September 22, 2007

CBI raids ex-RAW officer who wrote book questioning his agency bosses





CBI raids ex-RAW officer who wrote book questioning his agency bosses
Teena Thacker

Posted online: Saturday, September 22, 2007 at 0000 hrs


NEW DELHI, SEPTEMBER 21: Major General (retired) V K Singh, a former Joint Secretary in the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) — India’s premier external intelligence agency — who published a book earlier this year critical of RAW’s functioning was today raided by the CBI. The agency registered a case against him under the Official Secrets Act (OSA) for alleged “wrong communication of information.”



In his book, India’s External Intelligence: Secrets of RAW, Singh wrote about what he called the lack of “leadership and accountability” in RAW and cited examples of this, including the alleged espionage case involving Rabinder Singh, a former official believed to have fled to the United States despite being under watch.

On July 15, The Sunday Express had reported that RAW head Ashok Chaturvedi wrote to the Cabinet Secretary to stop publication and sale of V K Singh’s book on the grounds that it violated the OSA. CBI sources said the raids — from 3 pm to 8 pm at Singh’s Palam Vihar residence — were on the basis of “Government instructions” to recover “confidential documents from the author.”

Ironically, the hunt began this morning with CBI sleuths knocking on the wrong door of the Patparganj home of another V K Singh, also a former RAW official. “This was a wrong address given to us...it was just a mistake,” said a senior CBI official.

During the raids, CBI officials took away author V K Singh’s computer, diaries and his passport. “I have been victimised for being objective. I told them if there is a problem in the book so take it but why this whole operation? I don’t know why RAW people are getting so worked up, I have only disclosed facts,” Singh told The Indian Express.

“This is open harassment of an honest and a bold officer. It simply means that whatever he has written is correct and there is a fear. This is a serious threat to intellectuals. I have apprehensions they will ban the book but if this happens, we will move the court,” said Vivek Garg of Manas Publications, Singh’s publisher.

“They should have banned it three months ago when it was released,” said Singh. “There is no point banning it now as there are many copies being sent abroad. What happens to those copies?”

Singh’s book cites cases of what he calls political interference and corruption in the agency. It questions the commitment of top officials and mentions how the RAW station at Bhuj was closed for a year because of the 2001 earthquake even though none of the agency personnel was injured. The decision was taken, Singh claims in the book, just because the building was damaged and no one wanted to move to makeshift accommodation.

The government was also riled when M K Dhar, a former Director of the Intelligence Bureau, wrote his book Open Secrets - India’s Intelligence Unveiled. However, the IB then decided against moving a ban order.

Raid over read

Singh’s book doesn’t reveal any explosive secret but it makes claims RAW would rather have not heard:

• Details about SPG procurement of communication sets despite security objections

• Purchase of antennae where inflated quotes were approved

• Criticises Govt for not coming clean on the Rabinder Singh spy case

• Questions wisdom of NDA govt in releasing the taped conversation between Musharraf and Gen Mohammed Aziz during the Kargil conflict

Pakistan: Musharraf Prepares the Military for his Civilian Presidency

Source: Stratfor
Stratfor's Free Intelligence Reports
September 21, 2007 20 23 GMT


Summary

Pakistani President Gen. Pervez Musharraf appointed a new head of Pakistan's top intelligence agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), on Sept. 21 and promoted several two-star generals to three-star rank. Though they are part of an ongoing and routine reshuffle, these changes to the army's top brass come as Musharraf prepares to step down as military chief in an attempt to secure his re-election as president. The retirements and appointments of generals are designed to ensure Musharraf's continued control over the military. The new ISI chief, meanwhile, will have his hands full as he tries to deal with a raging jihadist insurgency.

Analysis

Pakistani President Gen. Pervez Musharraf has appointed a new chief of the country's premier intelligence agency, Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), according to a Sept. 21 press release from the military's media department. Maj. Gen. Nadeem Taj was promoted to lieutenant general and appointed ISI director-general, Inter-Services Public Relations said. Outgoing Director-General Lt. Gen. Ashfaq Kayani is expected to be promoted to a full general and appointed the new chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (CJCSC). Taj is one of six major-generals who were promoted to three-star rank and given new posts; Maj. Gen. Mohsin Kamal was appointed to the key post of commander of the Rawalpindi-based 10th Corps, and Pakistani English daily The News reported Sept. 19 that Maj. Gen. Nasir Janjua had been promoted and appointed director-general of military operations.

These initial changes are part of the reshuffle triggered by the scheduled retirement of the current vice chief of army staff and the CJCSC on Oct. 7. Contrary to his usual style, this time around Musharraf is promoting and appointing the top generals in stages, which is understandable given that he wants to time the changes in the military leadership with his own re-election in the presidential vote slated for Oct. 6. In order to remain president, Musharraf needs to reach a political settlement with his opponents, which will require him to step down as military chief.

Musharraf's ability to secure another term depends on the Supreme Court's ruling on the petitions challenging his qualifications to seek re-election, and on whether a chunk of opposition parliament members -- including those from the Pakistan People's Party with whom he is negotiating a power-sharing deal -- resign. Regardless, he is moving along with preparations for the time when he is no longer military chief.

Since Musharraf's power is a function of his position as military chief, he needs to be able to ensure that he can maintain control over the army even after he becomes a civilian president. Formally, he will have this control; the constitution gives the president power to appoint the chiefs of the three armed services. However, since he will not hold the dual offices he has held since he came to power, Musharraf will have to share control with the next chief of army staff. It is well-known that from 1988 to 1999, when the army was not directly ruling the country, the sitting president was the one whose position was in danger during any struggle between rival political forces, because the army chief did not necessarily side with the civilian leader. To get around this problem, Musharraf is appointing and promoting people who will remain loyal to him after he takes a civilian role.

The ISI chief is a critical player in this because of the directorate's historic role in domestic politics. Taj, the new ISI director, is considered one of Musharraf's closest loyalists and could give the president vital support in his new position. Taj previously served as Musharraf's military secretary and as head of Military Intelligence (MI), the country's second-most-powerful intelligence directorate. He also was with Musharraf in the plane that former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif tried to prevent from landing in Pakistan in order to block Musharraf from mounting a coup against him. Additionally, Taj was accompanying the president in his motorcade during the second of two assassination attempts in December 2003.

And we are told Taj played an instrumental role in the 2004 release of former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's husband, Asif Zardari. Moreover, Bhutto has a favorable opinion of Taj -- an indication that his appointment as ISI director-general is part of the ongoing Musharraf-Bhutto negotiations.

Loyalty, however, is not the only criterion informing Musharraf's decisions as he appoints top generals. He also needs competent individuals to lead the military at a time when civilian institutions -- the judiciary, media and civil society -- have grown more assertive in the wake of the political crisis stemming from Musharraf's move to sack the country's chief justice. In addition, though a strong military leadership could challenge Musharraf, it is what he needs in order to further his personal and corporate interests. This is why Musharraf has thus far promoted and appointed generals who are known as very competent individuals. Taj was the commandant of the Pakistan Military Academy, and Kamal, the new commander of the 10th Corps, headed the famous Command and Staff College at Quetta and was commander of the sensitive department of Force Command Northern Area.

That said, Pakistan now faces the biggest challenge since its inception: a growing jihadist insurgency. Thus far, the military establishment has been on the defensive regarding an unprecedented wave of suicide attacks, mostly against army personnel and facilities -- including some very sensitive installations.

The coming political transition is unlikely to foster stability because Musharraf will be sharing power with a civilian prime minister leading a coalition government, and with an army chief. This means the next army chief and the new head of the ISI could be heavily involved in politics at a time when they need to concentrate on combating jihadism.

The process of purging militant sympathizers within the ranks of the military and the intelligence apparatus has been going on since the 9/11 attacks, but the new ISI chief will not be able to deal with the jihadist problem before sealing the leaks in the national security network -- an objective that is not likely to be achieved any time soon. Among other problems, this could create a conflict between Washington and Islamabad over the United States' counterterrorism imperatives.

Bin Laden's Fatwa Against Musharraf & Pakistani Army

Bin Laden's Fatwa Against Musharraf & Pakistani Army - International Terrorism Monitor---Paper No. 284

by B. Raman

On September 20, 2007, As-Sahab, the propaganda and PSYWAR unit of Al Qaeda, disseminated an audio message of Osama bin Laden accompanied by visuals taken from past messages. This is the third message of bin Laden being disseminated by As-Sahab since September 7, 2007. Of these, the first, a video message probably recorded in the second fortnight of August, 2007, was addressed to the American people on the eve of the sixth anniversary of the 9/11 terrorist strikes in the US. The second, an audio message of recent recording with old visuals, was addressed to the Muslims in general and was meant to glorify the Islamic concept of martyrdom. The third and latest is in the form of a fatwa against Pakistan's President General Pervez Musharraf and his Army and is addressed to the people of Pakistan. It is titled: "Come to Jihad: A Speech to the People of Pakistan".

2. Bin Laden, who had remained silent for many months ---with no video message since October, 2004, and no audio message since April, 2006,--- has come out with three messages within a fortnight. This indicates that he is alive and well and continues to be in command of Al Qaeda. The frequency of his messages after his long silence also reflects his confidence that he is now in a safe position where the American intelligence agencies and security forces cannot reach him and where there would be little likelihood of his being betrayed by those tempted by the American offer of huge cash rewards for anyone helping in having him killed or captured. What that place could be? it would be difficult to answer that question.

3. The fatwa against Musharraf and his Army is very bluntly worded. It says in its concluding paragraphs: "It is obligatory on the Muslims in Pakistan to carry out Jihad and fighting to remove Pervez, his government, his army and those who help him." It carries the following pledge on behalf of Al Qaeda: "We in al-Qaida Organization call on Allah to witness that we will retaliate for the blood of Maulana Abd al-Rashid Ghazi and those with him against Musharraf and those who help him, and for all the pure and innocent blood, foremost of which is the blood of the champions of Islam in Waziristan - both North and South - among them the two noble leaders, Nek Muhammad and Abdullah Mahsud." (My comment: Maulana Ghazi died in the Pakistan Army commando raid into the Lal Masjid of Islamabad between July 10 and 13, 2007)

4. Bin Laden encourages suicide missions by underlining that jihad is an individual obligation of every true Muslim. He gives the following reasons for his fatwa:

"Pervez's invasion of the Lal Masjid in the City of Islam, Islamabad, is a sad event, like the crime of the Hindus in their invasion and destruction of the Babari Masjid. This event demonstrated Musharraf's insistence on continuing his loyalty, submissiveness and aid to America against the Muslims." He quotes from a fatwa issued by the late Muftin Nizamuddin Shamzai of the Binori madrasa of Karachi after the 9/11 terrorist strikes as follows: 'If any ruler of an Islamic state provides aid to an infidel state in its aggression against the Islamic states, it is the legal obligation of the Muslims to remove him from power and consider him to be legally a traitor to Islam and Muslims.' He blames the rulers of Pakistan and the US for the subsequent murder of Shamzai in Karachi.
"The government's showing of Maulana Abd al-Aziz Ghazi in women's clothing in the media is clear evidence of the extent of the great hostility, hatred and contempt held by Pervez and his government towards Islam and its sincere 'Ulama. " (My comment: The reference is to the brother of Abdul Rashid Ghazi, who tried to escape from the Lal Masjid covering himself up as a woman. He was detected and arrested by the Commandoes. The Pakistan TV subsequently interviewed him dressed as a woman. This created an outcry as an attempt to discredit the clerics. Musharraf ordered the immediate withdrawal of the TV programme).
"The purpose of the army - or so they say - is to protect the Muslims against the Kuffaar (kafirs), but now we see the armies becoming tools and weapons in the hands of the Kuffaar against the Muslims. Pervez threw away the cause of Kashmir and restrained those fighting to liberate it, in accordance with the wishes of the Hindus. Then he opened his bases and airports to America for invading the Muslims in Afghanistan, and as you've seen before, the army attacked the people of Swat who also demanded the rule of Shari'ah, and attacked the people of Waziristan, in addition to betraying and extraditing hundreds of Arab Mujahideen from the grandsons of the Sahabah (Companions), with whom Allah was pleased, to the head of Kufr, America. So Pervez, his ministers, his soldiers and those who help him are all accomplices in the spilling the blood of those of the Muslims who have been killed. I tell the soldiers who perform the Salaat (prayer) in the military organs: you must resign from your jobs and enter anew into Islam and dissociate yourself from Pervez and his Shirk (polytheism)."
"I tell Pervez and his army: your betrayal of your nation and people has been exposed, and the people are no longer fooled by your showing off militarily by launching some missiles after every disaster and massacre you commit against the populace, as has occurred repeatedly in the border regions, or after the biggest massacre in Lal Masjid most recently. How is the nation benefited by these weapons and tests of yours? The same goes for the nuclear bomb itself. When the American foreign minister Powell came to you, you cowered, bowed and submitted to him like a lowly slave, and you permitted the American Crusader forces to use the air, soil and water of Pakistan, the country of Islam, to kill the people of Islam in Afghanistan, then in Waziristan. So woe to you and away with you."(My comment: This is an interesting attempt by bin Laden to project that Musharraf is in the habit of frequently carrying out missile tests in order to divert the attention of the Pakistani people away from his collusion with the US in its war against Islam and the Ummah.)
"When the capability is there, it is obligatory to rebel against the apostate ruler, as is the case now. And the one who believes that the strength required to rebel has not yet been completed must complete it and take up arms against Pervez and his army without procrastination. Pervez and most of the Muslims' rulers jumped to power and usurped it and ruled us by other than what Allah sent down by force of arms, and the situation will not return to normal through elections, demonstrations and shouting. So beware of the polytheistic elections and futile actions, for iron is only dented by iron, and it is through fighting in Allah's path and exhorting of the believers that the might of the Kuffar is restrained."

5. Bin Laden ends the message with the following prayer to God: " O Allah, Pervez, his ministers, his 'Ulama and his soldiers have been hostile to your friends in Afghanistan and Pakistan, especially in Waziristan, Swat, Bajaur and Lal Masjid: O Allah, break their backs, split them up and destroy their unity; O Allah, afflict them with the loss of their dear ones as they have afflicted us with the loss of our dear ones; O Allah, we seek refuge in You from their evilness and we place You at their throats; O Allah, make their plotting their destruction; O Allah, suffice for us against them with whatever You wish; O Allah, destroy them, for they cannot escape You; O Allah, count them, kill them, and leave not even one of them." (My comment: Here, he calls also for reprisals against the clerics who do not accept Al Qaeda's ideology and methods)

6. Musharraf already faces severe threats to his personal security since Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden's No. 2, started his campaign against him in 2003. After the two unsuccessful attempts to kill him at Rawalpindi in December, 2003, his physical security has been further strengthened. The latest fatwa of bin Laden increases the risk of Musharraf being killed by one of his own security guards or other army personnel, who have close access to him.

(The writer is Additional Secretary (retd), Cabinet Secretariat, Govt. of India, New Delhi, and, presently, Director, Institute For Topical Studies, Chennai. E-mail: seventyone2@gmail.com)

Al Qaeda Steps up Psywar Against Musharraf & Pakistani Army

Al Qaeda Steps up Psywar Against Musharraf & Pakistani Army - International Terrorism Monitor--- Paper No. 283

By B. Raman

Taking advantage of the current wave of Pashtun anger against Pakistan's President Gen.Pervez Musharraf and the Pakistani Army in the wake of the commando action in the Lal Masjid of Islamabad from July 10 to 13, 2007, and the killing of Abdullah Mehsud, a pro-Taliban tribal leader of South Waziristan and a former detenu at the Guantanamo Bay detention centre in Cuba, at Zhob in Balochistan on July 23, 2007, Al Qaeda has stepped up its jihadi PSYWAR not only against Musharraf personally, but also against the Pakistani Army as an institution. The stepped-up PSYWAR has also been timed to exploit the current weakening of Musharraf's image and political position in view of his confrontation with the judiciary and his manipulation of the laws relating to elections in order to have himself re-elected as the President for a second term. (Please see earlier paper of September 5, 2007 at http://www.saag.org/papers24/paper2357.html)

2. Criticism of the Pakistan Government and Musharraf by Al Qaeda is nothing new. It started in 2003. Both Osama bin Laden and his No.2 Ayman al-Zawahiri have been criticising them off and on. Whereas bin Laden's criticism was general in nature and avoided personal attacks on Musharraf, Zawahiri's past tirade was directed at the Pakistan Government's policies as well as against Musharraf personally. However, both of them took care not to attack the Pakistani Army as an institution. In fact, some of the past messages of Zawahiri focussed on the need for the Army to raise against Musharraf before he betrayed the interests of Pakistan to the Americans, the Jewish people and the Hindus.

3. In the latest PSYWAR offensive, which started on September 19,2007, the language used is more virulent, the arguments used have been drawn from the history of Islam as well as that of Pakistan, the examples drawn are from the recent history of Pakistan and the distinction sought to be made in the past between Musharraf and the Army has started disappearing. This reflects the exasperation of Al Qaeda over the continued solidarity of the senior officers of the Pakistan Army with Musharraf despite the decline in his popularity and the public controversy over some of his questionable actions.

4. There were reasons for Al Qaeda's restraint in its criticism of the Pakistan Army as an institution in the past. Firstly, it was dependent on the continued inaction of the Army for maintaining its sanctuaries in the Pakistani territory. Secondly, the success of the Neo Taliban's operations against the US-led coalition and the Afghan army in Afghan territory depended on the continued collusion of the Pakistan Army and its Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) with the Neo Taliban.

5. The importance of such inaction and collusion for Al Qaeda and the Neo Taliban has not disappeared. Despite this, Al Qaeda has chosen to attack the Army as an institution. This reflects its confidence that it has established itself so firmly in South and North Waziristan through its own efforts and with the support of the local tribals and the police and para-military forces that the Pakistan Army will not be able to do much damage to it. Moreover, in the perception of Al Qaeda, the anger of the Pashtun and other tribal elements at the lower levels of the army against Musharraf will ensure that the Army as an institution cannot pose a major threat to the presence of Al Qaeda and the Neo Taliban in Pakistani territory.

6. Does the stepped-up PSYWAR offensive presage a stepped-up ground offensive in Pakistan, to make it a third front in Al Qaeda's global jihad against the US and Israel and for the supremacy of Islam--- to add to the Afghanistan and Iraq fronts? Not necessarily. Al Qaeda's present ground support in Pakistan is confined to sections of the tribals in the Federally-Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP). It has very little ground support in other areas of Pakistan and among non-Pashtun ethnic groups. Even the Pakistani jihadi organisations such as the Harkat-ul-Mujahideen (HUM), the Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HUJI), the Lashkar-e-Toiba (LET) and the Jaish-e-Mohammad (JEM), which support Al Qaeda's pan-Islamic ideology and have joined its International Islamic Front (IIF), would not like to help it spread its influence to the non-tribal areas of Pakistan. Moreover, these organisations, which do not have much love for Musharraf, would nevertheless be averse to any Al Qaeda attempts to weaken the Pakistan Army as an institution. So too, the Neo Taliban whose criticism of Musharraf and the Army has been proforma without any undue virulence. The Neo Taliban and the Pakistani jihadi organisations know they would continue to need the covert support of the Army and the ISI--- the Neo Taliban in Afghanistan and the Pakistani jihadi organisations in India. They may not like to bite the hand that feeds them.

7. Pakistan is not Iraq or Afghanistan. It has a fairly liberal civil society outside the tribal areas. It has a vigorous political class. It has a bureaucracy, which is much more efficient than those of Iraq and Afghanistan. It has a well-trained, well-armed and well-motivated Army. The people of Pakistan are patriotic and would not like their country to become the battle ground of foreign forces----wither the Americans or the jihadis of Al Qaeda brand. If Al Qaeda tries to extend its influence and activities beyond the tribal areas, it is likely to get a strong riposte from the Pakistan Army.

8. The key question is how to rid the tribal areas of the presence and stranglehold of Al Qaeda and the Neo Taliban. The Pakistan Army has shown a disinclination to do so. Any overt US intervention will be provocative and counter-productive. The weakening of the US' covert action capability over the years has partly contributed to the present dilemma. Over-reliance on overt highly-militarised counter-terrorism operations has contributed to the resurgence of the Neo Taliban and Al Qaeda. It is time to work out an appropriate covert action strategy, which would enable the US to act effectively without seeming to act. There is also an urgent need to totally revamp the US' PSYWAR and Counter-PSYWAR strategy, which hardly exists now. As a result, Al Qaeda and pro-Al Qaeda organisations have managed to create an impression of their being everywhere----on the ground, in the world wide web and elsewhere. It is amazing and disquieting that even six years after the start of the so-called war against global jihadi terrorism, the international community in general and the US in particular are not able to counter effectively the PSYWAR of Al Qaeda. The war will be ultimately won or lost not only by the force of arms, but also by the force of words, images and imagination.

9. This assessment is based on a study of the audio messages of Zawahiri and bin Laden disseminated by As-Sahab, the propaganda and PSYWAR unit of Al Qaeda, on September 19 and 20, 2007, respectively.
(The writer is Additional Secretary (retd), Cabinet Secretariat, Govt. of India, New Delhi, and, presently, Director, Institute For Topical Studies, Chennai. E-mail: seventyone2@gmail.com)

PROFILE : Baloch Leader Ghulam Mohammad Baloch?




Ghulam Mohammad Baloch, is the president of Balochistan National movement (BNM), an organization struggling for the freedom of Balochistan from Pakistani and Iranian illegal occupation. He was born in a small village called Mand (Mekran), in Eastern occupied Balochistan. Politically he grew up as a member of Baloch Student Organization (BSO) and later became the chairman of BSO. In 1999, Pakistani ISI agents infiltrated the BNM and broke the organization into Pakistan National Party (PNP) and BNM. Ghulam Mohammad Baloch took the charge of BNM to carry out the Baloch National struggle to the next level, to meet the Baloch Nation's aspiration of an independent free and united Balochistan. He became very popular in a short span of time. He is respected by all Baloch people both inside Balochistan and worldwide. Ghulam Mohammad Baloch believes in armed struggle against the Pakistani and Iranian occupying forces to liberate Balochistan. Currently he is in the custody of Pakistani military forces. He was arrested from Karachi after he was speaking a public rally. Like thousands other Baloch political prisoners, his whereabout are also unknown to date

PART 1





PART 2



PART 3



PART 4



PART 5



PART 6



PART 7

September 21, 2007

WHY THE OBVIOUS IS SO OBSCURE? MADARIS UNDER FIRE!

http://panchaldhoks1.blogspot.com/

Introduction


1. The Muslims comprise one fifth of the world population. The Momneen ( as Muslims call themselves) are spread from Spain to Philippines on the Globe. They represent wide diversity of culture, languages, colour, creed, ethnicity, - - - - - -, and variations of human race around the world, yet there is only one Divine Mission Statement giving them the identity as Muslims- The Kalma-e- Toiba (La- Ila -Ill-lil-la , Mohd Rasool Illah). Nothing binds a Muslim more to another faithful than the Kalma-e-Toiba. Otherwise Islamic societies all over the world jell up nicely in the native milieu with other religious, regional or cultural ethnicities- as is generally not perceived. This one binding elements of Islamic identity all over the world Kalma-E-Toiba, is passed on to the generations after generations through an Islamic institutionalized system of schools called Madaris (Plural of Madrassa). For the Muslims the Madrassa is an important institution for religious as well as temporal education. The Muslims cannot negotiate for anything less .

2. Non-Muslim civilizations perceive, this institution prepares the minds of young Muslims upon the path of confrontation with followers of the other faiths. This impression gained credence after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan when some Islamic seminaries spread along the Pak-Afghanistan border, prepared Mohajir (Refugee) Afghan children on puritanical Islamic lines to wage a religious war upon the non-believing (Kafirs) – The Russian Army.

3. Three religious bodies namely the Jamait-ulmai-e-Islam Pakistan(JUIP), Jamait-Ulmae- Pakistan (JUP), Jamat-e-Islami Pakistan (JEI) sponsored and funded these Madaris in the war zone. Instead of imparting education to the tender children; these seminaries prepared, motivated and recruited them as cannon fodder to feed the proxy war effort of Pak ISI and CIA of US of A. Subsequently the phoenix like emergence of the intolerant & dreaded Taliban movement from the same seminaries further scared the world, so much so that, the word Madrassa evokes instant fear and caution among the non-Muslims. Do all Islamic Madaris in Indian sub-continent follow the same protocols of syllabi for imparting religious education to the Muslim children? Herein we try to find the answers.

AIM

4. This paper has been written with an aim to understand how The Madaris system actually functions in India and in our neighboring countries. Are the Madaris as demonic as portrayed?

The Madaris

5. The word Madrassa has been derived from Persian word “Madr” meaning mother and “sa” means “from”. Any learning which comes from mother cannot be evil. No word could be as pristine, beautiful and noble as the word Madrassa for school. Madaris is the plural form in Urdu (Apology from those, who use the word Madrassas for Madaris). Madrassa is a beautiful word, & it is unlikely that any other language has an equivalent word for the school.

The Msalik.

6. Before we further explore the subject of “The Madaris”, some light requires to be thrown on the Islamic schools of Thought called Msalik in Urdu (Maslak; singular and Msalik; plural) , prevalent in Indian subcontinent. In spite of the Sunni and Shia divisions of Islam, the Sunni Islam has further split into following Msalik in the Indian subcontinent.
a) Deobandi Maslak
b) Braillevi Maslak.
c) Jamat-e-Alhe Hadees Maslak
d) Jamat-e-Islami Maslak

7. A particular Maslak practices a particular brand of Islam, as interpreted by its religious scholars. Muslims, have three religious books, the holy Quran, the Hadees and the Sunna. The schools of thought which have emerged in Sunni Islam interpret these holy books in different shades. While all Sunni Muslims adore prophet Mohd, the books which deals with the practical Islam as practiced by prophet Mohd are Hadees. Those who lay more emphasis on the rituals and practices as prescribed in the Hadees are called Alhe-e-Hadees (the followers of Hadees). Quran remains a holy inspiration for every Muslim but the Hadees are the guiding principles. In the Indian sub-continent, the Sunni Muslims generally follow different shades of Alhe-Hadith school of thought.

Deobandi School of Thought

8. Based upon the interpretation of Hadees; the Deobandi school of thought is also called Jamiat-ul-ulmai-Islam (JUI). This school of thought has largest seminary in Deoband UP and the followers are called Deobandi. Their ideological origin is from Azhar (an Islamic seminary near Cairo in Egypt), the same place where Moulana Masood Azhar of the IA hijack infamy attained scholarship in Islamic studies after graduating from Jamia Banoria Karachi. In the Indian subcontinent the JUI are further split into tens of other sub division namely JUI Bangladesh, JUI Pakistan, JUI Kashmir and JUI Hind. The largest seminary of this Maslak is in Deoband near Saharanpur UP. In Pakistan, Banori Mosque in Banori Town Karachi houses the largest Deobandi school of thought seminary. Mullah Mohd Umer, the fugitive Taliban religious leader and Moulana Masood Azhar are two famous (infamous) persons who graduated from Masjid Jamia Banoria Karchi. The Tabligi Jamat or Allah Walleh are the propagation wing of the Deobandi Maslak.

Braillevi Maslak.

9. It is generally believed that the Braillevi school of thought or Jamat-E-Hanfia Islamia is a softer version of Islam in Indian sub-continent. It may be far from truth, as this school of Sunni Islam also derives its origin from Hadees for practicing Islam. However, the followers of this Maslak do venerate the graves of past Islamic preachers and Zealots as a thanks giving gesture to these departed souls who they believe liberated their fore-fathers from the devilish customs of Shirk (idol worship). Their principal seminary is located in Brailley UP. Incidentally this practice of veneration of the graves (Ziarats) of those so called saints is highly resisted and criticized by the followers of other Sunni Msalik like Alhe-Hadees and Deobandi. It may amuse the readers but the fact remains that the followers of one Maslak do not perform the Namaz (prayers) under the Imamat (religious head) of another Maslak. Bloody sectarian clashes among the followers of different Msalik are very frequent all over Pakistan, Bangladesh and even in India.

Markaz Dawat-ul-Arshad (Jamiat ul Dawa) or Alhe-Hadees Maslak

10. After the division at Ottoman Empire, the Arabic Peninsula was divided into many countries. The Saud family after which Saudi Arabic has been named took control of Arabia and gave a fresh interpretation of practicing Islam based on the practices and the code of conduct prophet (PBUH) followed. This Sunni school of thought is called Alhe-e-Hadees and the followers are called Wahabi (after Abdullah Bin Wahab- the first Saudi Monarch for Arabia). This brand of Islam is considered highly puritanical and largely at conflict with the modern values. In the aftermath of Bangladesh war, the Pakistani clergy established an institution called Markaz Dawat-ul-Arshad( Center for Learning) in Muridke near Lahore and is supposed to be the largest seminary of Alhe-e-Hadees in south Asia. It has been renamed recently as Jamat ul Dawa.

Jamat-e-Islami Maslak (popularly called Jamat)

11. This organization is of Indian origin, established by one learned Islamic scholar Moulana Ala-Mehdoodi r/o Pathankot Punjab who later migrated to Pakistan after partition. This organization has all the moorings of wahabism but it emerged as a parallel Muslim political consciousness against the Hindu political thought propagated by RSS & Hindu Maha Sabha in early twentieth century.

12. Jamat-e-Islami is political philosophy of Islam attempting to realize democratic values with Islamic glorious traditions and culture. No other Islamic school of thought believes in democracy; whereas Jamat does. It lays down ten Islamic commandments for the followers and draws all the principles of political governance from Quran , Sunnah ,Hadiths and the system of public administration as set up by the caliphs over ages. This is the largest Maslak of Sunni Muslims spread over 50 Islamic nations.


Analysts believe this school of thought is the Islamic answer to the concept of modern democracy of the West. In India sub-continent it has branched into Jamat-e-Islami Hind, JEI Bangladesh, JEI Kashmir, JEI Pakistan, JEI Azad Kashmir and Hizb-e-Islami Afghanistan.

Deeni Msalik and Islamic Terror organizations

13. Self righteous individuals and groups among all Deeni Msalik have set up military wings to defend Islam against any perceived invasion from the so called infidels, as well as the groups also take upon themselves the noble duty to purge the religion of the elements whom they believe have diluted the pristine ideology of Islam. The tree chart of all the terror organizations and their affiliations to the Deeni Msalik are shown in appendices ‘A’,’B’,’C’ and ‘D’. Under each Deeni Msalik couple of extremist groups operate claiming that they defend the Islam. Though these groups maintain their independent identities yet they are nothing but ideological mutants of each other. For example the Jaish family has originated from the Ansars (helpers) who first landed in Afghanistan to provide relief to the fleeing Muhajirs from the war zone under the tutelage of Jamait-Ul-Ulmae Islam Pakistan. The Al-Qaida, Harkat-ul-Ansar, the Jaish-e-Mohammad, Harkat-ul-Mujahideen and Harkat–ul-Jihad-e- Islami later emerged as the mutant terror organizations of the Deobandi Msalik. In Pakistan there is no distinction for individuals to operate in any particular mutant and it is difficult to distinguish when he switches one group and joins the other. It is true about the other terror organizations too.

The Deeni Madaris

14. With the advent of modern education, during the British period, most of the affluent Muslims of the subcontinent abjured the traditional Madaris system and adopted the western scientific education. The liberal Muslim thought which germinated as a result of the modern education, put a strain on the traditional Muslim way of life in the subcontinent. Over the years all the Islamic school of thoughts have carried out a massive reform system and included the modern content of education in the traditional Madaris curriculum to adopt to the changing needs of time, however, this system remains unattractive and beyond scope for delivery for the modern Muslim, hence the present system of Deeni Madaris run by all the Sunni Mqw3salik in Indian subcontinent has the following features.

a) Only poor Muslims avail the facilities at Madaris for free food, clothing, accommodation and to perpetuate Islamic identity and religious pride.
b) Funding is through charity (mostly animal hides) by rich Muslims or compulsory alms collection by Tulba (students) during Tabligh (Preaching).
c) Saudi funding is available for some selected seminaries imparting higher Islamic education only.
d) Teach math, science, computers and languages. They teach Hindi & English in India, Bengali & English in Bangladesh, Urdu & English in Pakistan. In India and Pakistan Urdu is the langue Franca of the Madaris.
e) The students have to wear white shalwar kameez and a skull cap.
f) Quran & Hadees are being taught but the percentage of curriculum is not more than 20 percent of the total syllabus.
g) Begging of alms and Tabligh is compulsory.

Ambience in Madaris

15. It has been observed that very serious natured poor countryside Tulba (students) join these Madaris but the prime concern of these students from very early age remains earning subsistence to sustain their families. The attention towards the curricula remains very low, hence the drop out rates in these Madaris at primary level is exceptionally high. The dropout rate of the students at primary level is as high as 90 percent. Let this myth be exploded that these Deeni Madaris are breeding nurseries for terrorists, after graduating from these religious schools, the students engage themselves in low paid craft works, some of them tutor the children of rich Muslims in Quran, Hadees and Sunnah, still others find jobs in these very seminaries as teachers. Corruption, nepotism, homosexuality and the exploitation of the children is rampant in these Madaris. Since most of these schools are run in the Muslim Auqaf trust buildings or some other trusts affiliated to different Msalik or sometimes by the individuals themselves, the govt has been found hesitant to intervene. Why the traditional white Shalwar kameez and the skull cap have become synonymous with TERRORISM. Any answers!

Casting The terrorist stereotypes

16. The Madaris system which evolved between years 1980 to 2000 on both sides of the Durand line to feed the US & Pakistani proxy war effort against the Red Army and subsequently the rise of Taliban movement in Afghanistan from the same Madaris raised the heckles of the civilized world. The traditional Islamic Madaris system came to be regarded as the breeding ground for terrorist movements. It may be noted, only the Deobandi school of thought ran these Madaris under the Tutelage of Moulana Fazal-ul-Rehman Khalil a prominent leader of MMA (Muthadha Majlis Amal). In those areas these Madaris are called Haqqani Madaris. Otherwise, in other parts of the subcontinent, the condition of these Deeni Madaris is as abject and deplorable as mentioned earlier.

The Madaris Myth Busted

17. I carried out a detailed study of these Madaris system in J&K between year 1996 to 2004 in Sunni Muslim dominated Distts viz Poonch, Rajouri, Anantnag, Pulwama, Srinagar, Baramulla & Kupwara. These findings are as follows:-

a) Jamat-e-Islami funded Muslim Falah Trust runs hundreds of these schools in Kashmir valley under IQRA (light - in Arabic) system of schools. These schools are very modern in outlook teach modern science, math, computers & languages. The children wear modern dresses & all are co-educational schools. During my study I did not come across any student of IQRA system of schools who joined militancy. Most of these schools are registered with J&K board of school education and are doing an excellent service in providing education to the children.




b) There are hundred odd Deobandi Madaris in Kashmir valley and Jammu region, but these Madaris are not organized under any formal organization, rather these institutions are run by individuals in certain specific area of their
influence. Some of these schools are registered with J&K board of school education, whereas majority of them are not. In rural areas of Poonch & Rajouri,
these schools are again doing a good job in spreading literacy. Attention needs to be paid to improve their performance. Trickle of students, the percentage could be very negligible, did join the militant ranks but eventually after crossing over the LOC these boys did not return back to join jihad, they melted in Pakistani crowds or some of them emigrated to Middle East in search of work.
c) The Alhe-e-Hadees and the Bravellives also run a few Madaris & the story remains the same all over Jammu & Kashmir as for the Deobandi system of Madaris.
d) The most amusing but equally important observation is about the Al-Dawa system of religious schools run by the MDI (Now JUD) in Pakistan. I wish to remind the readers about one startling fact : MDI is the religious seminary of the Alhe-Hadees school of thought and the dreaded LET is its military arm. MDI runs near 200 HS standard Madaris all over Punjab Province of Pakistan, some branches of these schools are in Karachi, Peshawar & Quetta also. These are very modern schools, imparting western education to the children (girls & boys both- though separate). Approximately 10 percent of the curriculum taught in these schools dwells upon Islamic studies. In a span of over 11 years, between 1994-2005, LET has lost around three thousand of its cadres in Kashmir in bloody combat with Indian Army & police forces; not even a single student from these schools joined LET or any other Pakistani Jihadi group . Among the 3000 odd LET militants killed in Kashmir not even a single recruit came from these schools. My grounds for these hard and matter of fact observations have been derived from the analysis of the following sources of information:-




i) Diaries recovered from the slain militants.
ii) “Maayen Lashkar-e-Toiba Ki”(The Mothers of LET), an yearly publication of the Markaz ul Dawa which lists the biography of the LET terrorists killed in Kashmir along with photos and the family background .
iii) The written wills of LET Mujahids which appears in Majla-al-Dawa, a monthly magazine of LET published from Lahore. Bio- data and historic deeds of the Mujahids are listed in this magazine.
iv) Internet Gleaning of LET web sites.
v) Pakistani Urdu press.
vi) “Sadai Hurryat Kashmir” a clandestine radio station run by HM from Muzzaffarabad (POK) which covers the militant activities in Kashmir.
vii) Detailed interrogation reports of the captured LET militants.
viii) Signal and telephone intercepts.
ix) Intercepted letters of the LET militants.

18. Out of my own deep and sincere curiosity to study the Madaris system in Rajasthan while I served there for seven months in year 2001, the observations which I gathered in Kashmir sustain themselves. In course of the 2005 WB assembly elections I got an opportunity to visit at least six subdivisions in Bankura, Malda, 24 North Parganas, Murshidabad and Coochbihar districts where at some places I found these Madaris. Most of these Madaris are registered with the West Bengal board of school education and teach poor Muslim students a prescribed syllabi by the board, in addition to the religious education. I did not find any difference here and what I observed in Kashmir or Rajasthan.

Where The Terrorists Come From ?

19. Out of the 17 skyjackers who hit planes on the twin towers in Manhattan, New York and Pentagon Washington DC, not even a single terrorist was Madaris educated. All these young boys were educated and brought up in Europe. The knowledge gathered from the interrogation reports of Hundreds of Kashmiri terrorists I have interrogated and also from an equal number of interrogation reports of terrorists of trans national origin reveal a pattern that only a few of



boys joined Jihad from Madaris. The most fertile ground for domicile Kashmiri militant’s recruitment have been the govt high schools and secondary schools. There has also been recruitment from the cricket play fields in the country side where the boys gathered to play cricket. It is beyond the scope of this paper to list the causes as to why the so called govt run secular schools and the cricket play fields are the recruitment cells of these terrorists. The recruitment pattern of the terrorists in Pakistan for the LET ,JEM and ABM is different. It is reflected in a separate study on the subject. Then why blame Madaris ? If the govt funded modern educational institutions feed terrorists to the militant organizations, why pass the buck? Why stereotype certain institutions? In year 1999 I sent an exclusive study on LET to BSF ‘G’ Dte , “ LET An Invisible Army Of Islamic Republic Of Pakistan.” one important fact needs attention in that study. None of the LET Jihadi killed in Kashmir by forces came from any Madrassa from Pakistan. The boys who join LET were govt school dropouts, or illiterate youth from Pak Punjab province mostly of rural background.

Indian Intelligence Agencies and Madaris system

20. The Madaris system has became a victim of neglect by the liberal Muslims, butt of ridicule by the competitive inter religious forces and exploited by the vote bank politics. The Int agencies have only helped the greedy politicians, religious fanatics and counter-religious forces. The law enforcement agencies all over the country have this pathetic feeling; if the Madaris are done away with the world would be a safer place to live! A Muslim terrorist is not the product of religious Islam, I believe he is a product of political Islam. Political Islam is born out of liberal Muslim thought who believe and make the Muslim folk believe, “Because you are Muslim, therefore, you have been subjected to grave injustices”. They use Islam to consolidate their power base and generate a conflict against the other civilizations. A Muslim terrorist is a warrior of weak political Islam against a strong political West and East. Out Int agencies need to educate themselves and practice caution




21. The perceptions of the central int agencies on the Madaris system suffer from the following short comings:-

a) Numerical data about Madaris is highly exaggerated.
b) Analysis of data is faulty.
c) Lack of understanding of Islam and its glorious history.
d) Conceptual understanding of Masalik is poor.
e) There is a perception that every skull cap wearing gentleman is a Jamatia ( slang for cadre of JEI).
f) All int agencies nurture this shallow belief that all Madaris are run by JEI.
g) Historically there is a communal & prejudicial approach towards Madaris.
h) Lack of Human Resource Analysts and technical base to gather & analyse data.
i) There is an ill founded perception that Madaris provide shelter to terrorists.
j) Indian intelligence community has spread the perception that Madaris are used as staging places by illegal Muslim infiltrators from hostile neighborhood. There seems to be no sinister design, it is rather unwittingly. Sometimes the professional innocence can be so devastating to National interests ! But it is not true.
k) It is hypothesized that Madaris on the International Border are cropping up due to some hidden enemy design.

22. The casting of a “Muslim Terrorist Stereotype and the Madaris Stereotype” , by the central intelligence agencies has already driven the Muslim community in India to the brink . The exercise is counter productive as we find that the general population and the combat personnel are getting communalized, hostile and revengeful towards Muslims. The Muslims feel highly alienated too. The need of hour is let The obvious appear visible and the obscure not lead us to obscurity

CHAK DE PAKISTAN ! THE BRASH PUNJABI SPIRIT


Reposted from http://panchaldhoks1.blogspot.com

1. After Pakistanis army’s stand off with the Tulba (students) of the red mosque in Islamabad in the last week of July, the doomsday forecasters had predicted the downfall of the general Pravez Musharraf`s Regime. The Indian Chattereti class, which also includes the drawing room planners of the North block, had been predicting a counter coup by an ambitious military general to overthrow the regime. Fears were also expressed that the right wing Islamic terrorists may assassinate the general. The Indian press also predicted that the general is seriously having a thought to flee to USA to join his son Bilal there to lead his post retirement life in relative easy and safe American security. Nothing of that sort happened and it may not even happen. The general understands the Pakistani Nation (if the one exists!) more than any surviving Pakistani politician in Pakistan. He also has the advantage of understanding the psyche of Pakistani army – a stakeholder of the troika of power equation – the clergy, the army and the prime minister. The general has always played his cards with proverbial military precision at the place and time of his choice. He has also demonstrated tremendous adaptability to the emerging situations. His flexible approach to the emerging situations has been to the point of even shameless U- turns. His resilience is unmatched by any contemporary politician or any past military dictator Pakistan has ever seen. The unfolding of the contemporary events in Pakistan do not preclude an early down fall of the present regime either. Only an army general preferably of Punjabi decent or a politician of the same roots may be able to upstage the general through a popular uprising. The political situation emerging in Pakistan with Mian Niwaz Shrief flexing his muscles to take on the general do have potential to upstage him ,but the poor Pathan uprising in the NWFP doesn’t immediately pose any danger to the general .Analyse the situation for yourself.

The Afghan Refugees and Pakistan.

The Migration of Pathans.

2. Post 1979 Red Army’s invasion of the Afghanistan, by a conservative estimate approximately five million refugees of Pushto origin entered Pakistan and settled in the mountainous region of NWFP and Blauchistan along the river valleys east of the Durand line . The town of Peshawar in the NWFP and Quetta of Blauchistan became the hubs of the migrant Afghan activities. The migrant Afghans settled in the mountainous tracks of Chitral, Swat, Northern Wazirastan ,Manshera division and other available tracks as far as Garhi Habibullah, Oghi, Abbotabad and even Muzzaffrabad town of POK. Hundreds of thousands of the Afghan refugees also settled down in the towns of Rawalpindi, Karachi, Lahore and other medium townships. These displaced Afghans became the cheap source of labour for the rich and exploitative Punjabi landlords, industrialists and businessmen (Forget the Islamic Masawat -equality of the Ummah). In the NWFP and POK the Pakistan army controlled Frontier Roads Organisation benefited a lot from the cheap Afghan labour force. The Pakistan army controlled National Logistic Cell (NLC)- a transport company of strategic importance owned by the retired Pak army officers, was another beneficiary of this hapless migratory labour force. All over northern Pkistan small tea stalls., minor vehicle repair workshops, grocery shops and small business establishments cropped up over the decade thus rendering the local Pushto and Hindco tribes of NWFP jobless. This led to many social tensions among the local tribes and the migrant Afghan communities.

ISI Butts In

3. The Pakistani army and its intelligence wing the ISI along with the CIA of USA fed the proxy war effort inside Afghanistan against the Russians from amongst the youth of the migratory population of the Afghans. To indoctrinate them to go to the front and face the Russians –the mantra of jihad was invented straight from the medieval Islamic traditions of war against the infidels. Who knew the chickens would come back home to roost one day! The Pakistan ISI later diverted the Afghan terrorists to Kashmir to wage a proxy war in Kashmir.

Ethnicity Prevails Over Religion.

4 The settlement of the Pushto Afghan refugees did not bring any prosperity in the northern regions of Pakistan but as it happens, the migratory Pushto population aggravated the problem of unemployment among the local youth of NWFP; in the farm, construction and small scale industry. The middle class in Pakistan profess or claim to profess the highest standards of Islamic values and morality, though it is a different matter whether at the individual level any Pakistani practices the cherished and elegant values of Islam! The hypocrisy has always been the hallmark of the Pakistani Nation since its inception. The poor and the distressed Pathans sell their fair skinned and beautiful girls to rich landlords, businessmen and any one who matters in power and pelf in Pakistan. The trade is flourishing clandestinely in the northern Pakistan and its beneficiaries include the rich and exploitative Pakistanis from Karachi to Islamabad. The police are just looking the other way round when the incidents are brought in their notice. Many of these girls latter land up in the brothels in Karachi, Islamabad Lahore and other small towns after having been abandoned by their masters. The Punjabi always consider the Pathan as low witted, inferior and unreliable creature hence the acceptability of the Pathan on the Masawati (equal) terms is just a cherished Islamic ideal only and the Punjabi would give a damn to the equality of Muslims as cherished in Islam. Since the beginning of their presence in the workspace and the so-called morality space of the Pakistani society, the mistrust towards pathans has become even deeper. In Pakistan the Punjabis dominate overwhelming space in the power corridors. The army, the bureaucracy and the politics have Punjabi dominance particularly of the landlords and the military officials. The ethnic fault lines between the Punjabis and the Pathans have since become wide fissures. The pride contract killings of the Punjabi girls who marry Pathan boys against the wishes of the community elders has increased by 200 percent annually in Punjab province alone in last two decade since the arrival of Mohajir Pathans in Pakistan. In urban areas of Peshawar, Karachi, Quetta, Lahore and Rawalpindi the menial labour force and the domestic helps are predominantly the poor Pathan males and females( Don’t forget back home the poor Nepalese Gurkhas and the illegal Bangladeshi migrants are too exploited by the north Indian urban middle class and the land owners on the same pattern).Crimes like thefts, thugy, cheating, murders, prostitution, sodomy, black marketing etc are the natural outcome of any hapless migratory population in the world. But hypocritical middle class morality of the Punjabis wont accept anything of the sort, after all they believe that Pakistan was won for the pure and there is no space for the immorality. The collective morality of the Punjabis is idealistic but the practiced individual morality is different. A deep-rooted resentment against the Pathans is widespread phenomena in Pakistan especially in the urban areas. The popular TV programms in Pakistan generally lampoon and make fun of the perceived low-witted Pathan. Does not this reflect the deep-rooted malice of the Punjabis for the poor Pathans?

Common Blood Lineage –Headache for Pakistan.


5. In the western regions of NWFP east of the Durand line, vast tracks of land is populated by the ethnic pathans who have historical, cultural, linguistic and religious similarity with their Afghan counterparts on the Afghanistan side. A strong undercurrent of PUSHTO Nationalism is running deep among the divided communities residing on the either side of the Durand line. The strong nationalistic Punjabi middle class resents this resurgence of the ethnic Pathan nationalism. Under the influence of the Deobandi Madaris system (religious seminaries) these local tribal communities have been woven into a militarised society under the Ansar family of jihadis; organized, indoctrinated and trained initially by the ISI and the CIA and now by the jihadis of the Ansar family itself. The Ansar family of the jihadis include the Harkat-ul-Ansar ,Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, the Harkat-ul-Jihad-e-Islami, the jaish-e-Mohammad, the Taliban, the Saphe sahaba Pakistan and the Al QUIAD. There are many other minor mutants of the Ansar family of jihadis but the prominent ones have been listed above and they drive the origin from the same ideological family tree- the Deobandi or the Azhari school of thought.

6. The Pakistani armed forces comprise 80 percent of the Punjabi middle class and the poor. The forces are highly patriotic and nationalistic in their outlook and believe that Pakistan is the pillar for the propagation of Islam and providing leadership to the ummah . For them Pakistan is the last hope for the Ummah and Islam in the world. Therefore, any resurgence of ethnic uprising in the tribal areas of the NWFP or Blauchistan is considered a heretic action and the movements are termed as anti-Islamic. The undercurrent of Punjabis against the Pushto National resurgence is visible in the present spate of violence in the NWFP. The response of the armed forces particularly the Frontier Constabulary(FC) under the XII corps of the Pakistan army is equally ruthless and merciless. Any move by the Pushtos for the Pathanisation or the Talibanisation of the western regions would be seriously resisted by the Punjabi controlled Pakistan army. General Pravez Musharraf knows where his key result areas lay. He has an uncanny sense to smell where he got to fish in the troubled waters.


The Ansar Family of Jihadis verses the Hibz and the Lashkar families of Jihadi Enterprises

The Ansars


7. Apparently all the jihadis show a united front in Pakistan or so it appears but in actuality there is deep chasm between the three families of the jihadi enterprises influenced by the three different Islamic ideologies of the Indian subcontinent. The Deobandi or the Azhari (Jamat-e-Ulmae-e-Islam) school of thought influenced Ansar family of jihadis which have been listed in the above paras derive ideology from the Hanfi branch of the Wahabi Islam. In the NWFP Deobandi movement has always been very powerful. At the outset of the Russian invasion the movement got further impetus and support from Muslims all over the Indian subcontinent and also an overwhelming financial and material support from the Arab followers of the Azhari or wahabhi supporters. Millions of petro-dollars poured into the coffers of the mullahs of Jamat-e-ulma-e- Islam in NWFP. Thousands of Deeni Madaris (Religious seminaries) under he aegis of the JUI cropped up in the region on the Pakistani side of the Durand line. Initially the Ansars (helpers in urdu) started the relief work but subsequently they got drawn into the militarized conflict along side the ISI and the CIA. Soon they were joined by thousands of Arab Afghans to fight a holy war against the Russians. Over a decade scores of jihadi organizations cropped up in the region driving the ideological strength from the Deobandi School of Islamic thought. It is beyond the preview of this paper to go into the evolution and growth of the Ansar family yet briefly the first organisation to join the Afghan jihad was the Harkat ul Mujahideen. Subsequently the organisation got split-up into Harkat-ul-jihad-e-Islami and Hharkat-ul-Mujahideen. The Arab Afghans remained in the Harkat-ul-Mujhadeen only . With the beginning of the Kashmir conflict in the region the HUM and HUJI leadership felt a need to unite and put a united front against the Indian Army. Both the factions of the Ansars united in Kashmir under the leadership of Maulana Masood Azhar and the organisation came to be called as Harkat ul Ansar. The honeymoon did not long last and soon HUA again split into the parent factions. The Arab Afghans who were erstwhile part of the HUM now created their own organisation called AL-QAID under the leadership of Osama bin laden, an Arab who had fought the Russians in Afghanistan. The

Taliban movement was born out of the HUM elements of the Afghan origin in Kandhar province. The Taliban movement of Mullah Umer who had once fought the Russians under the HUM banner soon sucked in the political, administrative and the military vacuum thus created by the Russian vacation of the Afghanistan.

8. The Ansar family of the jihadis may have international presence but in actuality the support base of these organizations exists in the Pathan dominated regions of the NWFP and eastern and southeastern Afghanistan. Though educated and highly radicalized Muslim youth from all over the world join the AL-QUAID to avenge the perceived injustices with the Muslims by the non Muslim nationalities yet the ground zero of the support base of the Ansar family of jihadis is the pan-Pukhtunistan land space on either side of the Durand line. Though Jaish- e-Mohammad has support base in the town of Rawalakot in POK ,some distts of the Bhawalpur division of the Punjab province (Bhawalpur and Sadiqabad distts) and in the Banoria town in and around Jamia Banoria Karachi, yet the enterprise thrives on the support base from amongst the ethnic pathans only.

9 The phenomenon called the Lal Masjid in Islamabad is not as much an Islamic militant resistance against the pro-US Musharraf government as it an expression of the Pathan ethnic identity and the self expression of the community in Pakistani political space. The ulma and the tulba of the mosque were predominantly Pathans and the mosque cum seminary had become a symbol of the Pushto resistance movement against the Musharraf government. To read between the lines the Lal Masjid episode represented the other side of the fault lines between the nationalistic Punjabis and the growing Pathan Nationalism along the ethnic lines. The Pakistani middle class and the middleclass dominated Pakistan army is suspicious of the growing radicalization of the Pushto nationalism which may ultimately threaten the existence of Pakistan as well. But this had to happen since Pakistan has been exploiting the pathans for furthering its strategic objectives since the Afghan jihad days. After the purge of the red mosque by the Pakistan army we see a definite pattern of violence emerging in Pakistan. No terrorist strikes have been reported from the whole of Punjab province against the pak army. The fidayee actions of the Ansar family terror enterprise are absolutely NWFP centric and have overwhelming support of the Pushto population. There is not even a single strike against the targets in the most populated province of Pakistan ie Punjab. Recently one terrorist strike has been observed the town of Rawalpindi cantonment in one of the buses which was ferrying the ISI staff of the infamous JIN directorate. It is believed an insider afghan who knew the directorate inside out was responsible for the strike. The more the Pakistan army retaliates against the Ansar enterprise the more resentment would be brewing up against the Pakistani establishment among the pathans and more the retaliation by the Patahns against the Pak forces more deep would be the suspicion among the Punjabis and Pathans.

The Hizb

10. The other jihadi organizations under the influence of the JEI Pakistan and the Markaz ul Dawa namely the Hizb family and the Lashkar family , are predominantly Punjab based Sunni organizations. Though the Hizb family draws its cadres from Kashmir but its ideological and material support base is the JEI Pakistan and POK. The Lashkar and the Hizb terror family enterprise does not have any support base in the tribal regions of NWFP and Baluchistan. One variant of the Hizb family, the Al Badr Mujahideen split from the Hizb group in 1994 over ethnic differences and non compatibility of the insipid Pathan with the predominantly Kashmiri and Punjabi dominated Hibz enterprise. Bakht Zamin , the chief of Jamat e Islami of the NWFP had broken ranks with the Jamat chief of Pakistan namely Qazi Hussain. In fact the ABM is more close to the Ansar family of terrorists than with its parent body the Hizb family. The reasons are so obvious. In 1998 the ethnic Pathan Hizb group the ABM and HMPPR ( Hizb ul Mujahideen Pir Panchal Regiment), another component of the Hizb family of the Pok , had jointly fought pitched gun battles against the Punjabi controlled Hizb group of the Kashmiri origin namely the Hizbul Mujahideen in the Sensa forests of the Kotli distt of POK. The gun battle later spread to all the terrorist camps in the POK. The Pakistan army had to be called in to restore order. The JEI Pak and the Hizb family of terrorists are highly Pro pak nationalistic organizations and these groups are essentially India centric in their jihadi orientations. The Hizb family of terrorists do not support any jihadi enterprise against any other nationality or country except India and that too only in Kashmir. If Pakistan is endangered these organizations join the cause with the Pak establishment. Naturally, therefore the activities of the Ansar family don’t placate the likes of the Hizb family .

The Lashakar –e- Toiba

11. The Markaz Al Dawa supported jihadi enterprise the Laskkar-e-Toiba is again a Punjabi dominated group only. It derives its ideology from the pan-Islamic Wahabi , Al-hadees school of thought. Though the ideals of the group are highly pan-Islamic yet in its moorings and support base the group is highly ethnic and does not have any base outside the Punjab province.

The Lashkar e Toiba derives its cadres from Punjab province only and the group like the Hizb enterprise is highly India centric and works in close co-operation with the Pakistan intelligence agencies .

Pakistan First

12. The Lashkar and Hizb jihadi outfits are highly patriotic outfits who believe in the General Pravez Musharraf`s doctrine of “Pakistan first”. Since 2004 the Lashkar-e-Toiba is having a truce with the Pakistan army. Along the LOC in Kashmir the Lashkar-e-Tioba terrorists have been co- opted with the Pakistan army to police the LOC so that no undesirable and unaccounted elements sneaks into Kashmir without the sanction of Pak army. In the bargain the ISI sends the LET operatives to Kashmir in a highly controlled manner.

13.All the terrorist attacks on Pravez Musharraf had been orchestrated by the Ansar family of terrorists only .Terrorists of the HUM, JEM and AL QUAID were involved in the strikes. The recent suicide bombings of the Pak army convoys and the camps in the NWFP and northern Waziristan are handiwork of HUM, the Taliban and the Al Quaid only. It is important to note that the Lashkar and the Hizb terrorist are not involved in any of these strikes in the region against the Pak army. The area of influence of the Lashkar-e- Tioba is absolutely violence free. So what does it indicate? Both these groups highly resent the actions of the Ansar family against the Pakistan army troops .

Musharraf`s calculated Strike.

14. No politician and for that matter any analyst of Pakistan understands the undercurrents of Pakistani ethnic divide so clearly as much as president General Musharraf does. By decisively striking against the pro Taliban, Ansar enterprise, the general has placated a huge constituency of Punjabis. The patriotic Pakistan army and the bureaucracy have been resentful of the actions and attitude of pathans, which have been threatening the existence of

Pakistan itself. Hence the doctrine of “Pakistan First” which has huge following in the Punjabi community all over Pakistan have supported the action of the Pak army against the seminary and the mosque in the heart of Islamabad town. The absolute clam in the heart of Punjab province can only be attribute to the exiting ethnic divide between the Punjabis and the pathans. The general has called the bluff of the Pathans effectively and now the process of consolidation of his gains is underway. More the pathans resort to violence against the Pak army more the Punjabis get resentful of them. It would help the general to consolidate the power base in Pakistan in the long run.

Long Term Effects


15. For General Prevez Musharraf and his army the battle lines are clearly drawn on the ethnic lines as on now. He is well placed to side with the Punjabi dominated army against the Pathan dominated Taliban and AlQaid movement. The Pathans are widely scattered population in a vast geographical span of the Hindu Kush mountain ranges in the NWFP and the Blauchistan, so they don’t immediately pose any serious threat to the physical existence of Pakistan. However the conflict is like to draw even deeper along the ethnic lines in the days to come. Unless the general arrives at a permanent and durable solution to the problem of the Talibans who are fighting against the foreign occupation of Afghanistan, the region is going to be in a continuous state of turmoil and simmering discontent.

16. Any future dispensation in Islamabad cannot live with the status quo. It is more likely that the jihadi discontent of the region will be directed towards India sooner or later. The situation in Kashmir has not stabilized as yet hence for India the stakes are too high. Till then Chak De Pakistan. Long live the Punjabi spirit!

Sonia Gandhi's UN Visit : Protest and Hunger Strike by "Forum for Gandhi Heritage"


PRESS RELEASE

FORUM FOR GANDHI HERITAGE

Subject: PROTEST AND FAST AGAINST SONIA (MAINO) GANDHI




Protest Details

Where: United Nations, 47th St & 1st Ave, NY

When: Oct 2, 2007, 12-2 PM



Fast & Prayer Details

Where: Union Square (front of Gandhi Statue), 14th St & Union Square East, NY

When: Oct 1st and Oct 2nd, 10AM - 6PM



Hundreds from across the entire continental US are expected to participate in a peaceful protest, fast and prayers, against Sonia (Antonia Maino) Gandhi, President of Congress Party and UPA Chairman on her representation on Oct 2nd at UN on International Non-Violence day.


While we commend the declaration of Mahatma Gandhi's birthday as International Non-Violence Day by United Nations at India's request, we highly condemn the usurpation of this historic moment by an unqualified politician whose policies, programs and values are antithesis of what Mahatma Gandhi ji stood for.



Mahatma Gandhi ji's life represented, truth, tolerance, non-violence, purity and resistance to injustice. In today's world filled with terrorism, religious fanaticism, political corruption, Mahatma Gandhi ji's message is more relevant now than ever before. As Martin Luther King said, "we tend to ignore Gandhi at our own risk".


However, Ms. Sonia Gandhi is entirely contrary to the principles and ethos of luminaries such as Mahatma Gandhi ji, Nelson Mandela and Martin Luther King Jr. and hence not worthy of being chosen to represent Gandhi ji.



We firmly believe that this strategy is motivated by desire to gain international legitimacy and political control in Indian governance, using the name of a world revered Indian icon รข€“ Mahatma Gandhi ji. The fact is Sonia (Maino) Gandhi has no relationship whatsoever, either by blood, ideals and actions with the revered Father of the Nation of India.


People who do not know, here in USA, United Nations and the rest of the World will assume that Sonia Gandhi is a relative of Mahatma Gandhi (because of the same last name) and she stood for his ideals. To permit her to represent Gandhi ji would be a travesty in the name of Mahatma Gandhi ji.


It is imperative that we hold a sacred symbol such as Mahatma Gandhi ji as sacred, otherwise we will have little to hold on to. We cannot and should not allow such sacred symbol usurped by those whose life is opposite to what he stood for in his life.

The forum therefore feels that Sonia (Maino) Gandhi selection to speak on behalf of Mahatma Gandhi ji is inappropriate.


We would be highly obliged, if you could kindly send your representative(s) to cover this historic event. For further information, you may refer to website http://gandhiheritage.org or contact our media representative Naresh Sharma, 609-226-9702

India faces eviction from Tajik military base




Thursday, 20 September , 2007, 14:58

New Delhi: India is likely to be evicted from its sole, albeit fledgling, overseas military facility at Ayni air base near Tajikistan's capital Dushanbe under pressure from Russia, which is concerned over New Delhi's burgeoning ties with Washington.



Senior military officials said the emerging possibility of India looking to Washington and other Western suppliers for military hardware was responsible for Russia "leveraging" its considerable influence with Tajikistan to try and terminate New Delhi's "loose arrangement" regarding Ayni if it declined to be "co-operative".

India's refurbishment of the Ayni military base, 15 km from Dushanbe, for around $1.77 million (about Rs 7 crore) was completed earlier this year nearly 24 months behind schedule by the quasi-military Indian Border Roads Organisation under the 2002 bilateral defence agreement with Tajikistan.

Thereafter, the defence ministry has been awaiting direction from the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) headed by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to officially begin operating from there.

The ministry had reportedly asked the CCS for a "formal mandate" on force levels before the Indian Air Force (IAF) transferred some of its assets to Ayni as part of India's move to augment its "strategic reach" in a troubled area and to secure its galloping energy needs from the resource rich Central Asian Region (CAR).

Military planners also consider Ayni air base as a "limited, yet significant" platform to inject Special Forces into a hostile region in response to any emerging threat from the volatile Afghanistan-Pakistan arc.

The hijacking by Islamist radicals of an Indian Airlines passenger aircraft from Kathmandu to Kandahar in southern Afghanistan in December 1999 was one such contingency in which India was forced to capitulate to terrorist demands.

Ayni also serves as a conduit for India to funnel aid to war-torn Afghanistan as access via the shorter overland route via Pakistan is prohibited by Islamabad.

"This (Russian pressure) appears to be a ploy for more concessions and indulgence from India," a senior military officer associated with the Central Asian Region said. Its Moscow's way of telling New Delhi not to "stray" into the American military hardware camp, the official told IANS.

India annually conducts defence business of over $1.5 billion (about Rs 6,000 crore) with Russia, and since the 1960s has acquired Soviet and Russian military equipment worth over $30 billion (about Rs 1,20,000 crore).

Over the next decade, military planners anticipate purchases of over $40 billion (about Rs 1,60,000 crore) to replace or upgrade India's predominantly Soviet and Russian defence equipment that have reached collective obsolescence.

Moscow is understandably anxious to encash this potential and is wary of competition from other suppliers, particularly the US, in support of IAF's latest requirement of 126 multi-role combat aircraft.

Alongside, India is deadlocked in delicate discussions with Russia wanting to renegotiate its $85-billion Sukhoi 30MkI multi-role fighter deal by demanding a higher price for the timely delivery of the combat aircraft with the agreed specifications.

In July, reportedly at the behest of a seemingly 'displeased' Moscow, Tajik Foreign Minister Hamrahon Zaripov declared that Dushanbe was not negotiating with New Delhi about permitting India a military base at Ayni.

India, he admitted, had helped rehabilitate the Ayni airfield, but this did not provide for its being granted basing facilities.

Thereafter, there has been no formal communication to New Delhi from Tajikistan to withdraw from Ayni some 150 Indian military engineers, workers and defence personnel that comprise the base's maintenance squad as well as its training team engaged in instructing the Tajik air force.

Consequently, a rash of nervous senior Indian security and military officials have visited Russia to not only try and assuage Moscow's concerns over arms purchases but also to solicit its influence in helping to maintain India's military presence at Ayni, official sources said. The sources declined to be named given the classified and sensitive nature of the negotiations.

National Security Advisor M K Narayanan's August 2007 visit to Moscow was followed by that of Indian Army Chief JJ Singh as part of a tri-service delegation that returned home Sep 18. Singh's trip was ostensibly to observe joint anti-terrorist manoeuvres between the Indian and Russian Special Forces in the Pskov region south of St Petersburg.

Lt Gen Z U Shah, the Indian Army's deputy chief (planning and systems) responsible for material acquisitions, flew to Moscow last week for "consultations", reportedly to allay Russian apprehensions over India evaluating alternate weapon suppliers.

India's continued military presence at Ayni was also believed to be on Gen Shah's agenda.

Defence Minister A K Antony travels to Russia in October ahead of a summit meeting in Moscow between Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and President Vladimir Putin at which Russian military contracts beset by delays and cost escalation and the prickly Ayni issue are likely to be discussed. Thereafter, Putin is expected to visit India by the year-end.

The Indian defence ministry spokesman declined to comment on the ongoing negotiations in Moscow regarding Ayni or on weapon related matters. "We have no idea of what talks are underway in Moscow," the official told IANS.

Official sources said India's role in refurbishing Ayni airbase included restoring its long disused runway, an aircraft taxiing track, building a parking apron, three aircraft hangars, accommodation for a "sizeable" Indian military contingent and perimeter fencing.

Under the informal 'arrangement', India, Tajikistan and Russia — the dominant regional force and New Delhi's close ally — were to operate the air base by rotation.

It was anticipated that the resident Indian military contingent of army and IAF personnel would work closely with the Russians, who have a motorised division in Tajikistan, for logistical support.

Military sources said the IAF initially planned on basing a squadron of Mi 17IV helicopters at Ayni but was also considering the 'operational and political feasibility' of deploying fixed wing MiG-series fighters from time to time in addition to trainer aircraft to train the Tajik Air Force.

Earlier in 2003, India conducted its first-ever overseas military exercise with Tajikistan. This included two IAF Antonov 32 transport aircraft that demonstrated their lift capability and a platoon-strength of Special Forces that carried out parachute jumps and other commando exercises.

IAF technicians have also been helping Tajikistan retrofit their Soviet and Russian fighters while New Delhi is fostering closer trade links with Dushanbe in IT, engineering goods and pharmaceuticals. Civilian and military Indian personnel are also teaching English to Tajik defence staff.

India's initiative to refurbish Ayni followed the earlier establishment of its first military "outpost" in Tajikistan at Farkhor on the Tajik-Afghan border.

The 'quietly functional' Farkhor base was an extension of the field hospital India established in the late 1990's as part of its role in helping Afghanistan's Northern Alliance in the fight against the Taliban regime. Northern Alliance leader Ahmad Shah Massoud, targeted by assassins, died in the Indian-run hospital two days before September 11, 2001.



http://www.domain-b.com/industry/defence/20070920_indo_us.htm
20 September 2007

Mumbai: India is likely to lose its fledgling overseas military facility, at Ayni air base near Tajikistan`s capital Dushanbe, under pressure from Russia.

Senior defence officials said Mosow, which is concerned over New Delhi's growing ties with Washington, is using its considerable influence with Tajikistan to try and terminate New Delhi`s "loose arrangement" regarding Ayni if it declined to be "co-operative".

India's Border Roads Organisation had revamped the Ayni military base, 15 km from Dushanbe, for around $1.77 million earlier this year, nearly 24 months behind schedule, under a bilateral defence agreement with Tajikistan.

In July, Tajik foreign minister Hamrahon Zaripov declared that his government was not negotiating a deal permitting New Delhi to set up a military base at Ayni, reportedly under pressure from Moscow.

India, he admitted, had helped rehabilitate the Ayni airfield, but this did not provide for basing facilities.

Thereafter, there has been no formal communication to New Delhi from Tajikistan to withdraw from Ayni some 150 Indian military engineers, workers and defence personnel that comprise the base`s maintenance squad as well as its training team engaged in instructing the Tajik air force.

The defence ministry, meanwhile, is awaiting a direction from the cabinet committee on security (CCS) headed by prime minister Manmohan Singh to officially begin operations from the base.

The ministry had reportedly asked the CCS for a "formal mandate" on force levels before the Indian Air Force (IAF) transferred some of its assets to Ayni as part of a move to augment its "strategic reach" in a troubled area.

Ayni also serves as a conduit for India to send aid to war-torn Afghanistan as access via Pakistan is prohibited by Islamabad.

"This (Russian pressure) appears to be a ploy for more concessions and indulgence from India," a senior military officer associated with the Central Asian Region said, adding, its Moscow`s way of telling New Delhi not to "stray" into the American military hardware camp.

India buys defence equipment worth over $1,500 million with Russia every year. Since the 1960`s India has acquired Soviet and Russian military equipment worth over $30 billion.

Defence planners anticipate purchases of over $40 billion over the next decade from Russia to replace or upgrade India`s predominantly Soviet and Russian defence equipment.

Moscow seems to be wary of competition from other suppliers, particularly the US, in support of IAF`s latest requirement of 126 multi-role combat aircraft, they point out.

Russia is also trying to renegotiate its $85 billion Sukhoi 30MkI multi-role fighter deal by demanding a higher price for the timely delivery of the combat aircraft with the agreed specifications.

http://www.domain-b.com/industry/defence/20070920_indo_us.htm


Other reports on Defence

America's Budget Crisis



Sep 14th, 2007

The Commonwealth Club of California - San Francisco, CA

America's Budget Crisis with discussants: David M. Walker, Comptroller General of the U.S.; Isabel V. Sawhill, Senior Fellow, Economic Studies, Brookings Institution; Alison Acosta Fraser, Director, Thomas A. Roe Institute for Economic Policy Studies, The Heritage Foundation; Robert L. Bixby, Executive Director, the Concord Coalition; Tom Campbell (moderator), Dean, Haas School of Business, U.C. Berkeley.

Can the United States still make tradeoffs between spending on entitlements, wars and infrastructure, or is our fiscal house out of control? The Fiscal Wake-Up Tour is a public engagement initiative addressing the problems of the nation's fiscal policy. Panelists with diverse perspectives discuss why our current fiscal policy is unsustainable and what we can do to change it - The Commonwealth Club of California

Pakistan's Human Rights Record under Fire

http://www.voanews.com





By Simon Marks
Lahore, Pakistan
20 September 2007

Watch Human Rights report / Windows Broadband - download



Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf is under fire over his country's human rights record. Western and Pakistani human rights groups accuse the military ruler of tolerating abuses as Pakistan tries to combat the threat of terrorism. But senior figures within the Pakistani government say the country's intelligence agencies are doing what they need to do to overcome real threats. From Lahore, Simon Marks reports.

The dusty legal files are stacked to the ceiling of Asma Jahangir's office in Lahore. And each one tells a story about an ongoing battle to protect the rights of the individual in Pakistan.



Jahangir chairs the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan. It is an independent, non-governmental organization that seeks to protect women and children who have been raped and abused, families whose assets have been summarily expropriated and relatives of people who have disappeared after being taken into custody. "There are hundreds of people who have disappeared and we have gone to court with a list of something like 175 people who still remain disappeared out of which some were recovered, and 95 are still not there."

On that issue, Pakistan's Supreme Court has now intervened, ordering the government to produce and release dozens of people that Pakistan's intelligence services have denied ever holding.

But the Pakistani authorities are still accused of abuses, including arbitrary detention, torture, and unexplained deaths-in-custody.

Of particular concern to activists is the situation in the southwestern province of Baluchistan, where the government is fighting a nationalist uprising. "Torture is just routine, and if you are not tortured you are really lucky and exceptional. The government acts with impunity. You go to Baluchistan and you will find out how many people have been killed, bombarded there, and the government continues to say that these are 'miscreants.'"

Pervez Musharraf
President Musharraf's government says it is fighting a front-line role in the global war on terror. Taleban and al-Qaida forces have regrouped along Pakistan's border with Afghanistan.

And suicide bomb attacks -- like one earlier this month in Rawalpindi at the headquarters of the Pakistani Army -- have destabilized the country's towns and cities. It is against that background that Pakistani government ministers acknowledge the intelligence agencies sometime cut corners in a bid to safeguard the country.

Sheikh Rashid Ahmed is Pakistan's Railways Minister, and a close aide to President Musharraf. "There are some cases of torture for investigations, to know the news and know the network and to enter into the network."


Sheikh Rashid Ahmed
And Ahmed says that is justified given the nature of the terrorist threat. "In my opinion, for such kind of people and things, you know you have to do something like this."
Human rights activists disagree, and in Lahore, attorney Asma Jahangir has recruited a new generation of paralegals. Each has a poster demanding an end to military rule in Pakistan -- the first step, they say, to advancing the cause of human rights in the country.