February 05, 2011

EGYPT: Jack Blood Interviews F William Engdahl

Egypt's Revolution: Creative Destruction for a 'Greater Middle East'?

Egypt's Revolution:

Creative Destruction for a 'Greater Middle East'?

February 5, 2011

© F. William Engdahl, author Full Spectrum Dominance: Totalitarian Democracy in the New World Order *

Fast on the heels of the regime change in Tunisia came a popular-based protest movement launched on January 25 against the entrenched order of Egypt's Hosni Mubarak. Contrary to the carefully-cultivated impression that the Obama Administration is trying to retain the present regime of Mubarak, Washington in fact is orchestrating the Egyptian as well as other regional regime changes from Syria to Yemen to Jordan and well beyond in a process some refer to as "creative destruction."

The template for such covert regime change has been developed by the Pentagon, US intelligence agencies and various think-tanks such as RAND Corporation over decades, beginning with the May 1968 destabilization of the de Gaulle presidency in France. This is the first time since the US-backed regime changes in Eastern Europe some two decades back that Washington has initiated simultaneous operations in many countries in a region. It is a strategy born of a certain desperation and one not without significant risk for the Pentagon and for the long-term Wall Street agenda. What the outcome will be for the peoples of the region and for the world is as yet unclear.

Yet while the ultimate outcome of defiant street protests in Cairo and across Egypt and the Islamic world remains unclear, the broad outlines of a US covert strategy are already clear.

No one can dispute the genuine grievances motivating millions to take to the streets at risk of life. No one can defend atrocities of the Mubarak regime and its torture and repression of dissent. No one can dispute the explosive rise in food prices as Chicago and Wall Street commodity speculators, and the conversion of American farmland to the insane cultivation of corn for ethanol fuel drive grain prices through the roof. Egypt is the world's largest wheat importer, much of it from the USA. Chicago wheat futures rose by a staggering 74% between June and November 2010 leading to an Egyptian food price inflation of some 30% despite government subsidies.

What is widely ignored in the CNN and BBC and other Western media coverage of the Egypt events is the fact that whatever his excesses at home, Egypt's Mubarak represented a major obstacle within the region to the larger US agenda.

To say relations between Obama and Mubarak were ice cold from the outset would be no exaggeration. Mubarak was staunchly opposed to Obama policies on Iran and how to deal with its nuclear program, on Obama policies towards the Persian Gulf states, to Syria and to Lebanon as well as to the Palestinians.[1] He was a formidable thorn in the larger Washington agenda for the entire region, Washington’s Greater Middle East Project, more recently redubbed the milder-sounding "New Middle East."

As real as the factors are that are driving millions into the streets across North Africa and the Middle East, what cannot be ignored is the fact that Washington is deciding the timing and as they see it, trying to shape the ultimate outcome of comprehensive regime change destabilizations across the Islamic world. The day of the remarkably well-coordinated popular demonstrations demanding Mubarak step down, key members of the Egyptian military command including Chief of General Staff Lt. Gen. Sami Hafez Enan were all in Washington as guests of the Pentagon. That conveniently neutralized the decisive force of the Army to stop the anti-Mubarak protests from growing in the critical early days.[2]

The strategy had been in various State Department and Pentagon files since at least a decade or longer. After George W. Bush declared a War on Terror in 2001 it was called the Greater Middle East Project. Today it is known as the less threatening-sounding “New Middle East” project. It is a strategy to break open the states of the region from Morocco to Afghanistan, the region defined by David Rockefeller's friend Samuel Huntington in his infamous Clash of Civilizations essay in Foreign Affairs.

Egypt rising?

The current Pentagon scenario for Egypt reads like a Cecil B. DeMille Hollywood spectacular, only this one with a cast of millions of Twitter-savvy well-trained youth, networks of Muslim Brotherhood operatives, working with a US-trained military. In the starring role of the new production at the moment is none other than a Nobel Peace Prize winner who conveniently appears to pull all the threads of opposition to the ancien regime into what appears as a seamless transition into a New Egypt under a self-proclaimed liberal democratic revolution.

Some background on the actors on the ground is useful before looking at what Washington's long-term strategic plan might be for the Islamic world from North Africa to the Persian Gulf and ultimately into the Islamic populations of Central Asia, to the borders of China and Russia.

Washington 'soft' revolutions

The protests that led to the abrupt firing of the entire Egyptian government by President Mubarak on the heels of the panicked flight of Tunisia's Ben Ali into a Saudi exile are not at all as "spontaneous" as the Obama White House, Clinton State Department or CNN, BBC and other major media in the West make them to be.

They are being organized in a Ukrainian-style high-tech electronic fashion with large internet-linked networks of youth tied to Mohammed ElBaradei and the banned and murky secret Muslim Brotherhood, whose links to British and American intelligence and freemasonry are widely reported.[3]

At this point the anti-Mubarak movement looks like anything but a threat to US influence in the region, quite the opposite. It has all the footprints of another US-backed regime change along the model of the 2003-2004 Color Revolutions in Georgia and Ukraine and the failed Green Revolution against Iran's Ahmedinejad in 2009.

The call for an Egyptian general strike and a January 25 Day of Anger that sparked the mass protests demanding Mubarak resign was issued by a Facebook-based organization calling itself the April 6 Movement. The protests were so substantial and well-organized that it forced Mubarak to ask his cabinet to resign and appoint a new vice president, Gen. Omar Suleiman, former Minister of Intelligence.

April 6 is headed by one Ahmed Maher Ibrahim, a 29-year-old civil engineer, who set up the Facebook site to support a workers' call for a strike on April 6, 2008.

According to a New York Times account from 2009, some 800,000 Egyptians, most youth, were already then Facebook or Twitter members. In an interview with the Washington-based Carnegie Endowment, April 6 Movement head Maher stated, "Being the first youth movement in Egypt to use internet-based modes of communication like Facebook and Twitter, we aim to promote democracy by encouraging public involvement in the political process." [4]

Maher also announced that his April 6 Movement backs former UN International Atomic Energy Aagency (IAEA) head and declared Egyptian Presidential candidate, ElBaradei along with ElBaradei's National Association for Change (NAC) coalition. The NAC includes among others George Ishak, a leader in Kefaya Movement, and Mohamed Saad El-Katatni, president of the parliamentary bloc of the controversial Ikhwan or Muslim Brotherhood.[5]

Today Kefaya is at the center of the unfolding Egyptian events. Not far in the background is the more discreet Muslim Brotherhood.

ElBaradei at this point is being projected as the central figure in a future Egyptian parliamentary democratic change. Curiously, though he has not lived in Egypt for the past thirty years, he has won the backing of every imaginable part of the Eyptian political spectrum from communists to Muslim Brotherhood to Kefaya and April 6 young activists.[6] Judging from the calm demeanour ElBaradei presents these days to CNN interviewers, he also likely has the backing of leading Egyptian generals opposed to the Mubarak rule for whatever reasons as well as some very influential persons in Washington.

Kefaya—Pentagon 'non-violent warfare'

Kefaya is at the heart of mobilizing the Egyptian protest demonstrations that back ElBaradei's candidacy. The word Kefaya translates to "enough!"

Curiously, the planners at the Washington National Endowment for Democracy (NED) [7] and related color revolution NGOs apparently were bereft of creative new catchy names for their Egyptian Color Revolution. In their November 2003 Rose Revolution in Georgia, the US-financed NGOs chose the catch word, Kmara! In order to identify the youth-based regime change movement. Kmara in Georgian also means "enough!"

Like Kefaya, Kmara in Georgia was also built by the Washington-financed trainers from the NED and other groups such as Gene Sharp's misleadingly-named Albert Einstein Institution which uses what Sharp once identified as "non-violence as a method of warfare." [8]

The various youth networks in Georgia as in Kefaya were carefully trained as a loose, decentralized network of cells, deliberately avoiding a central organization that could be broken and could have brought the movement to a halt. Training of activists in techniques of non-violent resistance was done at sports facilities, making it appear innocuous. Activists were also given training in political marketing, media relations, mobilization and recruiting skills.

The formal name of Kefaya is Egyptian Movement for Change. It was founded in 2004 by select Egyptian intellectuals at the home of Abu ‘l-Ala Madi, leader of the al-Wasat party, a party reportedly created by the Muslim Brotherhood. [9] Kefaya was created as a coalition movement united only by the call for an end Mubarak’s rule.

Kefaya as part of the amorphous April 6 Movement capitalized early on new social media and digital technology as its main means of mobilization. In particular, political blogging, posting uncensored youtube shorts and photographic images were skillfully and extremely professionally used. At a rally already back in December 2009 Kefaya had announced support for the candidacy of Mohammed ElBaradei for the 2011 Egyptian elections.[10]

RAND and Kefaya

No less a US defense establishment think-tank than the RAND Corporation has conducted a detailed study of Kefaya. The Kefaya study as RAND themselves note, was "sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Staff, the Unified Combatant Commands, the Department of the Navy, the Marine Corps, the defense agencies, and the defense Intelligence Community." [11]

A nicer bunch of democratically-oriented gentlemen and women could hardly be found.

In their 2008 report to the Pentagon, the RAND researchers noted the following in relation to Egypt's Kefaya:

"The United States has professed an interest in greater democratization in the Arab world, particularly since the September 2001 attacks by terrorists from Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Egypt, and Lebanon. This interest has been part of an effort to reduce destabilizing political violence and terrorism. As President George W. Bush noted in a 2003 address to the National Endowment for Democracy, “As long as the Middle East remains a place where freedom does not flourish, it will remain a place of stagnation, resentment, and violence ready for export” (The White House, 2003). The United States has used varying means to pursue democratization, including a military intervention that, though launched for other reasons, had the installation of a democratic government as one of its end goals.

However, indigenous reform movements are best positioned to advance democratization in their own country." [12]

RAND researchers have spent years perfecting techniques of unconventional regime change under the name "swarming," the method of deploying mass mobs of digitally-linked youth in hit-and-run protest formations moving like swarms of bees.[13]

Washington and the stable of "human rights" and "democracy" and "non-violence" NGOs it oversees, over the past decade or more has increasingly relied on sophisticated "spontaneous" nurturing of local indigenous protest movements to create pro-Washington regime change and to advance the Pentagon agenda of global Full Spectrum Dominance. As the RAND study of Kefaya states in its concluding recommendations to the Pentagon:

"The US government already supports reform efforts through organizations such as the US Agency for International Development and the United Nations Development Programme. Given the current negative popular standing of the United States in the region, US support for reform initiatives is best carried out through nongovernmental and nonprofit institutions." [14]

The RAND 2008 study was even more concrete about future US Government support for Egyptian and other "reform" movements:

"The US government should encourage nongovernmental organizations to offer training to reformers, including guidance on coalition building and how to deal with internal differences in pursuit of democratic reform. Academic institutions (or even nongovernmental organizations associated with US political parties, such as the International Republican Institute or the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs) could carry out such training, which would equip reform leaders to reconcile their differences peacefully and democratically.

"Fourth, the United States should help reformers obtain and use information technology, perhaps by offering incentives for US companies to invest in the region’s communications infrastructure and information technology. US information technology companies could also help ensure that the Web sites of reformers can remain in operation and could invest in technologies such as anonymizers that could offer some shelter from government scrutiny. This could also be accomplished by employing technological safegaurds to prevent regimes from sabotaging the Web sites of reformers. " [15]

As their Kefaya monograph states, it was prepared in 2008 by the "RAND National Security Research Division’s Alternative Strategy Initiative, sponsored by the Rapid Reaction Technology Office in the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics.

The Alternative Strategy Initiative, just to underscore the point, includes "research on creative use of the media, radicalization of youth, civic involvement to stem sectarian violence, the provision of social services to mobilize aggrieved sectors of indigenous populations, and the topic of this volume, alternative movements." [16]

In May 2009 just before Obama's Cairo trip to meet Mubarak, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton hosted a number of the young Egyptian activists in Washington under the auspices of Freedom House, another "human rights" Washington-based NGO with a long history of involvement in US-sponsored regime change from Serbia to Georgia to Ukraine and other Color Revolutions. Clinton and Acting Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs Jeffrey Feltman met the sixteen activists at the end of a two-month "fellowship" organized by Freedom House’s New Generation program.[17]

Freedom House and Washington's government-funded regime change NGO, National Endowment for Democracy (NED) are at the heart of the uprisings now sweeping across the Islamic world. They fit the geographic context of what George W. Bush proclaimed after 2001 as his Greater Middle East Project to bring "democracy" and "liberal free market" economic reform to the Islamic countries from Afghanistan to Morocco. When Washington talks about introducing “liberal free market reform” people should watch out. It is little more than code for bringing those economies under the yoke of the dollar system and all that implies.

Washington's NED in a larger agenda

If we make a list of the countries in the region which are undergoing mass-based protest movements since the Tunisian and Egyptian events and overlay them onto a map, we find an almost perfect convergence between the protest countries today and the original map of the Washington Greater Middle East Project that was first unveiled during the George W. Bush Presidency after 2001.

Washington's NED has been quietly engaged in preparing a wave of regime destabilizations across North Africa and the Middle East since the 2001-2003 US military invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. The list of where the NED is active is revealing. Its website lists Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Syria, Yemen and Sudan as well, interestingly, as Israel. Coincidentally these countries are almost all today subject to "spontaneous" popular regime-change uprisings.

The International Republican Institute and the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs mentioned by the RAND document study of Kefaya are subsidiary organizations of the Washington-based and US Congress-financed National Endowment for Democracy.

The NED is the coordinating Washington agency for regime destabilization and change. It is active from Tibet to Ukraine, from Venezuela to Tunisia, from Kuwait to Morocco in reshaping the world after the collapse of the Soviet Union into what George H.W. Bush in a 1991 speech to Congress proclaimed triumphantly as the dawn of a New World Order. [18]

As the architect and first head of the NED, Allen Weinstein told the Washington Post in 1991 that, "a lot of what we do today was done covertly 25 years ago by the CIA"[19]

The NED Board of Directors includes or has included former Defense Secretary and CIA Deputy head, Frank Carlucci of the Carlyle Group; retired General Wesley Clark of NATO; neo-conservative warhawk Zalmay Khalilzad who was architect of George W. Bush's Afghan invasion and later ambassador to Afghanistan as well as to occupied Iraq. Another NED board member, Vin Weber, co-chaired a major independent task force on US Policy toward Reform in the Arab World with former US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, and was a founding member of the ultra-hawkish Project for a New American Century think-tank with Dick Cheney and Don Rumsfeld, which advocated forced regime change in Iraq as early as 1998.[20]

The NED is supposedly a private, non-government, non-profit foundation, but it receives a yearly appropriation for its international work from the US Congress. The National Endowment for Democracy is dependent on the US taxpayer for funding, but because NED is not a government agency, it is not subject to normal Congressional oversight.

NED money is channelled into target countries through four “core foundations”—the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, linked to the Democratic Party; the International Republican Institute tied to the Republican Party; the American Center for International Labor Solidarity linked to the AFL-CIO US labor federation as well as the US State Department; and the Center for International Private Enterprise linked to the free-market US Chamber of Commerce.

The late political analyst Barbara Conry noted that,

"NED has taken advantage of its alleged private status to influence foreign elections, an activity that is beyond the scope of AID or USIA and would otherwise be possible only through a CIA covert operation. Such activities, it may also be worth noting, would be illegal for foreign groups operating in the United States." [21]

Significantly the NED details its various projects today in Islamic countries, including in addition to Egypt, in Tunisia, Yemen, Jordan, Algeria, Morocco, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Syria, Iran and Afghanistan. In short, most every country which is presently feeling the earthquake effects of the reform protests sweeping across the Middle East and North Africa is a target of NED. [22]

In 2005 US President George W. Bush made a speech to the NED. In a long, rambling discourse which equated "Islamic radicalism" with the evils of communism as the new enemy, and using a deliberately softer term "broader Middle East" for the term Greater Middle East that had aroused much distruct in the Islamic world, Bush stated,

"The fifth element of our strategy in the war on terror is to deny the militants future recruits by replacing hatred and resentment with democracy and hope across the broader Middle East. This is a difficult and long-term project, yet there's no alternative to it. Our future and the future of that region are linked. If the broader Middle East is left to grow in bitterness, if countries remain in misery, while radicals stir the resentments of millions, then that part of the world will be a source of endless conflict and mounting danger, and for our generation and the next. If the peoples of that region are permitted to choose their own destiny, and advance by their own energy and by their participation as free men and women, then the extremists will be marginalized, and the flow of violent radicalism to the rest of the world will slow, and eventually end...We're encouraging our friends in the Middle East, including Egypt and Saudi Arabia, to take the path of reform, to strengthen their own societies in the fight against terror by respecting the rights and choices of their own people. We're standing with dissidents and exiles against oppressive regimes, because we know that the dissidents of today will be the democratic leaders of tomorrow..." [23]

The US Project for a 'Greater Middle East'

The spreading regime change operations Washington from Tunisia to Sudan, from Yemen to Egypt to Syria are best viewed in the context of a long-standing Pentagon and State Department strategy for the entire Islamic world from Kabul in Afghanistan to Rabat in Morocco.

The rough outlines of the Washington strategy, based in part on their successful regime change operations in the former Warsaw Pact communist bloc of Eastern Europe, were drawn up by former Pentagon consultant and neo-conservative, Richard Perle and later Bush official Douglas Feith in a white paper they drew up for the then-new Israeli Likud regime of Benjamin Netanyahu in 1996.

That policy recommendation was titled A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm. It was the first Washington think-tank paper to openly call for removing Saddam Hussein in Iraq, for an aggressive military stance toward the Palestinians, striking Syria and Syrian targets in Lebanon.[24] Reportedly, the Netanyahu government at that time buried the Perle-Feith report, as being far too risky.

By the time of the events of September 11, 2001 and the return to Washington of the arch-warhawk neoconservatives around Perle and others, the Bush Administration put highest priority on an expanded version of the Perle-Feith paper, calling it their Greater Middle East Project. Feith was named Bush’s Under Secretary of Defense.

Behind the facade of proclaiming democratic reforms of autocratic regimes in the entire region, the Greater Middle East was and is a blueprint to extend US military control and to break open the statist economies in the entire span of states from Morocco to the borders of China and Russia.

In May 2009, before the rubble from the US bombing of Baghdad had cleared, George W. Bush, a President not remembered as a great friend of democracy, proclaimed a policy of "spreading democracy" to the entire region and explicitly noted that that meant "the establishment of a US-Middle East free trade area within a decade." [25]

Prior to the June 2004 G8 Summit on Sea Island, Georgia, Washington issued a working paper, "G8-Greater Middle East Partnership." Under the section titled Economic Opportunities was Washington's dramatic call for "an economic transformation similar in magnitude to that undertaken by the formerly communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe."

The US paper said that the key to this would be the strengthening of the private sector as the way to prosperity and democracy. It misleadingly claimed it would be done via the miracle of microfinance where as the paper put it, "a mere $100 million a year for five years will lift 1.2 million entrepreneurs (750,000 of them women) out of poverty, through $400 loans to each." [26]

The US plan envisioned takeover of regional banking and financial afairs by new institutions ostensibly international but, like World Bank and IMF, de facto controlled by Washington, including WTO. The goal of Washington’s long-term project is to completely control the oil, to completely control the oil revenue flows, to completely control the entire economies of the region, from Morocco to the borders of China and all in between. It is a project as bold as it is desperate.

Once the G8 US paper was leaked in 2004 in the Arabic Al-Hayat, opposition to it spread widely across the region, with a major protest to the US definition of the Greater Middle East. As an article in the French Le Monde Diplomatique in April 2004 noted, "besides the Arab countries, it covers Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, Turkey and Israel, whose only common denominator is that they lie in the zone where hostility to the US is strongest, in which Islamic fundamentalism in its anti-Western form is most rife." [27] It should be noted that the NED is also active inside Israel with a number of programs.

Notably, in 2004 it was vehement opposition from two Middle East leaders—Hosni Mubarak of Egypt and the King of Saudi Arabia—that forced the ideological zealots of the Bush Administration to temporarily put the Project for the Greater Middle East on a back burner.

Will it work?

At this writing it is unclear what the ultimate upshot of the latest US-led destabilizations across the Islamic world will bring. It is not clear what will result for Washington and the advocates of a US-dominated New World Order. Their agenda is clearly one of creating a Greater Middle East under firm US grip as a major control of the capital flows and energy flows of a future China, Russia and a European Union that might one day entertain thoughts of drifting away from that American order.

It has huge potential implications for the future of Israel as well. As one US commentator put it, "The Israeli calculation today is that if 'Mubarak goes' (which is usually stated as 'If America lets Mubarak go'), Egypt goes. If Tunisia goes (same elaboration), Morocco and Algeria go. Turkey has already gone (for which the Israelis have only themselves to blame). Syria is gone (in part because Israel wanted to cut it off from Sea of Galilee water access). Gaza has gone to Hamas, and the Palestine Authority might soon be gone too (to Hamas?). That leaves Israel amid the ruins of a policy of military domination of the region." [28]

The Washington strategy of "creative destruction" is clearly causing sleepless nights not only in the Islamic world but also reportedly in Tel Aviv, and ultimately by now also in Beijing and Moscow and across Central Asia.

* F. William Engdahl is author of Full Spectrum Dominance: Totalitarian Democracy in the New World Order. His book, A Century of War: Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World Order has just been reissued in a new edition. He may be contacted via his website, www.engdahl.oilgeopolitics.net.

Endnotes:



[1] DEBKA, Mubarak believes a US-backed Egyptian military faction plotted his ouster, February 4, 2011, accessed in www.debka.com/weekly/480/. DEBKA is open about its good ties to Israeli intelligence and security agencies. While its writings must be read with that in mind, certain reports they publish often contain interesting leads for further investigation.

[2] Ibid.

[3] The Center for Grassroots Oversight, 1954-1970: CIA and the Muslim Brotherhood ally to oppose Egyptian President Nasser, www.historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=western_support_for_islamic_militancy_202700&scale=0. According to the late Miles Copeland, a CIA official stationed in Egypt during the Nasser era, the CIA allied with the Muslim Brotherhood which was opposed to Nasser's secular regime as well as his nationalist opposition to brotherhood pan-Islamic ideology.

[4] Jijo Jacob, What is Egypt's April 6 Movement?, February 1, 2011, accessed in http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/107387/20110201/what-is-egypt-s-april-6-movement.htm

[5] Ibid.

[6] Janine Zacharia, Opposition groups rally around Mohamed ElBaradei, Washington Post, January 31, 2011, accessed in http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/01/31/AR2011013103470_2.html?sid=ST2011013003319.

[7] National Endowment for Democracy, Middle East and North Africa Program Highlights 2009, accessed in http://www.ned.org/where-we-work/middle-east-and-northern-africa/middle-east-and-north-africa-highlights.

[8] Amitabh Pal, Gene Sharp: The Progressive Interview, The Progressive, March 1, 2007.

[9] Emmanuel Sivan, Why Radical Muslims Aren't Taking over Governments, Middle East Quarterly, December 1997, pp. 3-9

[10] Carnegie Endowment, The Egyptian Movement for Change (Kifaya), accessed in http://egyptelections.carnegieendowment.org/2010/09/22/the-egyptian-movement-for-change-kifaya

[11] Nadia Oweidat, et al, The Kefaya Movement: A Case Study of a Grassroots Reform Initiative, Prepared for the Office of the Secretary of Defense, Santa Monica, Ca., RAND_778.pdf, 2008, p. iv.

[12] Ibid.

[13] For a more detailed discussion of the RAND "swarming" techniques see F. William Engdahl, Full Spectrum Dominance: Totalitarian Democracy in the New World Order, edition.engdahl, 2009, pp. 34-41.

[14] Nadia Oweidat et al, op. cit., p. 48.

[15] Ibid., p. 50.

[16] Ibid., p. iii.

[17] Michel Chossudovsky, The Protest Movement in Egypt: "Dictators" do not Dictate, They Obey Orders, January 29, 2011, accessed in http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=22993

[18] George Herbert Walker Bush, State of the Union Address to Congress, 29 January 1991. In the speech Bush at one point declared in a triumphant air of celebration of the collapse of the Sovoiet Union, "What is at stake is more than one small country, it is a big idea—a new world order..."

[19] Allen Weinstein, quoted in David Ignatius, Openness is the Secret to Democracy, Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 30 September 1991, pp. 24-25.

[20] National Endowment for Democracy, Board of Directors, accessed in http://www.ned.org/about/board

[21] Barbara Conry, Loose Cannon: The National Endowment for Democracy, Cato Foreign Policy Briefing No. 27, November 8, 1993, accessed in http://www.cato.org/pubs/fpbriefs/fpb-027.html.

[22] National Endowment for Democracy, 2009 Annual Report, Middle East and North Africa, accessed in http://www.ned.org/publications/annual-reports/2009-annual-report.

[23] George W. Bush, Speech at the National Endowment for Democracy, Washington, DC, October 6, 2005, accessed in http://www.presidentialrhetoric.com/speeches/10.06.05.html.

[24] Richard Perle, Douglas Feith et al, A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm, 1996, Washington and Tel Aviv, The Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, accessed in www.iasps.org/strat1.htm

[25] George W. Bush, Remarks by the President in Commencement Address at the University of South Carolina, White House, 9 May 2003.

[26] Gilbert Achcar, Fantasy of a Region that Doesn't Exist: Greater Middle East, the US plan, Le Monde Diplomatique, April 4, 2004, accessed in http://mondediplo.com/2004/04/04world

[27] Ibid.

[28] William Pfaff, American-Israel Policy Tested by Arab Uprisings, accessed in http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/american-israeli_policy_tested_by_arab_uprisings_20110201/

Over 150,000 Venezuelan Farmers Join Mision Agro Venezuela

Feb 4th 2011 , by Edward Ellis - Correo del Orinoco International

Opening The Door To India

Gary Locke, Feb 5, 2011, 12.00am IST


http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/opinion/edit-page/Opening-The-Door-To-India/articleshow/7426614.cms

When President Barack Obama spoke before the Indian Parliament last November, he said: "The relationship between the United Statesand India - bound by our shared interests and values - will be one of the defining partnerships of the 21st century."

During the president's visit, there was action backing up those words, including $10 billion in job-creating deals between American and Indian businesses and the Indian government; President Obama expressing support for India gaining a permanent seat on the UN Security Council; and an announcement of significant reforms to US export control policies - opening the door for increased high-technology trade and cooperation between India and the US.
This week, i am travelling to New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore to help 24 US companies walk through that door. These companies - more than half of which are small- and medium-sized businesses - are leaders in the civil nuclear, defence and security, civil aviation, and information and communications technology sectors. They are eager to find Indian business partners and to help India continue its remarkable transformation.

It was only 20 years ago that India's closed economy was plagued by persistent low growth. But beginning in 1991, Manmohan Singh, then finance minister, began a historic opening up of India to the world. Trade barriers and tax rates came down. State monopolies were broken up. And the licence raj was greatly diminished.

The talent of the Indian people was unleashed, and the results speak for themselves. Annual growth rates of 8-10% became common. And Indian companies like Tata, Wipro, Infosys and Reliance became internationally renowned.
India now has 45 million entrepreneurs - most building small businesses, some building big businesses - but all contributing to an economy that boasts a middle class as big as the entire population of the United States. India has come along faster than anyone would have expected, and there are good reasons to believe these trends can continue. Morgan Stanley predicts that over the next 20 to 25 years, India will grow faster than any large country in the world.

But there are bumps on the road to progress. India faces many challenges in ensuring that its educational system, infrastructure, and other services keep pace with its potential. For example, just 2% of Indian roads are paved highways. The electric grid, water, communications and transportation infrastructure have to be greatly expanded and upgraded.
The McKinsey Global Institute estimates that meeting the needs of India's cities alone by 2030 will require $1.2 trillion in additional capital investment. That's an astounding eightfold increase in today's per capita spending.

The message i hope Indian citizens hear this week is that US businesses can help India achieve its goal of providing a better standard of living for all its people. They can partner with Indian technology companies to build high-speed internet infrastructure, so doctors in rural India can seek instant consultations with a doctor in Delhi about a CT scan. They can provide cutting-edge technologies to modernise India's electric grid and power generating systems so the country can deliver electricity to hundreds of millions of Indian citizens. They can help India build the world's best planes, the roads and the rail lines to help transport Indian-made goods throughout the country and throughout the world.

But for our countries to realise the full potential of our economic cooperation, we hope India will address concerns many US and foreign businesses have about its commercial environment. Even though India has made tremendous strides to open up its economy, there are still too many tariffs and too many barriers to foreign participation in the Indian economy, including limits on foreign direct investment in key sectors, and inadequate protection of intellectual property rights.

These measures explain why India is still ranked only 134 out of 183 countries on the World Bank's Ease of Doing Business Report. India's market barriers may seem to protect some domestic industries in the short term. But over time, these barriers will limit foreign direct investment and imports that can enhance innovation within Indian partner companies, and increase the standard of living for all of India's people.
I know there are fears in some quarters about foreign people, foreign companies and foreign money coming into India. Those fears have sometimes arisen in the United States as well. But the historical experience of the United States, and the recent experience of India, prove that those fears are unfounded.

The United States' key competitive advantage has always been our openness to the best ideas, the best products, and the best businesses, regardless of where they come from. As for India, two decades of explosive growth has coincided with the most ambitious market openings in its history.

If India continues its walk down the path of reform, if it continues to become more open to the investments and the innovations of foreign companies - like the 24 companies i have with me this week - it will stand a much better chance of meeting the needs of its people. And of helping to lead the global economy in the 21st century.

The writer is US commerce secretary.

THE EGYPTIAN STAND-OFF



B.RAMAN


During a CNN debate on February 5,2011, an Egyptian affairs expert described the present situation in Egypt as a stand-off. It is.

2. President Hosni Mubarak has remained defiant and has refused to quit now. He has told his people that he would quit only in September when his current term ends and a new President would have been elected. He has also totally revamped his National Democratic Party (NDP) executive.Hossam Badrawi, a reformer and top physician, who enjoys the confidence of Mubarak, has been appointed the head of the policies committee, a post held by his son Gamal Mubarak till now, and also the party secretary-general. This revamping, coming on the heels of the earlier reshuffle of the Cabinet, is meant to re-assure the protesters that people associated with the hated policies of his Government and accused of corruption would not stay in office in the run-up to the elections.

3. Mubarak seems to be hoping that the aggravating economic hardships of the poor and middle class people, including the workers, would make them leave the streets and go back to earning their livelihood and that as a result the protesting crowds will be reduced to the elite, including the students, whom he is confident of handling. His defiance is also encouraged by the ambivalence of the army. The Army is not prepared to let itself be used against the protesters to disperse them forcefully. At the same time, it recognises the past services of Mubarak to the country and his role in strengthening the Armed Forces. It is, therefore, not willing to see him humiliated. There is agreement in the party as well as the Army that the time for Mubarak to quit public life has come and that he should go------honourably and not in humiliation.

4.Attempts are being made to reassure the protesters that Mubarak and his supporters would not take advantage of any de-mobilisation of the protesters to go back on his word and stay on in power after September. The dilemma before the protesters is: The increasing hardships make it difficult to maintain for long the present state of high mobilisation. At the same time, any premature demobilisation before there are definitive and irreversible changes in the political status quo could defeat the purpose of the revolution.

5. The reported US attempts to broker a transitional set-up is meant to reassure the protesters that changes in the status quo have already been initiated under international support and pressure and at the same time make it clear to Mubarak and his supporters that the dismantling of the status quo has to start now and not in September.

6. The problem is while the status quo can be easily changed in the ruling party and the unpopular leaders removed from positions of influence, it is difficult to change it in the Governmental set-up under the present Constitution, which clearly provides that if the President quits, the Speaker of the Parliament would be sworn in as the officiating President till fresh elections are held. Neither Lt.Gen.Omar Suleiman, the former intelligence chief who was recently nominated as the Vice-President by Mubarak, nor El Baradei, former head of the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, whom the Muslim Brotherhood (MB) and the secular opposition parties are prpared to support as the interim head till the elections are held, can officiate as the President because neither of them is an elected member of the Parliament and because of the specific provision in the Constitution that the Speaker would officiate.

7. However, there is a provision in the Constitution under which Mubarak, while continuing to be the de jure President, can delegate the powers of the President to his Vice-President who will thus become the de facto President and could co-ordinate the arrangements for the elections without Mubarak playing any role in it. It is doubtful whether the protesters would agree to such an arrangement because of the close association of Suleiman with Mubarak for nearly two decades and his equally close association with the Pentagon and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). It was he who allegedly fed the report to the CIA about Saddam Hussein's alleged links with Osama bin Laden, which former President George Bush used as one of the excuses to justify the invasion of Iraq in 2003. The report turned out to be false. He has also been closely associated with the suppression of the MB.

8.Thus, the position is: Suleiman is acceptable to Mubarak and his followers and the US as interim head of a transitional Government, but he may not be acceptable to the protesters. El Baradei may be acceptable to the protesters, but he cannot head the tranitional set-up under the present Constitution.

9. The stand-off continues. For how long?

10.In the meanwhile, the Americans seem to feel that the protests reached their high point on February 4 when there was an impressive mobilisation of people and that they may not be able to mobilise any more, any longer.This should explain the changing narrative regarding Mubarak on Februrary 5. In an interview to the CNN , Christiane Amanpour, the US TV journalist, mentioned about the constitutional difficulties in the way of Mubarak quitting before September. Separately, in a video message to the annual Munich Security Conference now being held, Frank Wisner, former US Ambassador to Egypt,who recently visited Cairo as a special emissary of President Barack Obama and met Mubarak and Suleiman, said: "We need to get a national consensus around the pre-conditions for the next step forward. The President must stay in office to steer those changes.I believe that President Mubarak's continued leadership is critical - it's his chance to write his own legacy. He has given 60 years of his life to the service of his country.This is an ideal moment for him to show the way forward."

11.In Washington, State Department spokesman PJ Crowley said: "We have great respect for Frank Wisner and we were deeply appreciative of his willingness to travel to Egypt last week.He has not continued in any official capacity following the trip. The views he expressed today are his own. He did not co-ordinate his comments with the US government." Nobody would take seriously the State Department's dissociating itself from the remarks of Wisner.

12. We ourselves want Mubarak to go now, but there could be constitutional difficulties.Let him continue till September. We guarantee that he won't thereafter--- that seems to be the new message to the protesters from Washington DC via Christiance Amanpour and Wisner.

13. Is the apparent US assessment that the protests cannot go higher and should be manageable hereafter correct or wishful-thinking? (6-2-11)

( The writer is Additional Secretary (retd), Cabinet Secretariat, Govt. of India, New Delhi, and, presently, Director, Institute For Topical Studies, Chennai. E-mail: seventyone2@gmail.com )

Caste: a HAF-baked lamentation

Caste: a HAF-baked lamentation

By Kalavai Venkat

A critique of the Hindu American Foundation’s report

Hinduism: Not Cast in Caste Seeking an End to Caste-based Discrimination 2010”

Why this critique?

The Hindu American Foundation (HAF) is a US-based Hindu advocacy group, and its volunteers have dedicated themselves to the Hindu cause for many years. The HAF recently released the above-mentioned report on caste primarily aimed at the American public and agencies. In the past, caste has always been portrayed in an inimical and distorted manner by forces hostile to Hinduism. It has always been portrayed with the intent of dividing the Hindus and alienating them from their spiritual traditions so that they can be converted to Christianity. A wide array of resources, including the funding of Christian groups under the guise of the US Faith Based Initiative and the creation and funding of militant hate groups operating under the banner of Dalit organizations under the aegis of Christian churches, have been used to systematically attack Hinduism. Textbooks have been portraying caste in a manner that would wean Hindu children from their religion.

A Hindu perspective was definitely in order. It was not going to be easy for any Hindu organization to publish a report on caste in such a hostile environment. Such a report would have required immense knowledge of how Hindus have perceived and lived caste for millennia, the economic safeguard and social kinship caste offered, an in-depth knowledge of Hindu scriptures going beyond the English translations written by Christians, and above all, the resoluteness and courage to stand up for the truth to present the caste system without caving in to Christian pressure tactics. A report produced without adhering to these principles could very well end up as a half-baked lamentation and as a potent weapon in the hands of forces hostile to Hinduism.

A discussion on caste discrimination would not only have required the willingness to discuss facts but also the wisdom to contrast the measures Hindus have initiated to end inequities with similar efforts or lack thereof in Christian societies such as the USA especially so because the HAF report is aimed at the American public and agencies. No society has done as much as Hindus to end inequities. Hindu religious and social leaders, drawing inspiration from Hindu scriptures and traditions, instituted legal and social measures to uplift the erstwhile untouchables. These measures included the introduction of reservation in education, the workforce, the judiciary, and the legislature, thus enabling the descendents of erstwhile untouchables to attain proportional representation. On the spiritual plane, Hindus vigorously implemented temple entry rules which allow members of every caste to comingle in Hindu temples today and denial of entry has become a non issue.

The finest tribute to the Hindu effort to end discrimination comes from Martin Luther King Jr. His words show that Hindus not only dedicated their efforts to end discrimination within their own society but also extended their support to the blacks, who are the victims of Christian oppression in the USA. He visited India in 1959 and was, in his own words, “enthusiastically welcomed by (the Indian Prime Minister) and other Indian political leaders at a time when he lacked similar access to America’s top leaders.”

MLK Jr. contrasted “India’s constitutional and legal protections for untouchables with pervasive racial discrimination in the U.S. While India’s leaders exerted their moral power against caste discrimination, in the U.S. some of the highest officials declined to render a moral judgment on segregation, and some from the South publicly boasted of their determination to maintain segregation.”[1] MLK Jr. declared that his public meetings were packed because Indians were keenly aware of the need to end social inequities. As a result of this experience, MLK Jr. would use the Hindu method of satyagraha to usher in civil disobedience in an effort to end the oppression of blacks in Christian America in the 1960s.

Since then, Hindus have made significant progress in uplifting the erstwhile untouchables. Today, descendents of the erstwhile untouchables have risen to the ranks of President of India, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India, and Chief Ministers of India’s states. Contrast this to the US, where the first black President was elected into power hardly a few years ago; President Obama has since faced a shocking onslaught of racism and resistance from sections of the American populace who cannot stomach the idea of being governed by a black president.

Even after five decades since MLK’s efforts, America’s Christian churches remain the bastions of religious apartheid. There are separate churches for blacks, whites, Hispanics and others. Blacks and Hispanics, both victims of Christian oppression, remain grossly under-represented in America’s institutions. They are over-represented in America’s prisons. One in nine black males in the age group of 25-35 languishes in America’s prisons, bearing testimony to the fact that Christian apartheid is alive and well in the USA.

So, any Hindu report cataloguing inequities in Indian society should contrast Hindu efforts and progress with the lack of similar progress in the Christian USA. After all, any meaningful analysis has to be done on a comparative basis since no phenomenon can be analyzed in a vacuum—any analysis of purported discrimination within Hinduism should also compare it to the violent Shia-Sunni divide (as an example) within Islam and the racial apartheid embedded within Christianity and Christian societies. Shining the spotlight selectively on random acts of injustice in Hindu society would not only be unfair but also render the report a weapon in the hands of those hostile to Hinduism.

It was in this milieu that the HAF report on caste was released. It was a report primarily aimed at the American audience. It caused an anguished and justified outcry among the Hindus for its content and the manner in which the HAF promoted it. The serious concerns expressed about the report are:

· It repeats the false propaganda that Christian missionaries and academic fellow-travelers have spread about Hinduism in the past.

· It glorifies militants that committed despicable acts of persecution of the Hindus and desecrated Hindu temples.

· It perverts the celebrated Hindu bhakti traditions by repeating the Christian and Marxist storyline to suit propaganda.

· It used data in a selective and irresponsible manner to vilify Hinduism and Hindus.

· The HAF misused and betrayed the trust of Hindu swamijis and sannyasis by misleading them about the content of the report.

The last bullet point needs elaboration. Hindu swamijis and sannyasis are not editors or reviewers of reports. They do not endorse contents of reports. They bless the efforts of a Hindu organization based on trust. It is imperative that Hindu organizations do not betray their trust. The HAF should have been transparent about the content of the report with the swamijis when it obtained their blessings. They were not. None of the swamijis would have blessed the report had they known that the report glorifies anti-Hindu demagogues and that it repeats false Christian propaganda about Hinduism. As soon as Hindu critics brought the contents of the report to the attention of the swamijis, many of them told the HAF to withdraw the report. A number of the most prominent Hindus Acharyas and Swamijis have since expressed disapproval and sought to disassociate themselves from the HAF report on Caste.

The reaction from the HAF upon receiving this directive from the swamijis has been shocking. They begrudgingly took the full text of the report offline (while keeping the endorsements and statements of support online) but also issued a statement in India Abroad that “they are under no obligation to fulfill [Swami Dayananda Sarasvati’s] request, and stand by their report enthusiastically.” The HAF then went on to state that they are temporarily making the report offline because “it made sense to them to do so until final edits are incorporated.”[2]

Vinaya towards swamijis is the hallmark of the Hindus. The condescending and arrogant tone of the HAF towards swamijis is disturbing.It made many wonder that if HAF is not obliged to listen to our swamijis, then who are they accountable to? Is it the US State department, the various anti-Hindu human rights groups, or the Christian missions such as World Vision that benefit the most from the faith-based funding and play a key role in demonizing Hinduism? Why would the HAF be deferential to the Christian establishment academics on its panel but display such arrogance towards our swamijis?

In any case, having publicly stated that they stand by their report enthusiastically, the HAF reached out to Vishal Agarwal, Krishnan Ramaswamy, and me to help revise the report. I understand that they have sought feedback from some others as well. My concern is for Hindu dharma and not for any individual or organization. I agreed to help with the revision. My expectation was that the HAF would be sincere about incorporating the substantive changes and produce a factually correct report.

This expectation was belied when the HAF subsequently declared that they were only looking for cosmetic edits and that they consider the original report sound. They also refused to allow any mention of Christianity in the revision. How can the Hindu achievement be understood unless seen in the context of what other religions have failed to do? Christian missionaries would be unable to pontificate to Hindus on human rights if religious apartheid in their churches is mentioned. The HAF strangely refused to allow any such mention. I do not know whether they were keen on not offending the powerful Christian groups so as to partner with them in some future human rights initiative or whether they were under immense pressure from Christian academics on their panel not to allow any negative portrayal of Christianity.

This was unacceptable to me. I was not going to be a fellow traveler in this assault on Hindu dharma. I expressed my dissent to them and parted ways. This critique is the result of the sequence of events narrated above.

There are also many other disturbing patterns that one must mention:

· Ramesh Rao, the Human Rights Coordinator of the HAF, argued that sacred Hindu texts such as the Ramayana are racial narratives. He was repeating the 19th century propaganda originally invented by Christian missionaries and subsequently disseminated by militant anti-Hindus.

· The HAF report was endorsed by the anti-Hindu group Navyashastra and it willingly carried such endorsements.In the past, the prominent leaders and office-bearers of Navyashastra have denigrated Hindu gurus and have advocated that sacred Hindu scriptures should be burnt and that the United Nations (UN) tribunal should try Hinduism for (some unstated) guilt. Prominent Navyashastra leaders have also disseminated views that are racist and derogatory of women, including the repugnant view that unless married women are kept under surveillance they are susceptible to promiscuity.

It is beyond my comprehension why the HAF would seek the company of such groups and individuals.

It is with sadness that I write this critique for this constitutes a censure of a Hindu organization. Condoning the report is not an option because that would make me a silent witness to this unjust attack on Hinduism from within. I hope and wish that the HAF will make amends by undoing the damage they have done to Hinduism with this uninformed and cowardly report. In Hinduism, such repentance would be called prayaschitta. The onus of doing so is entirely upon the HAF. They must realize that they have betrayed the trust of swamijis, their supporters and donors in this episode. They have lost the moral right or adhikara to represent Hindus and their causes. I hope that good sense will prevail upon them and that they will do the needful to regain the trust they have lost as a result of this shameful incident. It would be honorable for them to fully and permanently withdraw the report instead of secretly updating it each time a serious flaw is pointed out. I do not yet know what motivated them to come up with this report in the first place. The HAF should be transparent about the motives.

I will now proceed with a detailed critique of the contents and conclude with my recommendations.

HAF hails the evil

Can anyone imagine a Jewish advocacy group hailing Adolf Hitler as a reformer? Every Jew would be startled, widespread protests would ensue within the Jewish community, and the advocacy group would become irrelevant. Yet, for reasons beyond my comprehension, the HAF has done precisely that: It has hailed E V Ramaswamy Naicker, the Indian fascist often known as EVR, as a social reformer.

EVR ran his politics by espousing unbridled hatred towards Brahmins and Harijans. He often thundered that he would physically eliminate the Brahmins, and called for a genocide, along the lines of Hitler’s “Final Solution.” He required his followers to wear black shirts reminiscent of the fascist uniform. He declared that the Brahmins were “outsiders” and based his ideas on the now discredited and racist “Aryan Invasion Theory.” He ran repeated campaigns desecrating Hindu temples and smashing the sculptures of Hindu deities. The source of the wealth he amassed into a private trust is mysterious but it is likely that Christian missionaries and the British government funded him. EVR, in turn, supported the colonial rule and pleaded with the British imperialists to continue ruling over the colored Indians despite the fact that the colonial rule resulted in the deaths of millions of Indians.

Let us consider a sample of EVR’s statements from a scholarly Tamil treatise, “E V Ramaswamy Naickerin Marupakkam” by the celebrated scholar M Venkatesan. This translates into “The other side of E V Ramswamy Naicker.” Venkatesan is a Harijan by birth, a proud Hindu by identification, and a philosopher by training. The statements of EVR he cites should make any civilized person recoil with disgust:[3]

· Mahatma Gandhi and other Hindu leaders ushered in social justice by enabling the temple entry of Harijans. The equal status accorded the Harijans piqued EVR. He ran a militant campaign opposing the temple entry movement and argued: “I will not allow temple entry because it will result in equating the Harijans with the (dominant) backward castes.”

· Tamil is a classical language of India and a treasure trove of sacred Hindu texts and philosophies. EVR saw it differently when he declared: “For more than 40 years, I have been describing Tamil as a barbarous language (Kattumirandi Mozhi) used only by barbarians (...) The only language that ought to replace Tamil is English. What is not there in English which can be found in Tamil Language?”

· EVR’s views on Harijan women and youth are obnoxious. On one occasion, discussing the cause of inflation, EVR sarcastically remarked, implying a shocking sexual innuendo: “Do you know why fabric prices have increased? Because Harijan women have started wearing blouses. Do you wonder why there is so much unemployment? Because Harijan youth have started getting educated and have taken up all the jobs.”

I cannot fathom why HAF would hail such a demagogue as a reformer. Having seen the ignorant praise HAF has heaped on EVR, let us now turn to M Venkatesan for a factual assessment of EVR. Venkatesan writes:

"EVR had very warm feelings towards the gods of Islam and Christianity. I am really ashamed of those people who have veneration for EV Ramasamy Naicker and his perverse philosophy of selective hatred of men and things."

Venkatesan could as well have prophetically anticipated HAF's misguided report. I hope that the HAF can explain what compulsion led to their ignominious praise of EVR.

HAF plays the fiddle in the missionary choir

The HAF-baked report alleges that the Hindu bhakti movement originally was a rebellion against Hindu orthodoxy, Brahmin priests, Hindu rituals, and the caste system. This is the pet theory of Christian missionaries and Marxist propagandists. The report faithfully repeats what the Hindu-baiter Romila Thapar wrote in her book Early India that I critiqued at length a few years ago.[4]The efflorescence of the Hindu bhakti movement was signaled by the arrival of the Saiva Nayanmars and the Vaishnava Azhwars in the first half of the first millennium in the Tamil country and flourished until the 16th century. The report alleges, without basis and echoing the Christian propaganda, that the bhakti movement was originally considered unorthodox (by the Brahmins).

Nayanmars and Azhwars sang their hymns advocating devotion to Siva and Vishnu respectively. The only polemics in their hymns are directed at Jainas and Bauddhas who are portrayed as opposing Vedic sacrifices.[5] Those were the times of the Kalabbhra rule in the Tamil country. The Kalabbhras are believed to have patronized Buddhism and Jainism. Bhakti saints bemoan the fact that paraphernalia needed to perform rituals in temples have been withheld by the Jainas. There is nothing in their writings that can be construed as a polemic directed at Brahmins or against rituals.

The great Saiva saint Appar, one of the Nayanmars, praises Siva as the Lord of the Vedas.[6] He declares that he was a Jaina ascetic once, during which time he was distracted from pursuing the truth. Sambantar, another great Saiva Nayanmar, has written at length about the greatness of the Vedic sacrifices, and has sharp words for those (the reference here is to the Jainas and other heterodox sects) that oppose the Vedic sacrifices. The absurd claim that bhakti saints opposed caste is belied by the very words of another great Saiva Nayanmar and exponent on tantra Tirumular, who sings:

Of crystal made is the Linga, the Brahmins worship

Of gold, the Kings worship

Of emerald, the Vaishyas worship

Of stone is the Linga, the Shudras worship[7]

The bhakti tradition was the torchbearer of Hindu orthodoxy during the medieval period. Will the HAF please illuminate which of these verses can be perceived as a rebellion against orthodox Hinduism, caste, or rituals? What compulsion made them distort Hindu texts and traditions and lend credence to a propaganda originally instituted by Christian missionaries and disseminated by the likes of Romila Thapar who deny there was any negative impact on Hinduism owing to iconoclastic invaders? Is this merely the case of sheer ignorance of Hindu traditions and texts on the part of HAF writers? Do they derive their knowledge of Hinduism only from tracts and translations written by Christians that are antagonistic towards dharma?

It is important to understand te Bhakti movement in its historical context. The Sangam literature is the precursor to the Bhakti movement. In the Sangam texts, the four Varnas were the norm as well as the ideal. One of the songs says that even though a person may belong to a lower Varna among the four, if he were to acquire knowledge, then those born of the higher Varnas would respect him.[8] Another song says that even if those of higher birth fell into poverty, the virtues of their higher birth wouldn't desert them,[9] while yet another says that one's character could only be commensurate with what is befitting the Varna into which he is born.[10] The oldest extant Tamil grammatical treatise also recognizes Varna.[11] The great Tamil savant Tiruvalluvar categorically stated that a Brahmin who forgets the Vedas could learn them again, but should he ever cease to be moral, the virtue of his high birth is lost forever. Elsewhere, he argues that the scruples of a king are measured against his ability to safeguard the Vedic learning of the Brahmins.[12] Thus regard for Brahmins, the Vedas and for learning in general was a feature common to all Hindus, and it was in this milieu that the Bhakti movement was born.

So it is not surprising to see the Bhakti saints express the same veneration for the Vedas and the Brahmins. But their central focus was moksha or liberation whereas the karma kanda of the Vedas, as evident from the Purva Mimamsa doctrine of Jaimini, were primarily concerned with only three of the four purusharthas: dharma, artha, and kama. Bhakti transcends these and emphasizes on the the fourth purushartha. It would be the height of ignorance to interpret this as antagonism towards the Vedas.

Blame the victim, exonerate the oppressors

The HAF dedicates the report:

“To All Those Who Have Suffered From Caste-based Discrimination Over The Centuries

We Regret That Hindu Society Failed To Live Up To Its Highest Teachings

To Those Who Remained Committed Hindus Despite this Failure”

Untouchability is first recorded in India in the 12th century CE. Its origins in The Bible and its parallels from elsewhere in the world will be discussed in a future report. Many parts of India had by then been colonized by Islamic invaders. There was large-scale plunder and rape. Hindu society had well-defined rules that prohibited harming civilians during war. This fact is not only reflected in ancient Sanskrit and Tamil literature but is also recognized by Greek chroniclers who are surprised that peasants observe a battle in progress without fearing harm. The large-scale rapine committed by Islamic invaders would have shocked Hindu society in a way difficult for us to comprehend today.

Let us discuss a few examples of the circumstances that would have made it impossible for Hindus to fight inequities such as untouchability that came into vogue in India during this period.

Rishi Devala, appearing in the Sindh province in the 10th century CE, wrote a very laudable text called Devala Smriti in which he laid down the guidelines for the ablutions that a victim of rape might undergo so that she emerges pure—contrast this to the practice in Islamic society even today of “honor killings” when a woman is raped. In the west, even today, many victims of rape are psychologically and emotionally scarred for life because rape is essentially an act that signals the subjugation and total humiliation of the victim. It destroys, in Mahatma Gandhi’s words, one’s inner core. In pre-Islamic India, where crimes such as rape were unheard of, and where the feminine was considered sacred, the effect would have been traumatic. Rishi Devala’s benign and wise prescription would have helped those victims overcome trauma and perceive themselves as sacred again.

This pattern of plunder continued for centuries as evident from the fact that Rajput women, when faced with the inevitable rape at the hands of the Islamic invaders, after the Rajput men fought and died valiantly in the battlefield, resorted to sati and jauhar. In denying their would-be rapists an opportunity to rape those courageous women emerged victorious though they paid with their lives in the process. This practice did not cease after the British Christian conquest of India because resort to jauhar continued sporadically.

The Jats are another Hindu jati that put up valiant resistance to the invading Muslims. Needless to say, many Jat youth perished defending India. Many young Jat women were widowed and their children were rendered orphans. The Jat community resorted to the ancient Hindu custom of niyoga enabling the younger brother of the slain warrior to marry the widow. This not only offered protection and continuity of life to the woman but also enabled orphaned children find a new father who was a blood relative. In the west, even today, when a woman remarries, the child faces the prospect of abuse at the hands of the step-father when the child escapes the predatory attention of the Christian clergy. The Jat solution, on the other hand, rid two problems with one solution.

Even the pro-Muslim Cambridge Economic History of India (volume 1), edited by Marxist critics of Hinduism, Irfan Habib and Tapan Raychaudhuri, highlights the devastating famines precipitated by the brutal revenue collection of Islamic rulers that left the peasantry impoverished and dying, hardly propitious circumstances for Hindus to perform any kind of religious duty! It is the ignorance of this history that makes the attempted HAF critique of alleged Hindu ‘human rights’ violators, when they did not even have the ability to protect their womenfolk and survive hunger, particularly objectionable.

Islamic domination was supplanted by British Christian subjugation of Hindus. Mike Davis, in his well-documented treatise, The Late Victorian Holocaust, shows how exploitative British agrarian policies unleashed famine and starvation and pushed numerous agrarian jatis beyond the pale of civilized existence. Many jatis had to lose their lands to become indentured labor to pay exorbitant taxes to their Christian masters. Many such castes, having been cut off from all support systems, ended up as disenfranchised and eventually untouchable. Data proves that the practice of untouchability and the incidents of caste discrimination in the 20th century India are directly proportional to the extent of the lack of land ownership of the Harijan jatis. On the other hand, such practices of discrimination are practically non-existent in major Indian cities because anonymous cities are not governed by an agrarian economic system.

Dharampal was a highly trusted historian. Mahatma Gandhi asked him to research the plight of education in Hindu India. The factual findings were published in a research volume titled The Beautiful Tree. Dharampal marshals persuasive evidence to prove that wherever the Hindus could sustain their institutions, they educated all jatis in their traditional schools or patasalas. Every jati, including the Harijans, was proportionally represented as teachers and students, as evident from the Madras Presidency 1822-25 (Collectors Reports), Details of Schools & Colleges, Caste Division of Male school students:[13]

Brahmins

Vaishyas

Shudras

Others

Muslims

Total

# of students

30,211

13,459

75,943

22,925

10,644

1,53,182

% of total student population

20

9

50

15

6

100

This would change in the 19th century when Christian missionaries, backed by the brute power of the colonial British administration, systematically destroyed traditional schools and denied education to a large section of Hindus. The new system of schools ushered in by the Christian missionaries charged exorbitant fees and denied entry to the Harijans. This resulted in disparate access to education across Hindu society. The celebrated patriot, social reformer, and scholar, Suddhananda Bharati documents the travails a Hindu family had to undergo to acquire education in missionary institutions. A lack of education led to difficulties finding gainful employment, plunging these Hindu families into poverty. It was not a coincidence that many revolutionaries in the initial phase of India’s freedom struggle hailed from Hindu families that had pledged everything so that their sons could get educated in missionary institutions.

Thus, Hindus were themselves a subjugated and disenfranchised people during the course of the millennium. How could such a people have marshaled the wherewithal to fight a social evil such as untouchability that emerged precisely during this period of Hindu disenfranchisement? HAF’s accusation against Hindus is not just absurd but also unethical. It is akin to blaming the blacks for slavery and the Jews for not attempting to save other Jews from the Holocaust. It is shameful that the report tacitly exonerates Christian missionaries and British colonial rulers guilty of instigating and institutionalizing many forms of discrimination by laying the blame at the doorstep of Hindus. The HAF report gives the impression that caste structure has been rigid in Hindu society. The American scholar, Nicholas R. Dirks, refutes this and highlights the hugely negative impact of attempts by British colonial administrators to enumerate and often artificially impute caste identities in censuses undertaken. In his view, these censuses artificially ossified caste identities, which were in reality much more fluid before. This view is confirmed by census data from the early 20th century that Prof. M N Srinivas marshals. As the sample from census data summarized below reveals until then entire jatis could move across the varna system in a very short span of time: [14]

Jati Name

Occupation

1911 Census

1921 Census

1931 Census

Kamar

Blacksmith

None

Kshatriya

Brahmin

Sonar

Goldsmith

Kshatriya

Kshatriya

Brahmin-Vaishya

Sutradar

Carpenter

Vaishya

Vaishya

Brahmin

Nai

Barber

None

Kshatriya

Brahmin

Napit

Barber

Kshatriya

Vaishya

Brahmin

The following table summarizes the number of jatis and their new varna status per the 1931 census:[15]

Newly claimed Varna status

Brahmin

Kshatriya

Vaishya

Traditional Varna status

Shudra

31

49

9

Harijan

2

26

5

Tribal

1

5

1

It was the British obsession with classification that would eventually lead to ossification subsequently witnessed in Hindu society.

Even Islamic and Marxist historians such as Irfan Habib have been more honest than the HAF on this count! Irfan Habib and his father Mohammad Habib fearlessly and unhesitatingly documented the subjugation of the Hindus at the hands of British Christian colonial masters as a result of the inhumane agrarian policies that were forced upon the farmers. Admittedly, the Habibs did not feel compelled to please the Christian establishment in the USA or to collaborate with them on some human rights agenda unlike ostensible contemporary defenders of Hindus.

Christian missionaries should be grateful to the HAF for this unexpected windfall. Hope they would one day reciprocate by doing unto the HAF what the HAF has done unto the missionaries with this report.

Affirming the Christian hate speech

Next the report declares, quoting the words of Ambedkar, that:

“There is no nation of Indians in the real sense of the word, it is yet to be created. In believing we are a nation, we are cherishing a great delusion. How can people divided into thousands of castes be a nation? The sooner we realise that we are not yet a nation, in a social and psychological sense of the world, the better for us.”

What HAF has failed to understand is there is a world of difference between the nation as a political and territorial unit and the socio-cultural interconnectedness of a people. The former is a creation of the modern world, evolving and regularly challenged while the latter has ancient roots that highlight the profound potential unity of man immanent in the Hindu world view.

Hinduism is governed by the motto “Vasudaiva kutumbakam” or the entire world is a family. Hinduism celebrates diversity and preserves it. It recognizes the fact that unity is meaningful only where diversity exists. The caste system is a glowing example of the Hindu commitment to preserving all traditions. Each jati could follow different wedding, funerary, or dietary customs, or speak different dialects or languages. Yet they have always shared a common spiritual and cultural identity. Notions of dharma formed the core of such a shared identity.

Ancient Tamil Sangam literary sources, for example, express the belief that Sanskrit and Tamil evolved from two sides ofdamaru the drum that Siva beats. The celebrated Chola emperors would traverse the length of the Indian sub-continent to bring back the sacred waters of the river Ganga to consecrate the Brhat Isvara Temple in Tanjavur. According to traditional commentaries, the erudite Tamil grammarian Tolkappiyar patented his treatise on an ancient Sanskrit grammatical treatise named Aintiram. In the absence of an heir, a Chalukya prince (from Western India) would be invited to take over the mantle of the Chola Empire (in South India). Great philosophers and saints from the south would visit the various corners of India to propound their teachings. The Pallavas of the South and the Chalukyas of the West would share the same temple architecture. Not only would The Ramayana and The Mahabharatabe translated across languages within India but Indians from different regions would also identify with these epics.

At the same time, Indians clearly knew how to distinguish themselves from foreigners who did not share either their culture or their notions of dharma. In the Sangam Tamil literature, Roman mercenaries (yavanas) serving the royalty were called mlecchas following strange customs. The lack of hygiene of the European Christian colonizers repulsed Indians so much that they considered their colonial masters untouchables. From time immemorial, dharmasutra texts clearly delineated the boundaries that separated those who followed the Dharma in the homeland of Hindu society and those who lived beyond the borders and did not share our cultural values.

It was expedient for the British colonial rulers and Christian missionaries to plant the canard that India as an entity never existed because that enabled them to divide, rule, and convert Hindus. What expediency governs the HAF in parroting the same canard?

This is not merely a canard. This is hate speech. Christianity and Islam seek to achieve homogeneity to dominate. Historically, Christian and Islamic invaders derived inspiration from their scriptures and committed genocide of many races including the Native Americans, Gypsies, and the Jews. Diversity, wherever encountered, first attracted the suspicion of the Christian church and then resulted in hatred of the “other,” leading the Church to create fault lines and fissures, which were then exploited by the Church to divide and conquer throughout its history.

Prof. D. E. Stannard, in his daring treatise, The American Holocaust, documents how the Christian intolerance of diversity resulted in the genocide of over 100 million Native Americans. In my paper, From the Holy Cross to the Holocaust, published as part of the anthology Expressions of Christianity, I have shown how the Christian intolerance of diversity resulted in hate speech directed at the Jews which finally culminated in the Holocaust.

To argue that a society cannot attain unity despite diversity and divisions among its many castes is a notion that must be vigorously opposed. Historically, homogeneity has been regarded by oppressive elites as essential for political domination and control. The virtual eradication of European Jewry by Adolf Hitler was very much in this political mould and tradition. It has also been cultivated by the Church in its endless wars over heresy and the succession of its chosen royal houses. The USA is a prime example of how the obsession for homogeneity led to the genocide of Native Americans. In subsequent times, the blacks would be denied their freedom to follow their African religious traditions and speak their diverse languages eventually getting absorbed into the American society as segregated Christians. But their churches remain separate since whites and blacks apparently ascend or descend to a different heaven or hell on expiring, depending on their antecedent skin color! The contrasting equanimity of Hinduism in the face of diversity and its serenity over religious difference is a dramatic contrast that has been remarked on by many thoughtful observers.

It is sad to see the HAF advancing Christian hate speech to claim that unity is dependent on homogeneity. Many white supremacist groups in the USA too harbor a similar notion that for America to exist as an entity all Americans should be white, Christian, and only speak English. Dalits Christians are also asserting that India’s national language should be English (code for endorsing Christianity as the national religion)! The HAF report will appeal to such groups but it would also earn the HAF a nomination for the Darwin Awards.[16]

Burn the Hindu sacred books!

The HAF-baked report was extensively reviewed, and possibly contributed to, by Jaishree Gopal and Prof. V V Raman (who goes by the fancy title Acharya Vidyasagar these days), two prominent members of the anti-Hindu group Navyashastra, which disseminates calls to burn sacred Hindu scriptures. The HAF report seems to prepare the way for this eventuality when it first acknowledges that none of the Hindu scriptures supports untouchability only to conclude that Hindu scriptures such as The Manusmritipromote caste bias, prompting HAF to call for their rejection by Hindu acharyas. The HAF is clearly oblivious to the fact thatThe Manusmriti is considered a defining text of great antiquity in Hinduism even though it has not been the code of law for millennia.

Hinduism is not a religion of the book(s) as HAF correctly acknowledges. Shruti and smriti are one of the many pramanas in Hinduism. Each sampradaya lays varying emphasis on a given shruti or smriti pramana. Then where is the need to reject an ancient text such asThe Manusmriti? Internal analysis indicates that it was compiled in the Magadha province or the modern Indian state of Bihar. We do not know who its author was. The text attained a central place in Hindu history. Many other law texts were written over time but The Manusmriti was remembered as the gold standard. The great saint and philosopher, Tiruvalluvar, a Harijan by birth, renders sections of the Manusmriti into couplets in the Tirukkural. The legendary Chola king renowned for his sense of justice is remembered by the title Manu Niti Chola. The well-known poet Kambar hailed from a backward caste and rendered Valmiki’s Ramayana in Tamil in which he evaluates Sri Rama’s adherence to justice by using Manu as the gold standard.

The influence of Manu was symbolic, articulating the sanctity of the Vedas by its very presence, and not literal. It is futile to retroactively inject modern secular concerns in interpreting these ancient texts. Manu was the foremost lawgiver. Even though new texts emerged as society changed, and these various texts (rather than The Manusmriti) have been the codes of law during the historic period, Manu’s contribution was not forgotten. In other words, the HAF is asking our acharyas to reject a text that has not been in vogue for millennia and which is rare to obtain today. A powerful case was made affirming this point by the feminist critic of Hinduism, Madhu Kishwar.

Most of our saints and powerful emperors have been Harijans or shudras. Yet, none of them found The Manusmriti to be a discriminatory text. Instead, they hailed it as a lofty text that safeguarded everyone’s interests. Should not the authors of the HAF report have thought for a while as to why all attacks on this sacred text originated only from Christian missionaries while our saints had only words of praise for it? Anti-Brahminism and the stigmatizing of the word shudra are also of Christian missionary origin. Powerful kings of the past had proudly identified themselves as shudras. Vema Reddy, a great Hindu king who defeated the Muslim marauders called himself “a proud shudra who, like the sacred river Ganga, emerged from the feet of Vishnu.”[17] He also equated himself with the sage Agastya. Vema Reddy’s grandson was a celebrated Sanskrit scholar who wrote a commentary on the works of Kalidasa bearing testimony to the fact that learned men emerged from all varnas but none of them found our scriptures to be discriminating.

If the HAF has bothered to read The Manusmriti and its various commentaries in the original, they would have realized that the text does not promote caste bias. It does not accord preferential treatment to one caste over another. The text promotes social harmony. In pre-modern times most societies were rural and agrarian. People had limited mobility. Most occupations were hereditary. In such a society, it is important to safeguard the interests of various castes. The dharmashastra texts and texts on polity such as The Arthashastra aim to achieve this objective. The Arthashastra introduces the concept of sreni or guilds (such guilds were common in proto-Industrial Europe and considered essential precursors to modernity) to protect the interests of artisans and transmit knowledge to succeeding generations. The Chanakya Niti disallows the Brahmins from taking to dairy farming, weaving & dyeing, and selling oil. These would have been the mainstay occupations providing livelihood to a vast majority of people in the ancient period. The dharmashastra writers, by denying Brahmins entry into these professions, were protecting the interests of many castes. Similarly, they were protecting the interests of Brahmins and a few others by restricting who could perform Veda yajnas. These stipulations varied over time and across geography depending on social conditions and various dharmashastra texts addressed those needs.

For instance in The Silappadikaram, a Jaina saint considers it inauspicious when the Brahmins give up chanting of the Vedas and take to other professions. The newly married Kovalan and Kannagi are dissuaded from entering a settlement where the Brahmin musicians reside, again because they have taken to a profession that is not allowed for them.[18]

It is pointless to self-righteously denounce such ancient texts animated by western prejudices since their rationale was contingent and contemporary in ways hard for us to comprehend.

Many important Hindu monarchs were Shudras or Harijans. A significant number of key Hindu scriptures were written by Harijans. Vyasa, Valmiki, Tiruvalluvar, Tirumazhisai Azhwar were all Harijans while other great poets such as Kambar were from what is known as the Shudra varna. These saints even refused to please powerful kings. On one occasion, the tradition says, when the king ordered a Vaishnava to leave the town for refusing to eulogize the king, the Harijan saint Tirumazhisai Azhwar left the town. Not only that, he ordered Sri Vishnu to leave the town with them. Sri Vishnu promptly complied. The message here is very clear. The saints will not bow their head to anyone other than Bhagavan. Had the dharmashastra texts been promoting bias as a matter of principle none of these great thinkers would have held them in high regard.

Evidently, the HAF decided to seek their knowledge of the dharmashastras from hostile Christian missionary propaganda instead of understanding them the way Hindu traditions have usually understood them. Even their call to denounce sections of the dharmashastras is an echo of the Christian habit of denouncing and declaring texts the church did not like as heresy.

Hinduism has a rich tradition of dealing with texts and practices that are no longer relevant. Our acharyas do not deny or denounce them. They just move on and write texts relevant to the times as Rishi Devala did during the Islamic invasions.The appeal to acharyas to denounce those texts is absurd. Hindu scriptures have evolved by absorbing and modifying different traditions they encountered without the denunciation and purges that are the hallmark of religions that murder and burn those they describe as heretics. Which other sacred tradition views the atheism of Nastikas with such serenity? How can one insinuate bigotry and intolerance against such a plural and tolerant scriptural tradition except for the mundane purpose of aiding imperial subjugation, the norm for Islam and Christianity?

It is also a selective appeal.

There is no text on the planet which is more violent and discriminatory than The Bible. Prof. Norman Beck has documented more than 450 antisemitic verses in the Bible[19]. Other eminent scholars have shown that the Bible with its anti-Semitism is deplorable while without anti-Semitism it is unthinkable. Christians see it as a literal text revealed by God. Hence they persecuted the Jews and sent them to the gas chambers during the Holocaust. Jesus also calls for forcible conversions and the genocide of non-believers. These teachings legitimated the genocide of Native Americans in order to usurp their land. Abominable practices such as untouchability are first found inthe Bible, which is also easily available in many languages and widely circulated.

Yet, the HAF has not called upon the pope or the leading pastors to reject sections of the Bible which are inhumane. This is strange because, in the foreword to the report, Prof. Ramdas Lamb first declares other religions inherited caste discrimination from Hinduism then hopes “that this report can inspire like-minded Hindus and non-Hindus to work together to bring justice and a sense of equality to all Indians irrespective of caste or religion.” It seems as though all religions should share the credit for removing discrimination but it is only Hindu texts that should be condemned. Ironically, a Hindu organization has made this call!

Hindu acharyas will not denounce any dharmashastra because, firstly, that is not a Hindu tradition, and especially so because they are knowledgeable of these texts and are aware that these lofty texts promoted social harmony. Hindus will denounce the HAF report, and by extension HAF's ability and standing to represent Hindus.

Mark Twain wrote about the Bible:

"It is full of interest. It has noble poetry in it; and some clever fables; and some blood-drenched history; and some good morals; and a wealth of obscenity; and upwards of a thousand lies."

Yet you don't find Christians apologizing for it. It is a tragedy our déraciné westernized Hindus should feel so intimidated by the bullying tactics the Christians employ and falsely denounce their own sacred texts that promote harmony. Has the HAF been under compulsion from the anti-Hindu group Navyashastra to call for denouncing our scriptures? Can the HAF achieve anything virtuous by abandoning honesty and embracing cowardice?

No facts please, we are lamenting!

Hinduism teaches “Satyam vada” or “Speak the truth,” but the salient feature of the HAF report is its utter disregard for facts. In their zeal to lament, the HAF luminaries often present propaganda as fact. A UNICEF report, without providing any proof, declares that 250 million Indians are victims of caste discrimination. The HAF report reports it as fact. Even a fifth grader would be curious enough to ask on what basis the UNICEF has reached such a startling conclusion. The same child would be smart enough to notice that even though one in nine black men aged 25-35 languish in American prisons as victims of Christian apartheid the UNICEF does not talk about this discrimination. She would wonder whether UNICEF is indulging in propaganda. It seems our HAF luminaries are not as smart as a fifth grader. Perhaps they decided that a fantastic claim made by any Christian establishment is as good as fact.

The HAF-baked report alleges that caste is uniquely hierarchical, that it finds support only in a small subset of Hindu scriptures dealing with rituals, it is not intrinsic to Hinduism, and that many Hindu saints fought against this hierarchical system. The great Hindu sage Tiruvalluvar, a Harijan by birth, warned that the utterances of a fool ruin the assembly of the wise. The ignoramuses that wrote the HAF report have confirmed it. A vast majority of Hindu sacred texts accept caste. One can name the Vedas, Upanishads, dharmashastras, sutra texts, and the itihasas as examples. Even philosophical texts such as the Tirukkural, treatises on polity such as The Arthashastra, and grammatical treatises such as The Tolkappiyam insist upon the centrality of caste to Hinduism. The HAF may want to deny the caste system out of ignorance but they should not invoke our sacred texts and saints as false witnesses.

Caste is, among other things, biological in nature as is evident from the fact that each jati possesses unique genetic haplotypes, wedding and funerary customs, and linguistic traits. This is primarily the reason for the diversity in Hinduism and stands testimony to the fact that Hinduism preserved and nurtured this diversity. There is only one way to eliminate caste which is by physically eliminating members of that caste. I hope that is not what the HAF is advocating even though their caricaturing of the Brahmins comes close to the Christian missionary-fed advocacy to physically eliminate Brahmins.

What the HAF claims to be a progressive and articulate understanding of caste turns out to be an ignorant repetition of Christian missionary propaganda. The HAF has matched the levels of idiocy displayed by the anti-Hindu group Navyashastra which blames the practice of female feticide prevalent in some parts of India on the ancient Hindu funerary tradition of the son performing the final rites of the departed parents even though any scholarly text would have informed them that this evil is the result of the practices that came into existence under oppressive British rule in the 19th century.[20]

The HAF-baked report declares that in Hinduism Harijans are considered the most ritually polluting. This is a startling claim that cannot be supported by reference to any scripture. The lamenting authors of the report would be surprised to learn that the opposite is actually true. In Tamilnadu, the Paraiyah sub-sect of Valluvars believes that the sight of a “single Brahmin” is an ill omen.[21] Thurston recounts a practice among the Paraiyah community of Tamilnadu. The Paraiyah considers the Brahmin untouchable. So, if a Brahmin enters a Paraiyah settlement, once he leaves, Paraiyah ladies cleanse the place by sprinkling cow dung water on the place touched by the feet of Brahmin.[22] A government record indicates that in some places this Paraiyah hostility to Brahmins was quite aggressive. If ever a Brahmin entered a Paraiyah settlement, Paraiyah women followed him, ridiculed him, broke mud pots behind him and sang dirges till he left.[23] The Pallars, another Harijan Jati, would not allow Brahmins into their settlements.[24] In neighboring Karnataka, Harijan Holeyas threw footwear at the imprudent Brahmin who entered their settlements and drove him away.[25] In Karnataka, the middle castes of Okkaligas and Kurubas do not accept water or food from the Marka Brahmin, who is treated as an untouchable.[26]

Maybe the luminaries of the HAF-baked report should declare that in Hinduism the Brahmins are considered the ritually most polluting, characterize the Brahmins as the victims of caste discrimination, and apologize to them!

Mahatma Gandhi, Narayana Guru, Subrahmanya Bharati, and many other Hindu leaders, many of them the so-called upper castes as well as Harijan spiritual leaders, were pioneers that relentlessly worked on removing caste inequities that arose among Hindus who had been conquered and colonized for a thousand years and sponsored legal safeguards to protect Harijans. As Arun Shourie shows, the Indian Constitution, which was mainly written by upper caste Hindus, ushered in numerous safeguards such as reservations to uplift Harijans. The Harijans were not an organized movement at that time. Yet, the authors of the Indian Constitution voluntarily extended reservations to the Harijans. Not only that, despite the fact that B R Ambedkar had collaborated with the British (but had been deserted by the British), and had harbored resentment towards Mahatma Gandhi, Hindu leaders did not show any resentment towards him. They made him the Chairman of the Committee drafting the constitution even though much of the constitution had already been drafted.[27]Strangely, the HAF report claims it was Ambedkar, not the Hindu leaders who introduced the safeguards even though reservation for the Harijans had existed in India since 1921 and Hindu kings had introduced reservation to uplift less fortunate sections of society even before that. Evidently facts are unnecessary in propaganda!

The authors of the HAF report assert that Ambedkar converted to Buddhism to escape caste discrimination. No doubt Harijans were discriminated against under the colonial rule but even the often resentful Ambedkar himself has a different story to tell. His last name originally was Ambavadekar. He had a Brahmin teacher at school who cared for him a lot and even fed him daily. His last name was Ambedkar, which the pupil would inherit.[28] There would be another Brahmin later on in his life. That would be his wife. In between these two Brahmins, another “upper caste” Hindu, the Maharaja of Kolhapur would give him the scholarship to go to Columbia University to study. An “upper caste” Parsi would accommodate Ambedkar in his room while he was at Columbia. Those genuine acts of solidarity and love come in the way of HAF’s portrayal of the Hindus as invariably oppressive, and had to be left out.

The report routinely demonizes Brahmins by implying that they used to oppress the Harijans as a political class even though one would be hard-pressed to find systematic evidence to support this claim. Could the HAF not find a better way to propitiate themselves to the US State department than by falsely demonizing an increasingly defenseless minority of people? The report also incorrectly states that reservation for Harijans and backward castes were introduced in 1950 and 1990 respectively – missing the mark by at least three decades!

The report surely seeks the approval of America’s extreme left wing for it caricatures the traditional, lasting Hindu arranged marriage with the quoted phrase “arranged by parents.” It seems any system of marriage that is at variance with the serial-dating, short-lived, exploitative western variety ought to be ridiculed. The complexity of cultural practices in finding partners and their eventual social outcomes seems to escape the attention of the report.

HAF-degradation of the Harijans

The report propagates the Christian missionary canard that the proper noun Harijan is patronizing. The word, meaning children of Hari, arguably first occurs in the dohas or couplets of Kabir Das, a renowned medieval saint, who sings:

“kam kahar aswar hai, sab ko mare dhaye

koi eka Harijan ubhare, jaka Ram sahaya”[29]

[Children of Hari transcend the push and pull of lust by His grace]

In the celebrated Ramacharitamanas of Tulasidas, Lakshmana, during his encounter with Sage Parasurama, uses the word Harijan to mean devotees:

"sur mahisur harijan aru gayi hamare kul in par na surayin!"[30]

[Our clan does not show its valor against devas, Brahmins, devotees and cows!]

The great saint Narasimha Mehta, a Brahmin himself, campaigned to end untouchability, and called the erstwhile untouchables Harijans. Gandhi popularized it.[31] Mahatma Gandhi persuaded the upper caste women who became his followers to marry Harijan men hoping, perhaps idealistically, that such well-intended initiatives would end discriminations and help Harijans progress.[32] It was the only Gandhian advice Ambedkar would heed. It is such noble thinking that is behind the coining of this word, aimed at elevating an entire people disadvantaged in a period of history in which their alleged upper caste oppressors were themselves powerless politically.

On the other hand, the word ‘Dalit’ literally means a ‘broken person,’ and was likely coined by evangelical Christian missionaries. A Christian publication confesses that the term is meant to install in the minds of the Harijans a perception of "weakness, poverty and humiliation at the hands of the upper castes in the Indian society."[33] It was adopted as a self-referential term in 1972, during the convention of the ephemeral Dalit Panthers Party in Bombay. It was largely a Mahar party, whose manifesto inculcated hatred in the minds of the youth.[34] We would not call our own children “broken persons.” What right do we have to call the Harijans “broken persons?” White racists have invented many such derogatory terms as “nits” and “niggers” to refer to the Native Americans and blacks respectively and have no qualms in inventing one such term for the Harijans. What motivated the HAF to rationalize such a term? Are they unaware that the National Commission of Scheduled Castes declared the term Dalit unconstitutional?[35]

A heartless advocacy

The HAF report reiterates its earlier support of the anti-Hindu Dravidianist party decision to only nominate members of other castes as temple priests in those Hindu temples where the Brahmins traditionally serve as priests.[36] This advocacy gives the impression that the job of a temple priest is sought after, monetarily rewarding, and powerful. Nothing can be further from the truth. Unlike Christian pastors or Islamic mullahs, Hindu priests do not control resources. Prof. Paul Younger, in his fine book Home of the Dancing Sivan, discusses the history and status of the dikshitar families who serve the Chidambaram Nataraja temple as hereditary priests. They have served the temple for nearly 2,000 years as evident from literary evidence. They never abandoned their service of Nataraja even when Muslims and the British occupied the temple. Younger documents the fact that dikshitars, like most temple archakas, live in abject poverty and lack any network support.

The report also gives a false impression that the Brahmins are the only priestly caste. The reality is quite the opposite. Since Hinduism is not a centralized religion, each temple embodies the local tradition. Often, these traditions are linked to the local jati. As a result, a vast majority of the Hindu temples are served by priests from non-brahmin jatis including the Harijan jatis. For example, some of the most famous Hindu temples such as Mata Vaishno Devi, Sabarimala, Melmaruvattur Adi Parasakti, the Pattadakallu Virupaksha, and the Palani Murugan temples are served by non-Brahmin priests. Likewise, other temples such as Tirupati Balaji are served by Brahmin priests.

It is not as if anyone from a given jati can become a temple priest. Only a few families are entitled to become priests. These families would have served the temple for many centuries and did not abandon their sacred duty even during the times of travail such as massacres by iconoclastic invaders. Serving the temple is a sacred right the descendents of these families have earned. What right does the HAF have to advocate that these archakas be denied even their precarious livelihood? Does the HAF advocate denying the Harijan and other non-brahmin priests too their right of priesthood? Since the HAF wants the government and external agencies to interfere with the nomination of priests in Hindu temples, may I ask why they have not demanded that Christian pastors and Muslim mullahs too be nominated by the government? Clearly, HAF assumes that Christianity and Islam ipso facto embody liberal democratic traditions unlike Hinduism, which obversely is imbued with an innately discriminatory historical culture. So, can we also demand that the HAF board members be constituted by an outside body with proportional representation from all Hindu castes?

The astikas are not offended by the fact that only a few families serve as priests in a temple. They understand the sacrifices made by these families. The demand for supplanting Brahmin priests has always originated from anti-Hindu groups and has been supported by the HAF, which lacks any understanding of rich and diverse Hindu temple traditions and attempts to homogenize Hindu temples along the lines of Christian churches.

Hindus can welcome anyone to learn a given temple’s tradition and become priests regardless of which caste they were born into. But such initiatives should be the prerogative of the local temples and not of the government’s. The intention should not be denying the already serving families their well-deserved right. The right of the existing priestly families should be guaranteed and additional priests from other jatis added under the guidance of Hindu spiritual leaders. Anyone that travels in India will notice a proliferation of Christian churches and a comparative scarcity of Hindu temples. There is a compelling need to have many more Hindu temples and to make them the bastions of learning as was the custom in ancient India. Temple priests can play the additional role of teachers imparting knowledge about rituals, traditions, inscriptions, and customs. That would be the honorable, beneficial, and progressive way of ushering in change.

A dubious methodology

Appendix H of the HAF-baked report is a good example how not to analyze or present any serious issue. This appendix compiles media reports at random and deals with examples of alleged crimes committed against individuals that happen to be Harijans. There is no attempt to verify if the reports are genuine. It gives the impression that the crimes were motivated by the fact that the victims were Harijans and that there is a reticence on the part of police to record crimes if the victims happen to be Harijans. It mentions that 33,615 incidents of crime against the Harijans were recorded in a single year. In addition, the report claims that child labor, bonded labor, prostitution, and manual scavenging are all crimes directed against the Harijans.

Every crime, regardless of the caste of the victim, is an unconscionable act. It should never be tolerated. Hindus should not cease endeavor until societies they live in become crime-free, and until the last crime directed at a Harijan is prevented since a subset of the crimes in which Harijans happen to be the victims are crimes directed at them because they are Harijans. But there are many serious problems with the approach the HAF has taken in its presentation of crime.

1. A well-known Hindu scholar who wishes to remain anonymous provided an analysis which I will summarize. He analyzed data for the years 2004-2005 and 2006-2007 from the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) and data for the year 2008 from the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB). The conclusions are startlingly different from what the HAF arrived at even after allowing for variances between the reporting years.

The following table summarizes data from NHRC:[37]

2004-2005

2006-2007

Total # of cases reported

74401

82233

Total # of cases disposed

24936

17341

# of cases disposed relating to atrocities committed against SC/ST

593

330

% of crimes committed against SC/ST (based on disposed cases)

2.01

1.90

% of crimes committed against other castes (based on disposed cases)

97.99

98.10

% of SC/ST population out of total population

22.50

22.50

Per capita crime rate against SC/ST

0.09

0.08

Per capita crime rate against other castes

1.26

1.27

In other words, based on data available from NHRC, in 2004-2005, 14 times more crimes was committed against a non-SC/ST individual than was committed against an SC/ST individual. In 2006-2007, 16 times more crimes were committed against a non-SC/ST individual than against an SC/ST person.

The following table summarizes data from NCRB:[38]

2008

Total # of crimes committed

5,938,104

# of crimes committed against SC/ST (according to the HAF report)

33,615

% of crimes committed against SC/ST

0.57

% of crimes committed against other

99.43

% of SC/ST population out of total population

22.50

Per capita crime rate against SC/ST

0.025

Per capita crime rate against other castes

1.28

In other words, according to data available from NCRB, in 2008, 51 times more crimes were committed against a non-SC/ST individual than against an SC/ST person.

HAF failed to do this very simple analysis, which would have revealed that significantly fewer per capita crimes are committed against the Harijans than are committed against the rest of the Hindu population. The failure to do this minimal due diligence on the part of the HAF is an unconscionable omission. As a result of this failure, the report inverts the truth and selectively reports data to falsely implicate the Hindus.

2. The report does not analyze how many crimes were committed against other castes. For example, more than 400,000 Kashmiri Brahmins have been ethnically cleansed and rendered refugees in their own country. Their property was stolen. This alone would constitute 400,000 incidents of crime against the Brahmins. Yet, the police have not recorded any of these crimes. Does this mean the Brahmins are the most oppressed caste in India?

3. The HAF failed to analyze the per capita rate of crime committed against each jati before concluding that most crimes are committed against the Harijans. It is irresponsible to conclude that a crime is the result of one’s caste when the cause is often economic greed, flawed agrarian policies, and a predatory economic model that favors western multinational corporations and result in the loss of livelihood of many jatis that followed traditional occupations.

4. The ex-telecom minister of India, Raja, is a Harijan by birth. His story is a testimony to the stupendous rise of Harijans in Indian polity. It is also the most egregious case of corruption were he illegally amassed USD 40 billion in the infamous 2G Spectum case. Subramanian Swamy a Brahmin has been trying to prosecute Raja but has not been able to get the police to record the case. This shows how corrupt and inefficient the Indian police system is. It is scurrilous to suggest that the police refuse to record a crime only if the victim is Harijan.

5. Most devadasis hailed from OBC jatis and not SC as the report falsely claims. For example, in Tamilnadu, the anti-Hindu politician Karunanidhi hails from the Isai Vellala caste. The great classical singer M S Subbulakshmi and the doyen of dancers Balasarasvathi also hailed from this caste. In the past, most devadasis also hailed from this caste. I consider prostitution as something that is exploitative and morally repugnant. The poorest women are forced into it today. But one need not analyze the devadasi system through a Victorian prism. In pre-modern times, devadasis were economically independent and were relatively wealthy. They would choose to live with a wealthy person just as a model in the west opts for a sugar daddy. This form of existence, however undesirable, is quite different from the plight of a prostitute who is exploited and impoverished.

6. The institution of bonded labor came into existence as a result of two Islamic and British systems: ryotwari and zamindari. The British would eventually displace Hindus as indentured or bonded laborers and settle them in the inhospitable terrains of Sri Lanka, Burma, the Caribbean, and South Africa. These Hindus came from all castes. The Brahmin V S Naipaul, a Nobel Prize winner, is a descendent of one such indentured laborer. The HAF has abandoned all objectivity in claiming that all bonded laborers are Harijans.

7. Child labor is exploitative. In Kashmir and Pakistan, children constitute a significant component of the labor force in the carpet industry. These are Muslims. In Sivakasi, where firecrackers are made, children of the OBC castes constituted the bulk of the workforce in the recent past. Child labor is the result of poverty and lack of education. It is not driven by caste identity alone.

8. Manual scavenging is terrible. Hindu customs, with their emphasis on hygiene, actually offered the best defense against such obnoxious practices. The advent of crowded and unhygienic cities under Islamic rule necessitated the need for manual scavenging. As Sri Aurobindo once said in the last century, scientific methods should have replaced manual scavenging.[39] But lack of political will has allowed this practice to linger on. In the past, as the HAF report correctly states, most scavengers were Harijans. In recent times, as Francois Gautier shows, in cities such as Delhi, many scavengers are Brahmins.[40] So, there is a very strong economic causality to this problem.

Each of the practices listed and discussed above is terrible. But to argue that these are crimes directed at Harijans, as HAF falsely does, is superficial and obviates the need to understand and correct each of these practices in their own right. The HAF has abandoned scruples to falsely project every social problem as a crime against Harijans. Such political gimmicks make it difficult for well-meaning social reformers to identify, address and correct those instances of crime that are directed against Harijans solely because of their caste identity.

Concluding words and recommendation

As I stated at the beginning of the report, I have always held the HAF in the highest regard. The members and volunteers of the HAF have served Hinduism well for many years. But they have let us down with this report. HAF collaborated with anti-Hindu groups such as Navyashastra to produce this report. It advances the Christian view point that while caste is a Hindu problem the solution should come from other religions as well. The report is full of factual errors as I have shown in the preceding sections. The report uses a flawed and dubious methodology to select and interpret data. The report distorts our scriptures to score political points. Hinduism treats every living being with dignity but the Islamic and Christian colonial rule of the last 1000 years has ushered in social inequities because of which crimes are committed against the Harijans. The report diminishes the real sufferings of Harijans by making fabricated claims. It attacks and indulges in hate-speech against other Hindus presumably to endear the HAF to the US Congress and its minions. The report is very anti-Hindu.

HAF wants to present this report to the American public, who have every right to know the following:

· Caste is a noble institution that promoted diversity. It is simplistic, irresponsible, and propagandist to conclude that there are upper and lower castes in Hindu society. The reality is that many Harijan jatis such as the Meenas, Mauryas, and Bhils have been powerful ruling dynasties, whereas most Brahmins have been economically and politically weak. Traditional Hindu society was not driven by a centralized power structure with the priest at its helm. It was governed by a decentralized structure in which the power balance shifted from one jati to another depending on the locale.

· Hinduism, its saints, and its spiritual leaders do not support or condone caste inequities or untouchability. They have fought, and continue to fight, against inequities.

· Untouchability and caste inequities are first recorded in the 12th century CE when India had already been subjugated by Muslim conquerors and then Christians.

· Colonial rule made it very difficult for the Hindus to fight these inequities. Yet, wherever they could maintain a semblance of autonomy, Hindus fought against such social problems.

· In the last 150 years, when Hindus found partial autonomy, they introduced significant measures to ameliorate the plight of those who had suffered caste inequities under colonial rule. No other society has done more than the Hindus to help the oppressed within their ranks.

· This reality cannot be understood well by the American public unless contrasted with the fact that, as Martin Luther King, Jr. stated, America has done very little to uplift the victims of Christian apartheid in the USA.

· A significant number of Hindu scriptures were written by the forefathers of today’s Harijans. Hinduism is the religion of Harijans. Nobody can whitewash this fact and inculcate resentment in the minds of the Harijans with the objective of converting them to Christianity.

· Many Harijan jatis have had a glorious past before they lost their status and slided into untouchability under colonial rule. The Mauryas founded the most powerful empire of ancient India. Yet, today, Mauryas are a Harijan caste. The Valluvars are a Harijan caste but in the not so distant past, a part of South India was known as the Valluva Nadu (meaning the Valluva Country) and was ruled by Valluva kings. Each jati, including the Harijans, has the right to look up to role models within its own caste and to be proud of its lineage.

Strangely, HAF refused to include these most crucial facts in its report. I do not know what compulsion forced them to take this stance. Whatever may be the reason, I hope this critique allows the HAF to rethink what they have done. I hope they will correct their report by working with many other Hindus and Hindu groups before making it public again. It will be honorable for them to transparently say that they will correct the mistakes and publish a revised report instead of secretly modifying aspects of it as and when they receive criticism.

HAF should decide whether it wants to partner with Hindus or with their enemies. Their decision to partner with Navyashastra, which is a highly destructive anti-Hindu group, is inexplicable. Why did the HAF collaborate with Ramdas Lamb (he once confessed by email that he is afraid of opposing Wendy Doniger publicly because she is too powerful), who instigated the Hindu-haters on the anti-Hindu RISA list by alleging that only “upper caste” individuals are criticizing the report? HAF should be ashamed of associating with such individuals who play the caste card instead of responding to substantive critique. Likewise, HAF should not defend members that have made a serious judgment error. Ramesh Rao, its human rights coordinator, declared that the Ramayana is a racial narrative. Most donors of the HAF hold the text sacred. Ramesh Rao going rogue shocked the supporters of HAF.

There is a lesson for everyone here. Hindus should openly dissociate themselves from the report because it harms their fundamental interests. Our opponents can shut down any future lawsuit we may file to eliminate discrimination against Hinduism in textbooks by citing this report. Hindus should make it clear that the HAF does not represent their interests. Trust is something to be earned. HAF has lost with this report whatever trust it had earned over years. It has to work hard to earn it again. HAF should remember that they are answerable to Hindus and not to the Christian establishment of the US Congress. Hindus should also found other organizations that will represent their interests without fear. Such organizations will keep HAF honest.

I started this report with sadness because I had to criticize an organization I have admired all along. I close this critique with the hope that HAF will make amends for their misadventure, and one day, once again, I can look up to them with admiration. If I may issue a fatwa like a mullah, I would say:

Burn the report. Save HAF’s reputation!

Kalavai Venkat thanks four well known Hindu scholars who do not wish to be named for their editorial feedback and review comments. You may email your feedback to him at kalavai.venkat@gmail.com .

References:

[1] http://www.america.gov/st/diversity-english/2009/February/20090204161809xlrennef5.894107e-02.html

[2] http://www.indiaabroad-digital.com/indiaabroad/20110114?pg=10#pg10

[3] http://www.tamilhindu.com/2009/09/periyar_marubakkam_part15/ . See chapter 15 in the print version.

[4] http://www.indiastar.com/venkat1.html

[5] Tirujnanasambantar, Tevaram, "Alavai Patigam"

[6] Appar, Tevaram, "4th Tirumurai", "Namacchivayat Tiruppatigam"

[7] Tirumantiram 1721

[8] Purananuru 183:8 – 10.

[9] Pazhamozhi 21. Pazhamozhi means adage. It seems even in the early medieval times, this was considered a collection of older proverbs.

[10] Ibid 310.

[11] Tolkappiyam Poruladhikaram 28.

[12] Tirukkural 543.

[13] Adapted from http://www.esamskriti.com/essay-chapters/Indigeneous-Education-in-the-18th-century-1.aspx .

[14] Srinivas, M.N.: Social Change in Modern India, p. 97. I have used the Varna name Kshatriya where Thakur or Rajput is claimed.

[15] Ibid, p. 99.

[16] http://www.darwinawards.com/

[17] https://sites.google.com/site/snippetsfromourthroughstreams/home/vema-rreddy

[18] The Silappadikaram 13:38 - 40. Adiyarkkunallar, the medieval commentator, says that even though music itself

originated from The Sama Veda, by the time of the epic in discussion, the orthodox society considered it a deviation on the path of the Brahmins if they turned away from Vaidika lifestyle; and hence the notion of such musician Brahmins having been inauspicious.

[19] Beck, Norman A.: Removing anti-Jewish polemic from our Christian lectionaries, a proposal, http://jcrelations.net/en/?id=737

[20] http://www.shastras.org/PressRelease30.html

[21] Hanumanthan, K.R.: Untouchability – A Historical Study Up To 1500 AD, With Special Reference to Tamilnadu, p. 89.

[22] Thurston, E., Rangachari, K.: Castes and Tribes of South India, Volume 6, p. 88.

[23] Iyer, K.R.V.: A Manual of the Pudukkottai State [1938], p. 189.

[24] Gough, K.: Caste in Tanjore Villages [Ed. Leach, E.R.: Aspects of Caste in South India], p. 49.

[25] Thurston, E., Rangachari, K.: Castes and Tribes of South India, Volume 2, p. 336. Also, Ambedkar, B.R.: Untouchables, p. 75 [Indian Antiquary 1073, II, p. 65]

[26] Srinivas, M.N.: Social Change in Modern India, p. 7.

[27] http://arunshourie.voiceofdharma.com/articles/ambedkar.htm

[28] Keer, Dhananjay: Dr. Ambedkar: Life and Mission, p. 14.

[29] This couplet of Kabir Das has been alluded to in secondary sources. The couplet is cited in several Web sites dedicated to the dohas of Kabir but no information on the primary source is available. It must be noted that many couplets of Kabir have not been compiled yet. It is very difficult to ascertain whether a couplet ascribed to Kabir was indeed sung by him.

[30] Ramacharitamanas, Bala Khanda, Chaupai 273.

[31] Gandhi, M.K.: Removal of Untouchability, p. 13.

[32] http://www.bfg-muenchen.de/rahim.htm

[33] Victor Premasagar in Interpretive Diary of a Bishop: Indian Experience in Translation and Inter

pretation of Some Biblical Passages (Chennai: Christian Literature Society, 2002), p. 108. (cf. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalit#cite_note-6)

[34] Joshi, B.: Untouchables! Voices of the Dalit Liberation Movement, pp. 141-147.

[35] http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/Dalit-word-unconstitutional-says-SC-Commission/262903/

[36] http://www.hafsite.org/media/pr/anticasteist-tamil-nadu-order

[37] http://nhrc.nic.in/Documents/AR/AR04-05ENG.pdf and

http://nhrc.nic.in/Documents/AR/Annual%20Report%2006-07.pdf

[38] http://ncrb.nic.in/cii2008/cii-2008/Snapshots.pdf

[39] http://www.aurobindo.ru/workings/sa/22-24/eng_1_9.htm

[40] http://www.rediff.com/news/2006/may/23franc.htm