treatment

8. Herbal and natural products complementary to modern medicine

9. Space based systems

In addition to the areas mentioned above, electronics, ICT and automobile sectors may also be focused especially in the areas of design, development leading to productionization for meeting the market demands of the respective countries and also for world market using the core competence of partner countries. The world knowledge platform will also evolve a virtual design center with the participation of collaborating countries.

For example, to start with the following specific missions can be undertaken by World Knowledge Platform.

(a) Tablet PC

Joint design, development and manufacture of a handheld tablet Personal Computer (PC) with multilingual capability in a cost effective manner with open source operating system and software configured for the school students and the common world citizens. The students should be able to use this as a digital book, notebook and as an e-learning device, which will reduce their carrying load and will be useful for their whole educational duration. The one time investment must make the students life easy that will give them enough time to be creative in their studies. This tablet PC will have the wireless connectivity so that it can take care of the communication needs and possibly the telephone and will have sufficient video capability to act as an entertainment platform and for tele-education and telemedicine and even a hand writing recognizer that will also permit authentication for secure e-business transactions. The challenging task will be to configure, develop and produce and market the tablet PC at a cost of $150, so that students, teachers and researchers of many nations can use it. IBM can think of possible collaborations or consortium with Indian industries for the development of integrated hardware, software integrated system that will be useful to the 300 Million Indian students alone apart from the other common users, professionals and executives of multiple countries.

(b) Embedded electronic Systems

Design and development of embedded systems integrated with hardware will have tremendous application in automobile sector, railways, consumer electronics, aerospace systems, defence systems and precision manufacturing. For example, automation of railway signaling system with wireless relays which will ensure fool-proof signaling and prevent accidents. Design and development of Wi-Max standard switches, routers and access points will have a big market for last mile connectivity in many countries at an affordable cost. The concept of ?World Knowledge Platform? can be utilized by ICT companies functioning in the Information and Communication Technology sector for collaborative research, development, production and marketing of products and systems using consortium approach.

Our National Mission - Challenges

For transforming India into a developed nation and bring prosperity to all the one billion plus people, we have identified five areas where India has core competencies for integrated action: (1) Agriculture and food processing (2) Education and Healthcare (3) Information and Communication Technology (4) Infrastructure for all parts of the country such as reliable and quality electric power and surface and air transport and (5) Self-reliance in Strategic sectors. These five areas are closely inter-related and when effectively addressed, would lead to food, economic, energy and national security and lead to sustainable prosperity.

Technology based Societal Grid

70% of the one billion population of India live in six hundred thousand villages. To provide quality life style for the people living in the villages, we have evolved a rural development concept called PURA (Providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas). This involves development of physical

connectivity, electronic connectivity and knowledge connectivity to the rural clusters of 20 to 30 villages with a population of around 20,000 to 50,000 people leading to economic connectivity. The country will have around 7000 PURAs. Development of technologies and their convergence have significant influence on the society in terms of providing knowledge, health care, governance and economic development established through connectivities among them. These connectivities will certainly bring seamless access and information flow among the various domains leading to maximization of GDP and productivity; hence, there is a need for establishing the GRIDs namely Knowledge grid, healthcare grid, e-governance grid and the PURA (Providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas) grid. This interconnecting grid will be known as societal grid. Knowledge sharing, knowledge utilization and knowledge re-use are very vital by all constituents of the society for promoting non-linear growth. Details of Societal Grid are:

1. Knowledge GRID - Inter connecting universities with socio-economic institutions, industries and R&D organizations.

2. Health Care GRID - Inter-connecting the Health Care institutions of Government, Corporate and Super specialty hospitals, research institutions, educational institutions and ultimately, Pharma R & D institutions.

3. e-Governance GRID - Inter-connecting the Central Government and State Governments and District and Block level offices for G2G (Government to Government) and G2C (Government to Citizen) connectivity.

4. PURA GRID - Connecting the PURA Nodal centers with the village knowledge centers and domain service providers.

We have, so far discussed all the four connectivities required for the societal transformation of the nation. These GRIDS will help the World Knowledge Platform to enable reaching the resultant knowledge to the people directly.

Conclusion

Let us think together, what are the types of enriched partnerships possible between IBM Corporation and Indian knowledge product industry. Three distinct areas can be identified. They are, (i) Transforming India into knowledge society with innovation as the thrust area influencing the information society, industrial society and agricultural society. (ii) As you are aware India has 540 million youth below 25 years which is an important asset for the planet Earth. This dynamic resource will have two components. One, at the secondary education level supplemented with high quality vocational skills and the other at the university level. Knowledge workers will come out of this Global Human Resource Cadre. Definitely, IBM Corporation can participate in the evolution of trained human cadre. (iii) Participation in the "World Knowledge Platform" will empower the IBM Corporation (India) and the partner institutions with the collective core competence as a base.

For success in all these missions, which we have discussed so far, we need creative leaders. Creative leadership means "exercising the vision to change the traditional role from the commander to the coach, manager to mentor, from director to delegator and from one who demands respect to one who facilitates self-respect". I am sure creative leadership will spearhead all the institutions and the future aspiring institutions. For promoting growth of organization, the important thrust will be on the growth in the number of creative leaders and innovative personnel who can create wealth through dedicated management system.

Such leaders in organizations will facilitate global competitiveness and help in creation of knowledge societies in the Planet. Particularly the mission of creative leaders will be the evolution of enlightened societies through the "World Knowledge Platform".

Wish you all the best. May God Bless you.

Question and Answer Session

1. Mr. President, leadership is an important enabler for growth. What would be the key leadership qualities for future leaders in an emerging economy like India?

- Krishnamurthy Deepa N, Global Business Services

Ans: Vision, balanced view, "we can do it" spirit and indomitable spirit are the key leadership qualities for our future leaders in the emerging economy

2. Mr. President, what is the most memorable event in your life?

- Ms. Suchitra Srinath, IBM Sales and Distribution

Ans: Removal of pain of a young girl affected by the polio and her ability to ride a bicycle after using the light weight Floor Reaction Orthosis made by using carbon-carbon material was the most memorable event in my life.

3. Sir, I would like to have your personal view - what do you think makes India special?

- Ms. Shoba Krishnan, Manager HR Strategy, IBM India Ltd.

Ans:India, as the largest democracy in the world has a reputation for its democracy and for providing leadership for the one billion people with multi-cultural, multi-language and multi-religious backgrounds. This makes India special.

4. Sir, it is reported by many commentators that India needs to improve its basic infrastructure to ensure its continuing high growth. What role do you see for technology in improving the infrastructure across India?

- Ms. Padma Dhayanand, IBM Sales and Distribution

Ans: Technology has a great role to play in fast improving of infrastructure. Pre-fabricated construction of fly-overs for fast erection, commissioning of metro systems, use of green building material, providing quality power through renewable energy sources, pollution free transportation system are all technology dependent infrastructure missions.

5. Mr. President, thank you for gracing us with your presence today. What is the role of technology in rural transformation?

- Shri Praveen Cherian, Country Manager, Global Technology Services

Ans: Technology has to play a great role in improving the quality of the life of rural people. Technology can enable quality education and health care to reach them. Technology can also provide value addition to their products and enable them to realize remunerative prices for their produce. Technology can enhance the employment opportunities in the rural sector.

6. Mr. President, there is an important role that companies like IBM can play at the intersection of business, technology and society. What would be the key areas of focus?

- Shri Vivek S Rawat, Software Sales Manager

Ans: Technology enhances the ability to face competition in business. Success in business promotes prosperity of the enterprise. Societal missions enable the business to share their prosperity with the society. Here again technology assists in execution of societal missions.

7. Sir, As you have always articulated great vision for India, what would be the top three focus areas in next 10 years for India?

- Shri Joe Joseph, Territory Services Leader

Ans: Development of human capital, energy independence and implementation of 7000 PURAs are the top three focus areas for the country.

http://presidentofindia.nic.in/scripts/sllatest1.jsp?id=771

U.S. Air Force Plans Space-Based Laser Test in FY 07

SOURCE: CDI

The U.S. Air Force has requested $5.7 million in funding for fiscal year (FY) 2007 to fire a laser from its Starfire Optical Range in New Mexico at a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite, as part of a program testing and developing “advanced weapons technologies.” Although Air Force officials have told congressional staff and the media that there are “no current plans” for developing antisatellite (ASAT) weapons and that the current focus of the laser test is on benign satellite imaging, they have admitted that the laser test would demonstrate ASAT capabilities.

As such, the test – if allowed to go forward – would represent the first declared test of ASAT technology in more than two decades. The last declared U.S. ASAT tests was the 1985 launch by an F-15 fighter of a missile against the Air Force’s Solwind satellite, which resulted in the creation of more than 250 pieces of space debris, some of which did not reenter Earth’s atmosphere until 2002. The last declared test of a laser against an operational satellite was the Army’s 1997 use of the New Mexico-based MIRACL laser at the Air Force’s MSTI 3 satellite -- which was justified by the administration of President Bill Clinton as a test of satellite vulnerability rather than an ASAT test, a contention that was then and remains controversial.

The use of a laser with declared ASAT applicability against a satellite would be a significant break with past U.S. practice of eschewing ASAT testing and would have major political ramifications. Considering that there has been little congressional and public debate about the wisdom of any U.S. policy shift to embrace ASATs and space-based weapons – breaking a 40-year international taboo -- Congress should prohibit the Air Force from putting the technological horse in front of the policy cart.

PE 0603605F: Advanced Weapons Technology
Project 11SP, Advanced Optics and Laser Space Test

Despite the Air Force’s contention that its current plan for applying laser technology in space is limited to space situational awareness applications, the service’s FY 07 budget justification documents (p. 459 of the R-2s) tell a different story.

• The request shifts the planned laser test from a budget line dedicated to generic space-related technology development (PE 0603500F, “Multidisciplinary Advanced Development Space Technology, Project 5031”) to a budget pot dedicated to the development of “Advanced Weapons Technology” -- PE 0603605F, “Advanced Weapons Technology Project 11SP Advanced Optics and Laser Tech.”

• The mission statement for Project 11SP states: “This project provides for the demonstration and detailed assessment of space unique technologies needed for advanced optical systems and high-energy laser weapons.” (Emphasis added)

• The description of the planned laser test, funded at $5.713 million in FY 07, states: “Perform atmospheric compensation/beam control experiments for application including antisatellite weapons, relay mirror systems, satellite tests and diagnostics, and high-resolution satellite imaging.” It is interesting that ASAT applications appear first in this list, and the declared purposed of the planned FY 07 test, imaging, is stated last.

Combined Arms Warfare vs Terrorism

www.centralchronicle.com

A thinning out of the Indian Army would result in the consolidation of control by the terrorists of significant portions of territory in J and K, says Vinod Vedi
The series of killings by terrorists before and during the roundtable conference called by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in Jammu and Kashmir and the military exercises conducted by the Indian armed forces to hone combined operations techniques and the concept of "cold start" have together once again drawn attention to the efficacy of conventional warfare when confronted by the asymmetrical method of guerrilla warfare which led to the launch of Operation Parakram, the year-long eyeball-to-eyeball confrontation with Pakistan after the terrorist attack on Parliament.

At the same time came conformation from a former head of Pakistan Army's Inter-Services Intelligence that Pakistan's doctrine since the moment its nuclear warhead became operational was that Pakistan would launch its nukes against India irrespective of whether Israel or any other nation made a pre-emptive strike against it nuclear assets. Such is the hare-brained nature of the security scenario in our neighbourhood.

In essence, India has been engaged in a two-front war with Pakistan since the beginning of the Pak-instigated Khalistan movement in the in the 1970s. It won that war decisively when it defeated the Khalistani insurgency by using its superior conventional military weaponry as a deterrent to full-scale warfare of the Bangladesh type even while taking care of the Khalistanis.

Having lost two wars in quick succession Pakistan accelerated its nuclear weapons programme begging, borrowing and stealing nuclear secrets from around the globe to achieve nuclear weapons capability by 1987. Its hope since then has been that under the threat of an immediate escalation of hostilities to the first use of nuclear weapons India would be cowed into conceding territory in Jammu and Kashmir.

This background needed to be reiterated to be able to cogently explain why Defence Minister Pranab Mukherjee's unequivocal rejection of any demilitarization in any portion of Jammu and Kashmir as demanded by President General Pervez Musharraf and the All Parties Hurriyat Conference makes complete sense in the midst of "confidence-building measures".

In fact the series of terrorist attacks preparatory to the roundtable conference including the genocide of Hindu families in Doda and the attack on a bus carrying tourists underscore the tenuous nature of "confidence building measures" in Jammu and Kashmir. If one had been taken in by General Pervez Musharraf's protestations of good neighbourly behaviour India would have found itself rushing in troops back into the Valley to confront the terrorists who suddenly became hyperactive to try and demonstrate that they are so strong as to dictate demands.

It needs to be made abundantly clear in the face of a naive acceptance by a section of the Indian public on promises by Gen Pervez Musharraf given his penchant for denying any involvement in everything. Counter-terrorism is a manpower-intensive operation and terrorist attacks would have been more horrendous if there were fewer security forces in Jammu and Kashmir.

What happened in the series of spectacular attacks in Doda and the Valley are operations that can happen because the terrorists have the advantage of choosing their targets according to their own convenience. A thinning out of the Indian Army would have resulted in the consolidation of control by the terrorists of significant portions of territory in Jammu and Kashmir. It is a risk best not taken.

It is best to retain the Indian army in adequate numbers in Jammu and Kashmir to nip all mischief in the bud till there are verifiable ways of ensuring that Pakistan has stopped cross-border terrorism. It is not without significance that the Defence Minister was constrained to state that there is no evidence to suggest that Pakistan has ended its involvement in cross border terrorism. The Kargil experience remains relevant in that both the Army and the Indian Air Force need to be ready at very short notice to act jointly to achieve politico-military objectives on the ground in Jammu and Kashmir. In fact, even the Indian Navy had a major role to play in posing a seaward threat that contributed to dramatic de-escalation by a Pakistan that was wont to frequently hold out the threat of "nuclear flashpoint" to give credibility to its nuclear arsenal.

Given what is happening in Jammu and Kashmir demilitarization is out of the question. And, in the face of repeatedly stated threats of first use of nuclear weapons by Pakistan it is best to refine the conventional military capabilities in a manner in which it is possible to make optimal utilization of every kind of conventional military capability to achieve quick politico-military objectives.

In this context, Operation Parakram -the nearly one year standoff in which the Indian armed forces were deployed all along the western border with Pakistan after the terrorist attack on Parliament - has given rise to the doctrine of "cold start" whereby the Indian armed forces would execute pre-determined operations into Pakistan precluding any hesitation as happened with Op. Parakram. However, the fault in Op Parakram lay in the manner it was begun and not in how it was ended. The series of mishaps that occurred, from the explosions in the trucks carrying ammunition towards the border in Rajasthan to the many deaths that occurred on account of mishandling of landmines, did have the effect of diverting the war effort from a clinically precise operation into a fire fighting operation behind our own lines.

"Cold start" will need to ensure that logistics and re-supply are not held hostage to accidents and other manmade disasters that tend to be a drag on the entire military effort. This is all the more true if the concept itself triggers a nuclear response by a nation which knows that its first defence - the use of terrorists as proxy warriors in Jammu and Kashmir have failed to achieve the objective of pinning down the Indian army.

The swift thrust by the Indian mechanized forces (one stated objective of which is reported to be to "cut Pakistan in half" could make it imperative for the Pakistan military to launch nuclear strikes to prevent India from coming in too deep into an already slim "strategic depth". That would, indeed, be catastrophic because it would invite an Indian nuclear response.

Therefore, even while practicing this new doctrine of "cold start" to optimum efficiency the Indian armed forces, especially the army acting in close cooperation with the paramilitary forces and the Jammu and Kashmir police, should by systematic cordon and search operations undercut and destroy terrorist cells of the kind that are currently carrying out strike operations against unarmed civilians in what are clearly genocidal attacks. A gradual degradation of the capabilities of the terrorist groups, coupled as it already is with the alertness along the Line of Control that has decimated the numbers of those who were able to cross over to fulfil their nefarious objectives, will free the local population of the threat from terrorist guns.

The pivot will remain India's superior conventional military capability which would neutralize any Kargil-type ambitions in the bud and thus make it difficult for Pakistan to replenish the terrorists it has over the years managed to infiltrate into Jammu and Kashmir.

In this context the recent terrorist attacks in Doda and the Kashmir Valley only tend to underscore how unreliable would be any assurances by Pakistan on the Siachen Glacier once the Indian Army is withdrawn. Demilitarisation of Siachen even after Pakistan agrees to pinpoint the Actual Position on the Ground Line of troops of both countries will also remain a dicey proposition if arrangements for immediate redeployment are not put in place.

Space and Counterspace : Space superiority cannot be taken for granted

Space superiority cannot be taken for granted, so the Air Force is making plans to defend it.

http://www.afa.org/

Space and Counterspace

By John A. Tirpak, Executive Editor



The Pentagon is hoping it can avoid conflict in space. More than any other nation, the United States is heavily dependent on space assets for all manner of enabling functions, from eye-in-the-sky information about adversaries to communications and navigation. The US has the most to lose if space becomes a battleground.

However, it is this very dependency on space that makes those assets such an attractive target. Already, other countries have, on a few occasions, attempted to damage or jam satellites, and the United States has been the mark of some of those attempts. Though it hopes to avoid an arms race in space, the Pentagon nevertheless has to take some steps to prepare for such a clash.

The 2005 Quadrennial Defense Review once again took up the subject. Compared to the QDR conducted in 2001, the 2005 version was mild in tone. The earlier version—coming on the heels of the 2001 report of the Space Commission—stridently insisted that the US must not only exploit the advantages of the “high ground” of space, but that it also should develop a robust means to deny the use of space assets to any adversary.

The new QDR, released in February, simply noted that Washington must have “unfettered, reliable, and secure” access to its space assets, assured, for now, by “improving space situational awareness and protection, and through other space control measures.”

The Air Force is taking its cue from the QDR, focusing most of its nonclassified efforts at space superiority on systems that will broadly enhance its knowledge of what’s in orbit, as well as its ability to know if American space systems are under attack.

(Artists’s conception by Eric Simonsen)


What’s Up There?
“We have to know what’s up there,” said Gen. T. Michael Moseley, Air Force Chief of Staff. “We have to continually modernize the early warning systems to know what is up there, what has been added, what are the orbital paths, and what are the opportunities to see.”

This is what the United States must do to avoid “a Pearl Harbor in space,” Moseley observed.

The emphasis remains on space situational awareness, rather than attacks of adversary systems, because, as Moseley noted, “There’s a 1996 convention on military activities in space, and, as you would expect us to do, we actually live within the law and attempt in every way to stay within the policy guidance. So we, in fact, do that.”

The US will certainly develop means “to be able to defend our systems,” he added, to “make them survivable and make them so we know where they are [and] where other systems are relative to them.”

However, there’s not much decided beyond that, he said. “It’s going to take a bit more of a policy discussion to move from defensive counterspace and space situational awareness” into offensive counterspace.

Moseley also noted that it’s still an open discussion as to how space conflict is directed and coordinated. Strategic Command, he said, has the overall responsibility for coordinating space awareness and action, but the Air Force, as the service with the greatest space infrastructure, is the principal provider of space control capabilities to STRATCOM. Still, USAF must be collaborative with the Missile Defense Agency (MDA), the other services, and other agencies, both military and civilian.

“There are so many players in this,” Moseley noted, that “you have to ... bring people in, you have to continue to demonstrate competence, and continue to work this supporting-and-supported [command] relationship.”

Moseley asserted, though, that space is fundamentally an Air Force mission.

“It’s in my world,” he said. “I got it; now let’s get all these other people together, so we’re not fussing with each other and we can ... move down this path together.” He hopes to reduce the number of moving parts in the organization of space control and neck down the number of agencies involved so there aren’t “a lot of people launching systems.”

Maj. Gen. Mark D. Shackelford, director of plans and requirements at Air Force Space Command, said the relationship between MDA, the Air Force, and the other agencies “is still developing.”

Lt. Gen. Frank G. Klotz, Space Command’s acting commander, said that, as MDA “becomes more space-oriented, which I suspect they’re considering in the future, we will be hand in hand with them through that process, and I suspect they will want us to help them understand what’s going on around their satellites.”

The XSS-11 experiment is a satellite that can rendezvous with a target and inspect it (next photo). (Air Force Research Laboratory artist’s conception)


Not Adequate
In March, Klotz told the House Armed Services Committee’s panel on strategic forces that space situational awareness capabilities “are not adequate to counter future threats” and that the Air Force must “know what each new spacecraft is capable of before it is in position to impact our support to the joint warfighter.”

Klotz went on, “We have witnessed attempts to negate [the US space advantage] and understand the need to protect our space systems. Given the opportunity, our adversaries will attempt to exploit any and all weaknesses.”

This sentiment is reflected in the basic USAF doctrine document for counterspace operations, written in 2004. Regarding it, Gen. John P. Jumper, then the Chief of Staff, wrote that “adversaries will target space capabilities in an attempt to deny [our] combat advantage. We must also be prepared to deprive an adversary of the benefits of space capabilities when American interests and lives are at stake.”

Jumper pointed out that space superiority, “like air superiority, cannot be taken for granted.” He declared flatly that “counterspace operations ... is one of the Air Force’s air and space power functions.”

The level of US vulnerability in space was validated in a QDR exercise last year, in which it was postulated that a concerted physical and information attack on US satellites took out half the systems. The result was a US military forced to fight in much the same manner as it did in the 1970s, having to rely on mass and attrition instead of precision and speed.

To prevent such a situation, the Air Force is charged with enhancing its space surveillance network, so it can watch the orbits where critical US satellites are and detect anything that changes or becomes threatening. It also is putting into place systems that monitor the health and condition of satellites and their output, watching for indications that the spacecraft are being affected by natural or artificial means and whether this constitutes an attack.

Finally, USAF is looking into the means to disable foreign or commercial systems, to deny an adversary the means to use space against the US.

Some of these systems are space-based, while others are ground-based surveillance or jamming devices.

In the Fiscal 2007 budget request, the Air Force is asking for $47.3 million for counterspace systems and $27.1 million for space control technologies. Together, these requests total $29.7 million more than what was requested for the same programs last year.

Air Force budget documents note that “consistent with DOD policy, the negation efforts of this program currently focus on ... technologies which have temporary, localized, and reversible means.”

(AFRL artist’s conception)


They Have Issues
There’s good reason for that, according to Col. Ronald A. Grundman, head of AFSPC’s Space Superiority Division.

Destructive antisatellite (ASAT) systems “do come along with some issues,” Grundman said.

“One of them is, they tend to leave a lot of debris in space, which is an important operating area for us. So there’s long been a debate about the advisability of using ASATs for blowing up satellites,” Grundman pointed out.

Even minute scraps of debris in space must be cataloged and tracked, because at orbital speeds, the tiniest paint chip can be a powerful missile if it strikes a spacecraft. Items already being tracked range from large spent booster rockets all the way down to nuts and bolts. Newly launched spacecraft must be carefully steered so they don’t intersect with the orbit of a piece of space junk that could destroy them—a headache that is worsened any time a space object breaks up.

The Air Force is focusing for now on nondestructive, temporary effects in disabling other satellites because some of those it may want to turn off could be those operated by allies, who will want their expensive hardware to be available again after a conflict.

Former AFSPC vice commander Lt. Gen. Daniel P. Leaf (now deputy head of US Pacific Command) told Foreign Policy magazine last August, “You don’t have to be a spacefaring nation to have access to space capabilities. All you need is a credit card, and you can get imagery derived from satellites very readily. That’s a space capability. Nonstate adversaries that are opposing the United States or its allies could access commercial imagery and use it against us.” Some of the targets of counterspace operations could be commercial satellites operated by companies in a friendly nation.

The image here, taken by the XSS-11, is of the Minotaur upper stage that launched it. Such a capability is useful for both space situational awareness and any future needs for space intercept. (Via AFRL)

Leaf told Foreign Policy that it’s important to have these nondestructive means available to disable satellites because the US recognizes that “spurring an arms race [in space] will have more negative consequences than we can stand. ... We appreciate the dangers of space debris.” However, he added that “it would be foolish to eliminate from our consideration some capabilities that may be necessary in the future.” Leaf asserted that the Air Force’s approach so far has been “very responsible and thoughtful.”

Grundman observed that the debate over whether and when to use destructive antisatellite systems “will probably continue, but we don’t have any programs right now that are funded in that regard.”

For now, the Air Force is focused on the space situational awareness aspect and has a number of programs under way that will sharply increase its knowledge of what’s going on in orbit.
Space Fence: Previously known as the Navy Fence, the Air Force took over this program in 2004. (See “Aerospace World: Air Force Takes Over Navy Fence,” December 2004, p. 20.) The Space Fence is an array of dispersed radars that track satellites as they pass over the United States. The Air Force is planning a $275 million upgrade over the next five years that will convert the system to S-band radar, allowing greater search capability and faster revisit times. It also will sharpen the resolution of the radar, so that it can see objects from a current minimum of 12 inches in size down to two inches in size. The radars themselves will be distributed over a wider geographical area, giving a better view of the horizon. They will be able to see beyond low earth orbit (LEO) to medium Earth orbit (MEO). Grundman said the old hardware likely will be retired around 2011, because “it’s reaching some sustainability limits.”
Space-Based Surveillance System: Planned to be a constellation of five satellites, the SBSS would operate in in LEO to look at satellites and other objects in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO), at about 26,000 miles from the Earth’s surface. SBSS builds on a missile defense experiment launched in 1996 that looked for ballistic missiles using a visible and an infrared sensor. The IR sensor quit after 18 months, but the visible sensor has continued to function, now for almost 10 years, as proof of concept for a space-based sensor. However, Grundman said, “We think it’s probably going to run out of life at any time.” A Block 10 version of the SBSS is to be ready to fly in 2009. It will be a “risk reducer” for the objective system—the remaining four satellites—which should be launched between 2013 and 2014. The SBSS will be a visible-spectrum telescope. It will “help us find things” at GEO and MEO “that we don’t already know about,” Grundman noted, as well as “keep track of things up there that we do know about, and to get more frequent revisit on them.” The SBSS will be able to survey an area of interest “a few times a day as opposed to every few days.”
RAIDRS: The Rapid Attack Identification Detection and Reporting System is not a satellite, but a “hybrid architecture” of sensors, comm links, and data processing systems intended to analyze the data from satellites and determine if they are being affected by some external force, Grundman explained. “It’s a data situational awareness system” that analyzes the data received at satellite downlinks. RAIDRS detects electromagnetic interference on satellites; “in other words, it’s looking to see if our commsats are being jammed by others.” Spiral 1 also will be able to pinpoint the source of the jamming. By 2010, full operational capability will be 32 ground-based, deployable RAIDRS with broad capability to analyze radio frequency energy across many bands.Grundman noted that interference or jamming may not always be a hostile act. “It’s not that uncommon that we end up interfering with our own communications, sometimes,” he noted. However, it’s important to find a jamming signal and stop it, no matter the source. Spiral 2 will have more data fusion and more automated connections with space command and control systems.

On the offensive counterspace front is the Counter Communications System. Known as CounterComm for short, this project funds a series of ground-deployable jamming units, each with two antennas, set up in the vicinity of an area where the Air Force wants to interfere with an adversary’s satellites. Operational since 2004, the Air Force now has three Block 10 systems and, in the Fiscal 2007 budget, asked for three more. There are plans to upgrade the units to a Block 20 configuration. Further details are classified.

The Counter-Space Reconnaissance System, a shadowy project meant to defeat the intelligence-surveillance-reconnaissance systems of US adversaries with reversible, nonkinetic means, was canceled, Grundman said, even though the Air Force continues to have a validated requirement for it. (See “Securing the Space Arena,” July 2004, p. 30.)

“As we are in a very tight budget environment, the decision was made to move those funds toward higher ... Air Force priorities,” said Grundman. “And we’re going to look at opportunities and approaches towards meeting those mission needs.”

The same fate befell the Orbital Deep-Space Imager, a space telescope intended to give high-resolution imagery of objects at GEO. There’s a validated requirement, Grundman said, but the Air Force has decided “not to pursue an operational system at this time.”

Grundman said he has nothing in his portfolio involving a kinetic ASAT capability. Asked about ASATs that disable a target satellite by spraying their optics or solar panels with paint, Grundman said, “There have been some studies looking at potential concepts in that regard. They’re sometimes called ‘coaters.’ And I think that’s about as much as I can say about that.”

Members of the 527th Space Aggressor Squadron set up a mobile communications rig at NAS Fallon, Nev., during an exercise. Space superiority involves uplinks and downlinks, not just systems in orbit. Ground-based jammers play a big role. (USAF photo)

There are a few concepts and programs outside of AFSPC that are looking at ASAT possibilities, however.

The Air Force Research Laboratory put out a request for information last fall for a program called Autonomous Nanosatellite Guardian for Evaluating Local Space, or ANGELS. This program seeks to launch a small satellite in 2009 into GEO, where it would escort a larger satellite, not yet selected. Its function would be to monitor the space around the host satellite, watching for intruders and threats. ANGELS could be the forerunner of a series of “escort satellites” that would move to intercept an attacking ASAT launched by another country. Contractors will be selected next year; AFRL has about $20 million for the project.

ANGELS will build on experience from XSS-10 and XSS-11, also AFRL projects to explore rendezvous, proximity, and station-keeping techniques with very small satellites. The heaviest of the spacecraft weighs in at just 220 pounds. The XSS-10 was used to rendezvous with the Delta II booster that brought it to orbit, flying around the booster and inspecting it visually, sending TV images back to ground controllers from less than 100 yards away.

The XSS-11 was steered to a rendezvous with a spent booster last November, getting within about one mile of it. The satellite orbits at about 500 miles and is also a test bed for miniaturized optics and communications gear. Air Force officials also report that the craft will experiment with techniques for on-orbit refueling of spacecraft propellant systems.

Ready To Act
Although never mentioned in any of the official descriptions of the XSS-11’s mission, the satellite is able to do everything necessary to intercept and destroy an enemy satellite. The craft’s small size and maneuvering capability suggest that low-cost clones could be manufactured rapidly and inexpensively for a variety of ASAT missions, should the Air Force be tasked to provide such a capability.

Setting aside the external steps that can be taken to protect satellites, can anything be done so they can defend themselves? There are techniques, Grundman said, that include radiation hardening, on-board sensors, and armoring.

Until now, such self-protection measures usually have lost out in the zero-sum trade-off analysis about what goes on a spacecraft and what doesn’t.

“There has been, historically, a preference to put as much emphasis as you can on performance of the spacecraft,” Grundman explained. “So, if you’re trading off weight, ... you usually have to give up some mission capability, and ... program offices have wanted to emphasize their mission performance.”

Now, however, “as we recognize more of a threat, you’ll probably see the trade tipping more in the other direction.” That won’t always be true, but on a case-by-case basis, “defensive measures” may start to claim more of a satellite’s weight allowance.

Members of the 26th and 527th Space Aggressor Squadrons, seen through night vision equipment, prepare to do some late-night communications satellite jamming. Adversaries can be expected to interfere with US space access without warning. (USAF photo)

Grundman said recognition of the importance of space superiority “is rising, due to the fact that we know we have the most to lose in space. And we have prioritized that the most important thing we need to do ... is improved space situational awareness.” The ability to defend space assets will come next, he said, followed by the capability of denying the advantages of space-based capabilities to others. However, he acknowledged that some of that capability is already present.