August 25, 2011

Pakistan’s Bitter, Little-Known Ethnic Rebellion

August 23, 2011
By


GENEVA — A slim figure in a dark suit, Brahumdagh Bugti, 30, could pass for a banker in the streets of this sedate Swiss city. But in truth he is a resistance leader in exile, a player in an increasingly ugly independence war within Pakistan.

He has been on the run since 2006, when he narrowly escaped a Pakistani Army operation that killed his grandfather and dozens of his tribesmen in the southwestern province of Baluchistan. And since then, the government’s attempt to stamp out an uprising by the Baluch ethnic minority has only intensified, according to human rights organizations and Pakistani politicians.

The Baluch insurgency, which has gone on intermittently for decades, is often called Pakistan’s Dirty War, because of the rising numbers of people who have disappeared or have been killed on both sides. But it has received little attention internationally, in part because most eyes are turned toward the fight against the Taliban and Al Qaeda in Pakistan’s northwestern tribal areas.

Mr. Bugti insists that he is a political leader only, and that he is not taking a role in the armed uprising against the government. He was caught up in a deadly struggle between his grandfather, Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti, a former minister and a leader of the Bugti tribe, and Pakistan’s military leader at the time, Gen. Pervez Musharraf, over control of Baluchistan’s rich natural resources and the establishment of military bases in the province.

Baluch nationalists have never accepted being part of Pakistan and have fought in five uprisings since the country’s formation. Their demands range from greater control over Baluchistan’s gas and natural resources, fairer distribution of wealth (Baluchistan suffers from the lowest health, education and living standards in the country), to outright independence.

When the Pakistani Army shelled their ancestral home in Dera Bugti in December 2005, Mr. Bugti took to the hills with his grandfather, who was 80 and partly disabled, and they camped for months in mountain caves. Then, in August 2006, the military caught up with them. “I escaped, but he could not,” Mr. Bugti said.

From a hide-out two miles away, he watched the military assault, a furious three-day bombardment by attack jets, helicopter gunships and airborne troops. On the evening of the third day, the government triumphantly announced that Nawab Bugti had been killed. Thirty-two tribesmen died with him, Mr. Bugti said. The day after learning of his grandfather’s death, Mr. Bugti gathered his closest tribal leaders, and they urged him to leave and save himself, he said.

Pakistan and neighboring Iran were hostile to the Baluch, and the only place to go was Afghanistan, though it was consumed by the war with the Taliban. It took 19 days, on foot, to trek from a mountain base near Sibi to the Afghan border. But he had an armed tribal force and scouts with him and made the escape without incident, crossing into Afghanistan along a mountain trail, he said.

Although he had few contacts there, tribal links and traditions of hospitality assured him a welcome. He sent for his wife, his two children — a third was born in Afghanistan — and his mother, and after an elaborate dance to confuse government watchers, they crossed the border to join him days later.

Yet Afghanistan was not a safe haven. The family moved about 18 times over the next 18 months, and despite never going outside, he said, they became the target of repeated suicide bomb attacks by the Taliban and Qaeda militants, who they believe were sent by the Pakistani military. At least one bomb attack, in the upscale residential Kabul neighborhood of Wazir Akbar Khan, was specifically aimed at Mr. Bugti, a Western diplomat and an Afghan intelligence official said.

The Pakistani government has branded Mr. Bugti a terrorist, the leader of the militant Baluch Republican Army, and has made no secret of its desire to kill or capture him. It has repeatedly demanded that Afghanistan hand him over and has accused India of supporting Baluch rebels through its consulates in Afghanistan.

Pakistan’s remonstrations over Mr. Bugti became so insistent that the United States and other NATO members urged Afghanistan to move Mr. Bugti elsewhere, Western diplomats and Afghan officials said, speaking on condition of anonymity because of the politics involved. In October 2010, he and his family arrived in Switzerland and sought political asylum.

Though Mr. Bugti says he supports only peaceful political activism rather than armed resistance, he does share the rebels’ demand for independence for the Baluch. “I support the political struggle and the idea for liberation because the Baluch people demand it,” he said.

He formed a political party shortly after his grandfather’s death, distancing himself from the established parties. The manner of his grandfather’s death, his call for political opposition to the government and his youth have won him broad support beyond his own Bugti tribe, among the educated Baluch middle class and student movements and appointed representatives in every district.

“We got a very good response from all the Baluch,” he said.

It proved to him that people in Baluchistan still hoped and believed in political change, he said. Yet government retribution was swift. Eight members of his political party in Baluchistan have been killed, five members of its central committee are missing since its formation in 2007 and the top leaders have been forced into exile. Even the party’s 76-year-old secretary general, Bashir Azeem, was detained for two months in 2009 and tortured — including being beaten and hung upside down, in a case documented by Human Rights Watch.

It is part of an increasingly deadly government crackdown on political and student nationalist leaders in the province over the last 18 months, politicians and human rights officials say. “They are trying to kill the activists, anyone who is speaking out,” Mr. Bugti said.

Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have documented a rising number of abuses by the Pakistani security forces in Baluchistan. Amnesty International describes the use of “kill and dump” tactics, under which activists, teachers, journalists and lawyers, even teenagers, have been detained and their bullet-ridden bodies dumped on roadsides at a rate of about 20 a month in recent months.

Human Rights Watch says hundreds of people have disappeared since 2005 in Baluchistan, and it has documented 45 cases of enforced disappearances and torture by Pakistani security forces in the province in 2009 and 2010. Human Rights Watch has also reported a growing trend of retaliation by armed rebels on non-Baluch settlers, including the targeted killings of 22 teachers.

Despite the end of General Musharraf’s rule and Pakistan’s return to a democratic government in 2008, military repression of the Baluch has only increased, Mr. Bugti and others say. Members of the civilian government say they have no power over the military, and the army is obsessed with crushing an uprising that it sees as an effort by India to undermine Pakistani sovereignty.

Mr. Bugti has called on the United States to end aid to the Pakistani Army, which, he said, was diverting resources from intended counterterrorism goals and using them to suppress the Baluch. “If the U.S. stopped the military and financial assistance, they could not continue their operations for long,” he said.

The increased violence has pushed the Baluch far beyond their original demands for greater autonomy and recognition of their rights and toward an armed independence movement. “Ninety-nine percent of the Baluch now want liberation,” Mr. Bugti said.

“The people are more angry and they will go to the side of those using violence, because if you close all the peaceful ways of struggle, and you kidnap the peaceful, political activists, and torture them to death and throw their bodies on roadsides, then definitely they will go and join the armed resistance groups,” he said.

He sees little hope of change from within Pakistan and seeks intervention by the United Nations and Western nations. “We have to struggle hard, maybe for 1 year, 2 years, 20 years,” he said. “We have to hope.”

This article has been revised to reflect the following correction:

Correction: August 24, 2011

An earlier picture caption with this article misstated the date that the photograph of the Bugti tribal militiamen shown in Dera Bugti was taken. It was January 2006, not this past January.

Libya After Gadhafi: Transitioning from Rebellion to Rule Read more: Libya After Gadhafi: Transitioning from Rebellion to Rule

By Scott Stewart

August 24, 2011 | 1908 GMT v

"Libya After Gadhafi: Transitioning from Rebellion to Rule is republished with permission of STRATFOR.

With the end of the Gadhafi regime seemingly in sight, it is an opportune time to step back and revisit one of the themes we discussed at the beginning of the crisis: What comes after the Gadhafi regime?

As the experiences of recent years in Iraq and Afghanistan have vividly illustrated, it is far easier to depose a regime than it is to govern a country. It has also proved to be very difficult to build a stable government from the remnants of a long-established dictatorial regime. History is replete with examples of coalition fronts that united to overthrow an oppressive regime but then splintered and fell into internal fighting once the regime they fought against was toppled. In some cases, the power struggle resulted in a civil war more brutal than the one that brought down the regime. In other cases, this factional strife resulted in anarchy that lasted for years as the iron fist that kept ethnic and sectarian tensions in check was suddenly removed, allowing those issues to re-emerge.

As Libya enters this critical juncture and the National Transitional Council (NTC) transitions from breaking things to building things and running a country, there will be important fault lines to watch in order to envision what Libya will become.

Divisions

One of the biggest problems that will confront the Libyan rebels as they make the transition from rebels to rulers are the country’s historic ethnic, tribal and regional splits. While the Libyan people are almost entirely Muslim and predominately Arab, there are several divisions among them. These include ethnic differences in the form of Berbers in the Nafusa Mountains, Tuaregs in the southwestern desert region of Fezzan and Toubou in the Cyrenaican portion of the Sahara Desert. Among the Arabs who form the bulk of the Libyan population, there are also hundreds of different tribes and multiple dialects of spoken Arabic.

Perhaps most prominent of these fault lines is the one that exists between the ancient regions of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. The Cyrenaica region has a long and rich history, dating back to the 7th century B.C. The region has seen many rulers, including Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Ottomans, Italians and the British. Cyrenaica has long been at odds with the rival province of Tripolitania, which was founded by the Phoenicians but later conquered by Greeks from Cyrenaica. This duality was highlighted by the fact that from the time of Libya’s independence through the reign of King Idris I (1951-1969), Libya effectively had two capitals. While Tripoli was the official capital in the west, Benghazi, King Idris’ power base, was the de facto capital in the east. It was only after the 1969 military coup that brought Col. Moammar Gadhafi to power that Tripoli was firmly established as the seat of power over all of Libya. Interestingly, the fighting on the eastern front in the Libyan civil war had been stalled for several months in the approximate area of the divide between Cyrenaica and Tripolitania.

After the 1969 coup, Gadhafi not only established Tripoli as the capital of Libya and subjugated Benghazi, he also used his authoritarian regime and the country’s oil revenues to control or co-opt Libya’s estimated 140 tribes, many members of which are also members of Libya’s minority Berber, Tuareg and Toubou ethnic groups.

It is no mistake that the Libyan revolution began in Cyrenaica, which has long bridled under Gadhafi’s control and has been the scene of several smaller and unsuccessful uprisings. The jihadist Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG) has also traditionally been based in eastern Cyrenaican cities such as Darnah and Benghazi, where anti-Gadhafi sentiment and economic hardship marked by high levels of unemployment provided a fertile recruiting ground. Many of these jihadists have joined the anti-Gadhafi rebels fighting on the eastern front.

But the rebels were by no means confined to Cyrenaica. Anti-Gadhafi rebels in Misurata waged a long and bloody fight against government forces to gain control of the city, and while the Cyrenaican rebels were bogged down in the Ajdabiya/Marsa el Brega area, Berber guerrillas based in the Nafusa Mountains applied steady pressure to the Libyan forces in the west and eventually marched on Tripoli with Arab rebels from coastal towns such as Zawiya, where earlier uprisings in February were brutally defeated by the regime prior to the NATO intervention.

These groups of armed rebels have fought independently on different fronts during the civil war and have had varying degrees of success. The different roles these groups have played and, more important, their perceptions of those roles will likely create friction when it comes time to allocate the spoils of the Libyan war and delineate the power structure that will control Libya going forward.

Fractured Alliances

While the NTC is an umbrella group comprising most of the groups that oppose Gadhafi, the bulk of the NTC leadership hails from Cyrenaica. In its present state, the NTC faces a difficult task in balancing all the demands and interests of the various factions that have combined their efforts to oust the Gadhafi regime. Many past revolutions have reached a precarious situation once the main unifying goal has been achieved: With the regime overthrown, the various factions involved in the revolution begin to pursue their own interests and objectives, which often run contrary to those of other factions.

A prime example of the fracturing of a rebel coalition occurred after the fall of the Najibullah regime in Afghanistan in 1992, when the various warlords involved in overthrowing the regime became locked in a struggle for power that plunged the country into a period of destructive anarchy. While much of Afghanistan was eventually conquered by the Taliban movement — seen by many terrorized civilians as the country’s salvation — the Taliban were still at war with the Northern Alliance when the United States invaded the country in October 2001.

A similar descent into anarchy followed the 1991 overthrow of Somali dictator Mohamed Said Barre. The fractious nature of Somali regional and clan interests combined with international meddling has made it impossible for any power to assert control over the country. Even the jihadist group al Shabaab has been wracked by Somali divisiveness.

But this dynamic does not happen only in countries with strong clan or tribal structures. It was also clearly demonstrated following the 1979 broad-based revolution in Nicaragua, when the Sandinista National Liberation Front turned on its former partners and seized power. Some of those former partners, such as revolutionary hero Eden Pastora, would go on to join the “contras” and fight a civil war against the Sandinistas that wracked Nicaragua until a 1988 cease-fire.

In most of these past cases, including Afghanistan, Somalia and Nicaragua, the internal fault lines were seized upon by outside powers, which then attempted to manipulate one of the factions in order to gain influence in the country. In Afghanistan, for example, warlords backed by Pakistan, Iran, Russia and India were all vying for control of the country. In Somalia, the Ethiopians, Eritreans and Kenyans have been heavily involved, and in Nicaragua, contra groups backed by the United States opposed the Cuban- and Soviet-backed Sandinistas.

Outside influence exploiting regional and tribal fault lines is also a potential danger in Libya. Egypt is a relatively powerful neighbor that has long tried to meddle in Libya and has long coveted its energy wealth. While Egypt is currently focused on its own internal issues as well as the Israel/Palestinian issue, its attention could very well return to Libya in the future. Italy, the United Kingdom and France also have a history of involvement in Libya. Its provinces were Italian colonies from 1911 until they were conquered by allied troops in the North African campaign in 1943. The British then controlled Tripolitania and Cyrenaica and the French controlled Fezzan province until Libyan independence in 1951. It is no accident that France and the United Kingdom led the calls for NATO intervention in Libya following the February uprising, and the Italians became very involved once they jumped on the bandwagon. It is believed that oil companies from these countries as well as the United States and Canada will be in a prime position to continue to work Libya’s oil fields. Qatar, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates also played important roles in supporting the rebels, and it is believed they will continue to have influence with the rebel leadership.

Following the discovery of oil in Libya in 1959, British, American and Italian oil companies were very involved in developing the Libyan oil industry. In response to this involvement, anti-Western sentiment emerged as a significant part of Gadhafi’s Nasserite ideology and rhetoric, and there has been near-constant friction between Gadhafi and the West. Due to this friction, Gadhafi has long enjoyed a close relationship with the Soviet Union and later Russia, which has supplied him with the bulk of his weaponry. It is believed that Russia, which seemed to place its bet on Gadhafi’s survival and has not recognized the NTC, will be among the big losers of influence in Libya once the rebels assume power. However, it must be remembered that the Russians are quite adept at human intelligence and they maintain varying degrees of contact with some of the former Gadhafi officials who have defected to the rebel side. Hence, the Russians cannot be completely dismissed.

China also has long been interested in the resources of Africa and North Africa, and Gadhafi has resisted what he considers Chinese economic imperialism in the region. That said, China has a lot of cash to throw around, and while it has no substantial stake in Libya’s oil fields, it reportedly has invested some $20 billion in Libya’s energy sector, and large Chinese engineering firms have been involved in construction and oil infrastructure projects in the country. China remains heavily dependent on foreign oil, most of which comes from the Middle East, so it has an interest in seeing the political stability in Libya that will allow the oil to flow. Chinese cash could also look very appealing to a rebel government seeking to rebuild — especially during a period of economic austerity in Europe and the United States, and the Chinese have already made inroads with the NTC by providing monetary aid to Benghazi.

The outside actors seeking to take advantage of Libya’s fault lines do not necessarily need to be nation-states. It is clear that jihadist groups such as the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group and al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb see the tumult in Libya as a huge opportunity. The iron fist that crushed Libyan jihadists for so long has been destroyed and the government that replaces the Gadhafi regime is likely to be weaker and less capable of stamping down the flames of jihadist ideology.

There are some who have posited that the Arab Spring has destroyed the ideology of jihadism, but that is far from the case. Even had the Arab Spring ushered in substantial change in the Arab World — and we believe it has resulted in far less change than many have ascribed to it — it is difficult to destroy an ideology overnight. Jihadism will continue to affect the world for years to come, even if it does begin to decline in popularity. Also, it is important to remember that the Arab Spring movement may limit the spread of jihadist ideology in situations where people believe they have more freedom and economic opportunity after the Arab Spring uprisings. But in places where people perceive their conditions have worsened, or where the Arab Spring brought little or no change to their conditions, their disillusionment could create a ripe recruitment opportunity for jihadists.

The jihadist ideology has indeed fallen on hard times in recent years, but there remain many hardcore, committed jihadists who will not easily abandon their beliefs. And it is interesting to note that a surprisingly large number of Libyans have long been in senior al Qaeda positions, and in places like Iraq, Libyans provided a disproportionate number of foreign fighters to jihadist groups.

It is unlikely that such individuals will abandon their beliefs, and these beliefs dictate that they will become disenchanted with the NTC leadership if it opts for anything short of a government based on a strict interpretation of Shariah. This jihadist element of the rebel coalition appears to have reared its head recently with the assassination of former NTC military head Abdel Fattah Younis in late July (though we have yet to see solid, confirmed reporting of the circumstances surrounding his death).

Between the seizure of former Gadhafi arms depots and the arms provided to the rebels by outside powers, Libya is awash with weapons. If the NTC fractures like past rebel coalitions, it could set the stage for a long and bloody civil war — and provide an excellent opportunity to jihadist elements. At present, however, it is too soon to forecast exactly what will happen once the rebels assume power. The key thing to watch for now is pressure along the fault lines where Libya’s future will likely be decided.



Read more: Libya After Gadhafi: Transitioning from Rebellion to Rule | STRATFOR

Libya After Gadhafi: Transitioning from Rebellion to Rule Read more: Libya After Gadhafi: Transitioning from Rebellion to Rule | STRATFOR

By Scott Stewart

August 24, 2011 | 1908 GMT v

"Libya After Gadhafi: Transitioning from Rebellion to Rule is republished with permission of STRATFOR.

With the end of the Gadhafi regime seemingly in sight, it is an opportune time to step back and revisit one of the themes we discussed at the beginning of the crisis: What comes after the Gadhafi regime?

As the experiences of recent years in Iraq and Afghanistan have vividly illustrated, it is far easier to depose a regime than it is to govern a country. It has also proved to be very difficult to build a stable government from the remnants of a long-established dictatorial regime. History is replete with examples of coalition fronts that united to overthrow an oppressive regime but then splintered and fell into internal fighting once the regime they fought against was toppled. In some cases, the power struggle resulted in a civil war more brutal than the one that brought down the regime. In other cases, this factional strife resulted in anarchy that lasted for years as the iron fist that kept ethnic and sectarian tensions in check was suddenly removed, allowing those issues to re-emerge.

As Libya enters this critical juncture and the National Transitional Council (NTC) transitions from breaking things to building things and running a country, there will be important fault lines to watch in order to envision what Libya will become.

Divisions

One of the biggest problems that will confront the Libyan rebels as they make the transition from rebels to rulers are the country’s historic ethnic, tribal and regional splits. While the Libyan people are almost entirely Muslim and predominately Arab, there are several divisions among them. These include ethnic differences in the form of Berbers in the Nafusa Mountains, Tuaregs in the southwestern desert region of Fezzan and Toubou in the Cyrenaican portion of the Sahara Desert. Among the Arabs who form the bulk of the Libyan population, there are also hundreds of different tribes and multiple dialects of spoken Arabic.

Perhaps most prominent of these fault lines is the one that exists between the ancient regions of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. The Cyrenaica region has a long and rich history, dating back to the 7th century B.C. The region has seen many rulers, including Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Ottomans, Italians and the British. Cyrenaica has long been at odds with the rival province of Tripolitania, which was founded by the Phoenicians but later conquered by Greeks from Cyrenaica. This duality was highlighted by the fact that from the time of Libya’s independence through the reign of King Idris I (1951-1969), Libya effectively had two capitals. While Tripoli was the official capital in the west, Benghazi, King Idris’ power base, was the de facto capital in the east. It was only after the 1969 military coup that brought Col. Moammar Gadhafi to power that Tripoli was firmly established as the seat of power over all of Libya. Interestingly, the fighting on the eastern front in the Libyan civil war had been stalled for several months in the approximate area of the divide between Cyrenaica and Tripolitania.

After the 1969 coup, Gadhafi not only established Tripoli as the capital of Libya and subjugated Benghazi, he also used his authoritarian regime and the country’s oil revenues to control or co-opt Libya’s estimated 140 tribes, many members of which are also members of Libya’s minority Berber, Tuareg and Toubou ethnic groups.

It is no mistake that the Libyan revolution began in Cyrenaica, which has long bridled under Gadhafi’s control and has been the scene of several smaller and unsuccessful uprisings. The jihadist Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG) has also traditionally been based in eastern Cyrenaican cities such as Darnah and Benghazi, where anti-Gadhafi sentiment and economic hardship marked by high levels of unemployment provided a fertile recruiting ground. Many of these jihadists have joined the anti-Gadhafi rebels fighting on the eastern front.

But the rebels were by no means confined to Cyrenaica. Anti-Gadhafi rebels in Misurata waged a long and bloody fight against government forces to gain control of the city, and while the Cyrenaican rebels were bogged down in the Ajdabiya/Marsa el Brega area, Berber guerrillas based in the Nafusa Mountains applied steady pressure to the Libyan forces in the west and eventually marched on Tripoli with Arab rebels from coastal towns such as Zawiya, where earlier uprisings in February were brutally defeated by the regime prior to the NATO intervention.

These groups of armed rebels have fought independently on different fronts during the civil war and have had varying degrees of success. The different roles these groups have played and, more important, their perceptions of those roles will likely create friction when it comes time to allocate the spoils of the Libyan war and delineate the power structure that will control Libya going forward.

Fractured Alliances

While the NTC is an umbrella group comprising most of the groups that oppose Gadhafi, the bulk of the NTC leadership hails from Cyrenaica. In its present state, the NTC faces a difficult task in balancing all the demands and interests of the various factions that have combined their efforts to oust the Gadhafi regime. Many past revolutions have reached a precarious situation once the main unifying goal has been achieved: With the regime overthrown, the various factions involved in the revolution begin to pursue their own interests and objectives, which often run contrary to those of other factions.

A prime example of the fracturing of a rebel coalition occurred after the fall of the Najibullah regime in Afghanistan in 1992, when the various warlords involved in overthrowing the regime became locked in a struggle for power that plunged the country into a period of destructive anarchy. While much of Afghanistan was eventually conquered by the Taliban movement — seen by many terrorized civilians as the country’s salvation — the Taliban were still at war with the Northern Alliance when the United States invaded the country in October 2001.

A similar descent into anarchy followed the 1991 overthrow of Somali dictator Mohamed Said Barre. The fractious nature of Somali regional and clan interests combined with international meddling has made it impossible for any power to assert control over the country. Even the jihadist group al Shabaab has been wracked by Somali divisiveness.

But this dynamic does not happen only in countries with strong clan or tribal structures. It was also clearly demonstrated following the 1979 broad-based revolution in Nicaragua, when the Sandinista National Liberation Front turned on its former partners and seized power. Some of those former partners, such as revolutionary hero Eden Pastora, would go on to join the “contras” and fight a civil war against the Sandinistas that wracked Nicaragua until a 1988 cease-fire.

In most of these past cases, including Afghanistan, Somalia and Nicaragua, the internal fault lines were seized upon by outside powers, which then attempted to manipulate one of the factions in order to gain influence in the country. In Afghanistan, for example, warlords backed by Pakistan, Iran, Russia and India were all vying for control of the country. In Somalia, the Ethiopians, Eritreans and Kenyans have been heavily involved, and in Nicaragua, contra groups backed by the United States opposed the Cuban- and Soviet-backed Sandinistas.

Outside influence exploiting regional and tribal fault lines is also a potential danger in Libya. Egypt is a relatively powerful neighbor that has long tried to meddle in Libya and has long coveted its energy wealth. While Egypt is currently focused on its own internal issues as well as the Israel/Palestinian issue, its attention could very well return to Libya in the future. Italy, the United Kingdom and France also have a history of involvement in Libya. Its provinces were Italian colonies from 1911 until they were conquered by allied troops in the North African campaign in 1943. The British then controlled Tripolitania and Cyrenaica and the French controlled Fezzan province until Libyan independence in 1951. It is no accident that France and the United Kingdom led the calls for NATO intervention in Libya following the February uprising, and the Italians became very involved once they jumped on the bandwagon. It is believed that oil companies from these countries as well as the United States and Canada will be in a prime position to continue to work Libya’s oil fields. Qatar, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates also played important roles in supporting the rebels, and it is believed they will continue to have influence with the rebel leadership.

Following the discovery of oil in Libya in 1959, British, American and Italian oil companies were very involved in developing the Libyan oil industry. In response to this involvement, anti-Western sentiment emerged as a significant part of Gadhafi’s Nasserite ideology and rhetoric, and there has been near-constant friction between Gadhafi and the West. Due to this friction, Gadhafi has long enjoyed a close relationship with the Soviet Union and later Russia, which has supplied him with the bulk of his weaponry. It is believed that Russia, which seemed to place its bet on Gadhafi’s survival and has not recognized the NTC, will be among the big losers of influence in Libya once the rebels assume power. However, it must be remembered that the Russians are quite adept at human intelligence and they maintain varying degrees of contact with some of the former Gadhafi officials who have defected to the rebel side. Hence, the Russians cannot be completely dismissed.

China also has long been interested in the resources of Africa and North Africa, and Gadhafi has resisted what he considers Chinese economic imperialism in the region. That said, China has a lot of cash to throw around, and while it has no substantial stake in Libya’s oil fields, it reportedly has invested some $20 billion in Libya’s energy sector, and large Chinese engineering firms have been involved in construction and oil infrastructure projects in the country. China remains heavily dependent on foreign oil, most of which comes from the Middle East, so it has an interest in seeing the political stability in Libya that will allow the oil to flow. Chinese cash could also look very appealing to a rebel government seeking to rebuild — especially during a period of economic austerity in Europe and the United States, and the Chinese have already made inroads with the NTC by providing monetary aid to Benghazi.

The outside actors seeking to take advantage of Libya’s fault lines do not necessarily need to be nation-states. It is clear that jihadist groups such as the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group and al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb see the tumult in Libya as a huge opportunity. The iron fist that crushed Libyan jihadists for so long has been destroyed and the government that replaces the Gadhafi regime is likely to be weaker and less capable of stamping down the flames of jihadist ideology.

There are some who have posited that the Arab Spring has destroyed the ideology of jihadism, but that is far from the case. Even had the Arab Spring ushered in substantial change in the Arab World — and we believe it has resulted in far less change than many have ascribed to it — it is difficult to destroy an ideology overnight. Jihadism will continue to affect the world for years to come, even if it does begin to decline in popularity. Also, it is important to remember that the Arab Spring movement may limit the spread of jihadist ideology in situations where people believe they have more freedom and economic opportunity after the Arab Spring uprisings. But in places where people perceive their conditions have worsened, or where the Arab Spring brought little or no change to their conditions, their disillusionment could create a ripe recruitment opportunity for jihadists.

The jihadist ideology has indeed fallen on hard times in recent years, but there remain many hardcore, committed jihadists who will not easily abandon their beliefs. And it is interesting to note that a surprisingly large number of Libyans have long been in senior al Qaeda positions, and in places like Iraq, Libyans provided a disproportionate number of foreign fighters to jihadist groups.

It is unlikely that such individuals will abandon their beliefs, and these beliefs dictate that they will become disenchanted with the NTC leadership if it opts for anything short of a government based on a strict interpretation of Shariah. This jihadist element of the rebel coalition appears to have reared its head recently with the assassination of former NTC military head Abdel Fattah Younis in late July (though we have yet to see solid, confirmed reporting of the circumstances surrounding his death).

Between the seizure of former Gadhafi arms depots and the arms provided to the rebels by outside powers, Libya is awash with weapons. If the NTC fractures like past rebel coalitions, it could set the stage for a long and bloody civil war — and provide an excellent opportunity to jihadist elements. At present, however, it is too soon to forecast exactly what will happen once the rebels assume power. The key thing to watch for now is pressure along the fault lines where Libya’s future will likely be decided.



Read more: Libya After Gadhafi: Transitioning from Rebellion to Rule | STRATFOR

The Current State of Leadership – Research Findings

http://www.thepracticeofleadership.net/the-current-state-of-leadership-research-findings

Development Dimensions International (DDI) a respected, global talent management company recently published their Global Leadership Forecast 2011. This report is one of the largest leadership studies of it’s kind, with more than 2,600 participating organizations. The research provides some interesting perspectives on thecurrent state of leadership and future leadership needs. Specifically, the report looked to uncover the answers to the following questions:

  • What is the overall quality of leadership in organizations today? How does it compare to previous years?
  • Do organizations have a sufficient supply of capable leaders to meet tomorrow’s business challenges?
  • What can HR professionals do to revolutionize the development of their leaders?
  • Is it time to radically innovate not only products and business models, but also the very way we manage?
  • What impact can we have by moving the needle on leadership quality?

The research defined a leaders as “someone who manages the performance or responsibilities of individuals in an organization.

Research Findings

This research study produced interesting findings I have extracted some of the research findings I found interesting, those that stood out and caught my attention.

Effective Leadership Matters

  • The research demonstrated that organizations with the highest quality leaders were 13 times more likely to outperform their competition in key bottom-line metrics such as financial performance, quality of products and services, employee engagement, and customer satisfaction.

2011-08-13_134702

  • Leaders who reported that their organization’s current leadership quality as poor, only 6% of them were in organizations that outperformed their competition.
  • Organizations with higher quality leadership were up to three times more likely to retain more employees than their competition.

Future Leaders Are Few

  • Only 38% of the 12,423 leaders in the study reported that the quality of leadership in their organization is very good or excellent.
  • According to both leaders and HR professionals, leadership quality was rated highest in North America (52% of leaders and 30% of HR rated it highly) and lowest in Europe and Asia (33% of leaders rated it high, as did only 21% of Asian HR professionals).

Leadership Development Needs

  • Only 33% of leaders and HR professionals rated their leadership development efforts as highly effective.
  • Driving and managing change will remain the number one priority for leaders over the next three years, see illustration below.

2011-08-13_140719

  • About 50% of leaders are currently ineffective in the skills critical for the next three years.
  • The most common personality derailers of leaders in their organization were risk aversion, distrust, and approval dependence (58% selected risk aversion and 44% selected distrust and approval dependence).

Leadership Development Effectiveness

  • Only 18% of HR professionals surveyed reported strong bench strength to meet future business needs.
  • Research into the use and effectiveness of leadership development methods is illustrated below.

2011-08-13_141237

  • Only 31% of leaders and HR professionals rated the effectiveness of leadership selection as high.
  • Only 26% of organizations have effective programs to ensure smooth leadership transitions.

The Importance of Culture

“Right now, your company has 21st-century, Internet-enabled business processes, mid-20th-century
management processes, all built atop 19th-century management principles.” – Gary Hamel

DDI partnered with Gary Hamel and his Management Lab to identify the key factors that either facilitate or hinder the way in which the work of management is carried out, these are illustrated below.

2011-08-13_142035

  • Organizations with effective management cultures were more than 2½ times more likely to have
    highly passionate leaders.

Wrapping Up

I found this report provided interesting insight into the current state of leadership. Within this research report are some insights that will help improve the effectiveness of leadership in your team and organisation, consider the following:

  • Do you have a strategy and plan for improving your organisations leadership effectiveness?
  • What are you doing to improve your ability to drive and manage change?
  • What are you doing to develop future leaders?
  • What is the state of your organisations culture? How are you planning to change it?

NEHRU-GANDHI FAMILY: A CRIME OF HISTORICAL PROPORTIONS.

The following are some of the Government Schemes and Projects that have been named after the Nehru-Gandhi family.

Central Government Schemes :

1. Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana, Ministry of Power – A scheme “Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana” for Rural Electricity Infrastructure and Household Electrification was ...launched for the attainment of the National Common Minimum Programme of providing access to electricity to all Rural Household by 2009. Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) is the nodal agency for the scheme. Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana to be continued during the Eleventh Plan period with a capital subsidy of Rs. 28000 Crore; allocation of Rs 5500 crore for FY09.
2. Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission (RGNDWM), Ministry of Rural Development, Annual allocation plan 2007-08 was Rs.6,400 crore and Annual allocation plan 2008-09 is Rs.7,300 crore.
3. Rajiv Gandhi National Crèche Scheme for the Children of Working Mothers, Department of Women & Child Development, Ministry of HRD, New Delhi,
Budgetary allocation 2008-09 – 91.88 crore.
Budgetary allocation 2009-10 – 91.52 crore
4. Rajiv Gandhi Udyami Mitra Yojana for benefit of NE entrepreneurs, Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises, Government of India,
Budgetary allocation 2008-9 – Rs. 2.70 crore
Budgetary allocation 2009-10 – Rs.1.12 crore
5. Indira Awas Yojana, Ministry of Rural Areas and Environment – IAY is a CSS funded on cost-sharing basis between the Centre and the States in the ratio of 75:25. In the case of UTs, the entire funds are provided by Centre. The target groups for housing under IAY are households below poverty line living in rural areas, particularly those belonging to SC/ST and freed bonded labourers.
Budgetary allocation 2008-09 – Rs. 7919.00 crores
Budgetary allocation 2009-10 – Rs.7914.70 crores
6. Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme – objective to provide social security to workers in the unorganized sector in a phased manner. Budgetary allocation in 2008-09 is Rs. 3,443 crore
7. Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission, Ministry of Urban Development,
Govt. of India – 7 years time frame, 50,000 cr.
Budgetary allocation for 2008 – 9 – 10447.98 crore
Budgetary allocation for 2009-10 – 10713.84 crore
8. Jawaharlal Nehru Rojgar Yojna – Ministry of Labour and Employment – A Self- employment programme for urban poor
9. Rajiv Gandhi Shramik Kalyan Yojna, Employees’ State Insurance Corporation
10. Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Funded by World Bank
11. Rajiv Gandhi Shilpi Swasthya Bima Yojana, Union Ministry of Textiles, in association with ICICI Lombard General Insurance Company Limited
12. Indira Vikas Patra

State Government Schemes:

1. Rajiv Gandhi Rehabilitation Package for Tsunami Affected Areas, Govt. of Tamil Nadu, Budgetary Allocation Rs.2347.19 crores
2. Rajiv Gandhi Social Security Scheme for poor people, Department of Revenue and Disaster... Management, Govt. of Puducherry
3. Rajiv Ratna Awas Yojna – Congress party president and United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Chairperson Sonia Gandhi had announced that the Centre would give a package of Rs.1,500-crore for providing housing facilities to the poorer sections in Delhi, thus announcing the scheme.
4. Rajiv Gandhi Prathamik Shiksha Mission , Raigarh
5. Rajiv Gandhi Shiksha Mission, Madhya Pradesh
6. Rajiv Gandhi Mission on Food Security , Madhya Pradesh
7. Rajiv Gandhi Mission on Community Health, Madhya Pradesh
8. Rajiv Gandhi Rural Housing Corporation Limited is a Government Company established by the Government of Karnataka to cater to the housing needs of the Economically and Socially weaker sections of the society. Registered in April 2000, its authorised Capital is Rs.10 crores with Rs.3 crore paid up.
9. Rajiv Gandhi Tourism Development Mission, Rajasthan
10. Rajiv Gandhi Computer Literacy Programme, Assam
11. Rajiv Gandhi Swavlamban Rojgar Yojana, Govt. of NCT of Delhi
12. Rajiv Gandhi Mobile Aids Counseling and Testing Services, Rajiv Gandhi Foundation
13. Rajiv Gandhi Vidyarthi Suraksha Yojana, Maharashtra
14. Rajiv Gandhi Mission for Water Shed Management, M.P.
15. Rajiv Gandhi Food Security Mission for Tribal Areas, MP
16. Rajiv Gandhi Home for Handicapped, Pondicherry
17. Rajiv Gandhi Breakfast Scheme, Pondicherry
18. Rajiv Gandhi Akshay Urja Divas, Punjab
19. Rajiv Gandhi Artisans Health and Life Insurance Scheme, Tamil Nadu
20. Rajiv Gandhi Zopadpatti and Nivara Prakalpa, Mumbai
21. Rajiv Arogya Sri programme , Gujrat State Govt. Scheme
22. Rajiv Gandhi Abhyudaya Yojana, AP
23. Rajiv Gandhi Computer Saksharta Mission, Jabalpur
24. Rajiv Gandhi Bridges and Roads Infrastructure Development Programme for the construction of new roads and bridges and strengthening of the existing ones in the state of Haryana
25. Rajiv Gandhi Gramin Niwara Prakalp, Maharashtra Govt.
26. Indira Gandhi Utkrishtha Chhattervritti Yojna for Post Plus Two Students, Himachal Pradesh Government Scheme, Sponsored by, Central Government
27. Indira Gandhi Women Protection Scheme, Maharashtra Govt.
28. Indira Gandhi Prathisthan, Housing and Urban Planning Department, UP Govt
29. Indira Kranthi Patham Scheme, Andhra Pradesh
30. Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojana, State Govt. Scheme
31. Indira Gandhi Vruddha Bhumiheen Shetmajoor Anudan Yojana, Govt. of Maharashtra
32. Indira Gandhi Nahar Project (IGNP), Jaisalmer, Govt. of Rajasthan
33. Indira Gandhi Niradhar Yojna, Govt. of Maharashtra
34. Indira Gandhi kuppam, State Govt. Welfare Scheme for Tsunami effected fishermen
35. Indira Gandhi Drinking Water Scheme-2006, Haryana Govt.
36. Indira Gandhi Niradhar Old, Landless, Destitute women farm labour Scheme,
Maharashtra Govt.
37. Indira Gandhi Women Protection Scheme , Maharashtra Govt.
38. Indira Gaon Ganga Yojana, Chattisgarh
39. Indira Sahara Yojana , Chattisgarh
40. Indira Soochna Shakti Yojana, Chattisgarh
41. Indira Gandhi Balika Suraksha Yojana , HP
42. Indira Gandhi Garibi Hatao Yojana (DPIP), MP
43. Indira Gandhi super thermal power project , Haryana Govt.
44. Indira Gandhi Water Project, Haryana Govt.
45. Indira Gandhi Sagar Project , Bhandara District Gosikhurd Maharashtra
46. Indira Jeevitha Bima Pathakam, AP Govt
47. Indira Gandhi Priyadarshani Vivah Shagun Yojana, Haryana Govt.
48. Indira Mahila Yojana Scheme, Meghalaya Govt
49. Indira Gandhi Calf Rearing Scheme, Chhattisgarh Govt.
50. Indira Gandhi Priyadarshini Vivah Shagun Yojana, Haryana Govt.
51. Indira Gandhi Calf Rearing Scheme, The government of Andhra Pradesh helped most of the respondent families in acquiring female calves through this scheme.
52. Indira Gandhi Landless Agriculture Labour scheme, Maharashtra Govt.See More

Sports/Tournaments/Trophies :

1. Rajiv Gandhi Gold Cup Kabaddi Tournament
2. Rajiv Gandhi Sadbhavana Run
3. Rajiv Gandhi Federation Cup boxing championship
4. Rajiv Gandhi International tournament (football)
...5. NSCI – Rajiv Gandhi road races, New Delhi
6. Rajiv Gandhi Boat Race, Kerala
7. Rajiv Gandhi International Artistic Gymnastic Tournament
8. Rajiv Gandhi Kabbadi Meet
9. Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Roller Skating Championship
10. Rajiv Gandhi memorial marathon race, New Delhi
11. Rajiv Gandhi International Judo Championship, Chandigarh
12. Rajeev Gandhi Memorial Trophy for the Best College, Calicut
13. Rajiv Gandhi Rural Cricket Tournament, Initiated by Rahul Gandhi in Amethi
14. Rajiv Gandhi Gold Cup (U-21), football
15. Rajiv Gandhi Trophy (football)
16. Rajiv Gandhi Award for Outstanding Sportspersons
17. All Indira Rajiv Gandhi Basketball (Girls) Tournament, organized by Delhi State
18. All India Rajiv Gandhi Wrestling Gold Cup, organized by Delhi State
19. Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Jhopadpatti Football Tournament, Rajura
20. Rajiv Gandhi International Invitation Gold Cup Football Tournament, Jamshedpur
21. Rajiv Gandhi Mini Olympics, Mumbai
22. Rajiv Gandhi Beachball Kabaddi Federation
23. Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Trophy Prerana Foundation
24. International Indira Gandhi Gold Cup Tournament
25. Indira Gandhi International Hockey Tournament
26. Indira Gandhi Boat Race
27. Jawaharlal Nehru International Gold Cup Football Tournament.
28. Jawaharlal Nehru Hockey TournamentSee More

Stadium :

1. Indira Gandhi Sports Complex, Delhi
2. Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium, New Delhi
3. Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, New Delhi
4. Rajiv Gandhi Sports Stadium, Bawana
...5. Rajiv Gandhi National Football Academy, Haryana
6. Rajiv Gandhi AC Stadium, Vishakhapatnam
7. Rajiv Gandhi Indoor Stadium, Pondicherry
8. Rajiv Gandhi Stadium, Nahariagun, Itanagar
9. Rajiv Gandhi Badminton Indoor Stadium, Cochin
10. Rajiv Gandhi Indoor Stadium, Kadavanthra,Ernakulam
11. Rajiv Gandhi Sports Complex , Singhu
12. Rajib Gandhi Memorial Sports Complex, Guwahati
13. Rajiv Gandhi International Stadium, Hyderabad
14. Rajiv Gandhi Indoor Stadium, Cochin
15. Indira Gandhi Stadium, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh
16. Indira Gandhi Stadium, Una, Himachal Pradesh
17. Indira Priyadarshini Stadium, Vishakhapatnam
18. Indira Gandhi Stadium, Deogarh, Rajasthan
19. Gandhi Stadium, Bolangir, Orissa

Airports/ Ports :

1. Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, New Hyderabad, A.P.
2. Rajiv Gandhi Container Terminal, Cochin
3. Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi
4. Indira Gandhi Dock, Mumbai
...5. Jawaharlal Nehru Nava Sheva Port Trust, Mumbai
Total budgetary plan outlay 2008-9 - 69.92crore
Total budgetary plan outlay 2009-10 – 324 crore

Universities/Education Institutes:

1. Rajiv Gandhi Indian Institute of Management, Shilong
2. Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Aeronautics, Ranchi, Jharkhand
3. Rajiv Gandhi Technical University, Gandhi Nagar, Bhopal, M.P.
4. Rajiv Gandhi School of Intellectual Property Law, Kharagpur, Kolkata
5. Rajiv Gandhi Aviation Academy, Secundrabad
6. Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law, Patiala, Punjab
7. Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development, Tamil Nadu Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports
Budgetary Allocation 2008-09 – 1.50 crore
Budgetary Allocation 2009-10 – 3.00 crore
8. Rajiv Gandhi Aviation Academy, Begumpet, Hyderabad, A.P
9. Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Technology, Kottayam, Kerala
10. Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering Research & Technology, Chandrapur, Maharashtra
11. Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering, Airoli, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra
12. Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh
13. Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Technology, Chola Nagar, Bangalore, Karnataka
14. Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Gandhi Nagar, Bhopal, M.P.
15. Rajiv Gandhi D.e.d. College, Latur, Maharashtra
16. Rajiv Gandhi College, Shahpura, Bhopal
17. Rajiv Gandhi Foundation, Rajiv Gandhi Institute for Contemporary Studies, New Delhi
18. Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Raebareli, U.P.
19. Rajiv Gandhi Homeopathic Medical College, Bhopal, M.P.
20. Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Post Graduate Studies, East Godavari District, A.P.
21. Rajiv Gandhi College of Education, Thumkur, Karnataka
22. Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu
23. Rajiv Gandhi Institute of IT and Biotechnology, Bhartiya Vidhyapeeth
24. Rajiv Gandhi High School, Mumbai, Maharashtra
25. Rajiv Gandhi Group of Institutions, Satna, M.P.
26. Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu
27. Rajiv Gandhi Biotechnology Centre, R.T.M., Nagpur University
28. Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
29. Rajiv Gandhi Mahavidyalaya, Madhya Pradesh
30. Rajiv Gandhi Post Graduate College, Allahabad, U.P.
31. Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka
32. Rajiv Gandhi Govt. PG Ayurvedic College, Poprola, Himachal Pradesh
33. Rajiv Gandhi College, Satna, M.P.
34. Rajiv Gandhi Academy for Aviation Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
35. Rajiv Gandhi Madhyamic Vidyalaya, Maharashtra
36. Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Contemporary Studies, Islamabad, Pakistan
37. Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Innovation and Entrepreneurship
38. Rajiv Gandhi Industrial Training Centre, Gandhinagar
39. Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies, Andhra Pradesh
40. Rajiv Gandhi Institute Of Distance Education, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
41. Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Aquaculture , Tamil Nadu
42. Rajiv Gandhi University (Arunachal University), A.P.
43. Rajiv Gandhi Sports Medicine Centre (RGSMC), Kerela
44. Rajiv Gandhi Science Centre, Mauritus
45. Rajiv Gandhi Kala Mandir, Ponda, Goa
46. Rajiv Gandhi Vidyalaya, Mulund, Mumbai
47. Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Polytechnic, Bangalore, Karnataka
48. Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Circle Telecom Training Centre (India), Chennai
49. Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Pharmacy, Kasagod, Kerala
50. Rajiv Gandhi Memorial College Of Aeronautics, Jaipur
51. Rajiv Gandhi Memorial First Grade College, Shimoga
52. Rajiv Gandhi Memorial College of Education, Jammu & Kashmir
53. Rajiv Gandhi South Campus, Barkacha, Varanasi
54. Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Teacher’s Training College, Jharkhand
55. Rajiv Gandhi Degree College, Rajahmundry, A.P.
56. Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), New Delhi
57. Indira Gandhi Institute of Development & Research, Mumbai, Maharashtra
58. Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy, Dehradun
59. Indira Gandhi RashtriyaUran Akademi, Fursatganj Airfield, Rae Bareli, Uttar Pradesh
60. Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai
61. Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, Orissa
62. Indira Gandhi B.Ed. College, Mangalore
63. Smt. Indira Gandhi College of Education, Nanded, Maharashtra
64. Indira Gandhi Balika Niketan B.ED. College, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan
65. Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Madhya Pradesh
66. Smt. Indira Gandhi College of Engineering, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra
67. Smt. Indira Gandhi Colelge, Tiruchirappalli
68. Indira Gandhi Engineering College, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh
69. Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Kashmere Gate, Delhi
70. Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Sarang, Dist. Dhenkanal, Orissa
71. Indira Gandhi Institute of Aeronautics, Pune, Maharashtra
72. Indira Gandhi Integral Education Centre, New Delhi
73. Indira Gandhi Institute of Physical Education & Sports Sciences, Delhi University, Delhi
74. Indira Gandhi High School, Himachal
75. Indira Kala Sangit Vishwavidyalaya, Chhattisgarh
76. Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla
77. Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Andhra Pradesh
78. Nehru Institute of Mountaineering, Uttarakashi
79. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Business Management, Vikram University
80. Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
81. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore
82. Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, AP
83. Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College in Aurangabad, Maharashtra
84. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for advanced Scientific Research, a deemed university, Jakkur, P.O. Bangalore
85. Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Social Studies, affiliated to Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapith (Pune, Maharashtra)
86. Jawaharlal Nehru College of Aeronautics & Applied Sciences, Coimbatore, (ESTD 1968)
87. Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Technology, Katraj, Dhankwdi, Pune, Maharashtra
88. Kamal Kishore Kadam’s Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College in Aurangabad, Maharashtra
89. Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Education & Technological Research, Nanded, Maharashra
90. Jawaharlal Nehru College, Aligarh
91. Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad
92. Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur
93. Jawaharlal Nehru B.Ed. College, Kota, Rajasthan
94. Jawaharlal Nehru P.G. College, Bhopal
95. Jawaharlal Nehru Government Engineering College, Sundernagar, District Mandi, H.P.
96. Jawaharlal Nehru PublicSchool, Kolar Road, Bhopal
97. Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada, A.P.
98. Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Technology, Ibrahimpatti, Andhra Pradesh

Awards:

1. Rajiv Gandhi Award for Outstanding Achievement
2. Rajiv Gandhi Shiromani Award
3. Rajiv Gandhi Shramik Awards, Delhi Labour Welfare Board
4. Rajiv Gandhi National Sadbhavana Award
...5. Rajiv Gandhi Manav Seva Award
6. Rajiv Gandhi Wildlife Conservation Award
7. Rajiv Gandhi National Award Scheme for Original Book Writing on Gyan Vigyan
8. Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award
9. Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award, Instituted by Bureau of Indian Standards in 1991
10. Rajiv Gandhi Environment Award for Clean Technology, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt. of India
11. RajivGandhi Travelling Scholarship
12. Rajiv Gandhi(UK) Foundation Scholarship
13. Rajiv Gandhi Film Awards (Mumbai)
14. Rajiv Gandhi Khelratna Puraskar
15. Rajiv Gandhi Parisara Prashasti, Karnataka
16. RajivGandhi Vocational Excellence Awards
17. Rajiv Gandhi Excellence award
18. Indira Gandhi Peace Prize
19. Indira Gandhi Prize for National Integration
20. Indira Gandhi Priyadarshini Award
21. Indira Priyadarshini Vrikshamitra Awards, Ministry of Environment and Forests
22. Indira Gandhi Memorial National Award forBest Environmental & Ecological
23. Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Purashkar
24. Indira Gandhi NSS Award
25. Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration
26. Indira Gandhi Official Language Award Scheme
27. Indira Gandhi Award for Best First Film
28. Indira Gandhi Rajbhasha Awards for The Town Official Language
29. Indira Gandhi Prize” for Peace, Disarmament and Development
30. Indira Gandhi Prize for Popularization of Science
31. Implementation
32. Indira Gandhi Shiromani Award
33. Indira Gandhi NSS Award/National Youth
34. Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Pushar award – search n correct
35. Indira Gandhi N.S.S Awards
36. Indira Gandhi award for social service, MP Govt.
37. Post Graduate Indira Gandhi Scholarship Scheme
38. Indira Gandhi Rajbhasha Award Scheme
39. Indira Gandhi Rajbhasha Shield Scheme
40. Indira Gandhi Vision of Wildlife Conservation Zoo, a seminar organized by Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy.
41. Jawaharlal Nehru award for International peace worth Rs 15 lakh cash given to many international figures, every year, including Yasser Arafat of Palestine Liberation Front in 1988 and U Thant in 1965.
42. Soviet Land Nehru Award, a cash prize of Rs. 20,000 given to Shyam Benegal in Dec 89, in recognition of the above film.
43. Jawaharlal Nehru Balkalyan awards of Rs.10,000 each to 10 couples by Govt. of Maharashtra (ToI-28-4-89).
44. Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Fund, New Delhi, for Academic Achievement
45. Jawaharlal Nehru birth centenary research award for energy
46. Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding
47. Nehru Bal Samiti Bravery Awards
48. Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Medal
49. Jawaharlal Nehru Prize” from 1998-99, to be given to organizations (preferably NGOs) for Popularization of Science.
50. Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Competition
51. Jawarharlal Nehru Student Award for research project of evolution of DNA

Scholarship / Fellowship:


1. Rajiv Gandhi Scholarship Scheme for Students with Disabilities
2. Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship Scheme for SC/ST Candidates, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment
Budgetary Allocation for 2008-9 – 26.40 cror...es
Budgetary Allocation for 2009-10 – 23.70 crores
3. Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship Scheme for ST Candidates
Budgetary Allocation for 2008-09 – 29.00 crores
Budgetary Allocation for 2009-10 – 42.00 crores
4. Rajiv Gandhi Fellowship, IGNOU
5. Rajiv Gandhi Science Talent Research Fellows
6. Rajiv Gandhi Fellowship, Ministry of Tribal Affairs
Budgetary Allocation for 2008-9 - 16.00 crores
Budgetary Allocation for 2009-10 – 22.50 crores
7. Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship Scheme for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes candidates given by University Grants Commission
8. Rajiv Gandhi Fellowship sponsored by the Commonwealth of Learning in association with Indira Gandhi National Open University
9. Rajiv Gandhi science talent research fellowship given by Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for advanced scientific research (to promote budding scientists) done in tandem with Department of Science and Technology and Rajiv Gandhi Foundation
10. Rajiv Gandhi HUDCO Fellowships in the Habitat Sector (to promote research in the field of sustainable Habitat development) for MPhil, {PhD Students for 2 to 3 years, conferred by HUDCO
11. Indira Gandhi Memorial Fellowships check
12. Fullbright scholarship now renamed Fullbright- Jawaharlal Nehru Scholarship
13. Cambridge Nehru Scholarships, 10 in number, for research at Cambridge University, London, leading to Ph. D. for 3 years, which include fee, maintenance allowance, air travel to UK and back.
14. Scheme of Jawaharlal Nehru Fellowships for Post-graduate Studies, Govt. of India.
15. Nehru Centenary (British) Fellowships/Awards

National Parks/ Sanctuaries/ Museums :

1. Rajiv Gandhi (Nagarhole) Wildlife Sanctury, Karnataka
2. Rajiv Gandhi Wildlife Sanctury, Andhra Pradesh
3. Indira Gandhi National Park, Tamil Nadu
4. Indira Gandhi Zoological Park , New Delhi
...5. Indira Gandhi National Park, Anamalai Hills on Western Ghats
6. Indira Gandhi Zoological Park, Vishakhapatnam
7. Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya (IGRMS)
8. Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary, Pollachi
9. Rajiv Gandhi Health Museum
10. The Rajiv Gandhi Museum of Natural History
11. Indira Gandhi Memorial museum, New Delhi
12. Jawaharlal Nehru museum in Aurangabad, Maharashtra opened by state govt.
13. Jawaharlal Nehru memorial Gallery, London
14. Jawaharlal Nehru planetarium, Worli, Mumbai.
15. Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Exhibition for Children

Hospitals/Medical Institutions:

1. Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Science, Bangalore, Karnataka
2. Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Centre, Delhi
3. Rajiv Gandhi Home for Handicapped, Pondicherry
4. Shri Rajiv Gandhi college of Dental... Science & Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka
5. Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Bio Technology, Thiruvanthapuram, Kerala
6. Rajiv Gandhi College of Nursing, Bangalore, Karnataka
7. Rajiv Gandhi Super Specialty Hospital, Raichur
8. Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Chest Diseases, Bangalore, Karnataka
9. Rajiv Gandhi Paramedical College, Jodhpur
10. Rajiv Gandhi Medical College, Thane, Mumbai
11. Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Pharmacy, Karnataka
12. Rajiv Gandhi Hospital, Goa
13. Rajiv Gandhi Mission on Community Health, Madhya Pradesh
14. Rajiv Gandhi Super Specialty Hospital, Delhi
15. Rajiv Gandhi Homoeaopathic Medical College, Chinar Park, Bhopal, M.P
16. North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health & Medical Sciences , Shilong, Meghalaya
17. Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla
18. Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health, Bangalore
19. Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sheikhpura, Patna
20. The Indira Gandhi Paediatric Hospital, Afghanistan
21. Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health Hospital, Dharmaram College, Bangalore
22. Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Heath, Bangalore
23. Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla
24. Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Science, Kerala
25. Indira Gandhi Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College & Hospital, Bhubaneshwar
26. Indira Gandhi Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur
27. Indira Gandhi Eye Hospital And Research Centre, Kolkata
28. Indira Gandhi Hospital, Shimla
29. Indira Gandhi Women and Children Hospital , Bhopla
30. Indira Gandhi Gas Relief hospital, Bhopal
31. Kamla Nehru Hospital, Shimla
32. Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya
33. Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry
Budgetary Allocation 2008-09 – 127.84 crores
Budgetary Allocation 2009-10 – 117.51 crores
34. Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Bhopal
35. Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College in Raipur.
36. Nehru Homoeopathic Medical College & Hospital, New Delhi
37. Nehru, Science Centre, Worli, Mumbai
38. Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital & Research Centre, Bhopal
39. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Homoeopathic Medical Sciences, Maharashtra

Institutions / Chairs / Festivals:

1. Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development. (RGNIYD), Ministry of Youth and Sports
2. Rajiv Gandhi National Ground Water Training & Research Institute, Faridabad, Haryana
3. Rajiv Gandhi Food Secu...rity Mission in Tribal Areas
4. Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development
5. Rajiv Gandhi Shiksha Mission, Chhattisgarh
6. Rajiv Gandhi Chair Endowment established in 1998 to create a Chair of South Asian Economics
7. Rajiv Gandhi Project – A pilot to provide Education thru Massive Satellite Connectivity up grassroot Level
8. Rajiv Gandhi Rural Housing Corporation Limited (Government of Karnataka Enterprise)
9. Rajiv Gandhi Information and Technology Commission
10. Rajiv Gandhi Chair for Peace and Disarmament
11. Rajiv Gandhi Music Festival
12. Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Lecture
13. Rajiv Gandhi Akshay Urja Diwas
14. Rajiv Gandhi Education Foundation, Kerala
15. Rajiv Gandhi Panchayati Raj Convention
16. The Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Educational and Charitable Society, Kasagod,Kerala
17. Rajiv Gandhi Memorial trophy ekankika spardha, Prerana Foundation, Kari Road
18. Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, Janpath, New Delhi
19. Indira Gandhi Panchayati Raj & Gramin Vikas Sansthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan
20. Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam
21. Indira Gandhi Institute for Development and Research , Mumbai
22. Indira Gandhi Institute of Cardiology (IGIC), Patna
23. Indira Gandhi National Center for the Arts, New Delhi
24. Indira Gandhi National Foundation, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
25. Indira Gandhi Mahila Sahakari Soot Girani Ltd, Maharashtra
26. Indira Gandhi Conservation Monitoring Centre , Ministry of Environment & Forest
27. Post-Graduate Indira Gandhi Scholarship for Single Girl Child
28. Jawahar Shetkari Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd.
29. Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan
30. Jawaharlal Nehru Centenary celebrations
31. Postal stamps of different denominations and one Rupee coins in memory of Jawaharlal Nehru.
32. Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Trust (U.K.) Scholarships
33. Jawaharlal Nehru Custom House Nhava Sheva, Maharashtra
34. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for. Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore
35. Jawaharlal Nehru Cultural Centre, Embassy of India, Moscow
36. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru Udyog Kendra for Juveniles, Pune, Maharastra
37. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru college of agriculture and research institute , Pondicherry

Roads/Buildings/places:

1. Rajiv Chowk, Delhi
2. Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan, Safdarjung, New Delhi
3. Rajiv Gandhi Handicrafts Bhawan, New Delhi
4. Rajiv Gandhi Park, Kalkaji, Delhi
...5. Indira Chowk, New Delhi
6. Nehru Planetarium, New Delhi
7. Nehru Yuvak Kendra, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi
8. Nehru Nagar, New Delhi
9. Nehru Place, New Delhi
10. Nehru Park, New Delhi Nehru House, BSZ Marg, New Delhi
11. Jawaharlal Nehru Government House New Delhi
12. Rajiv Gandhi Renewable Energy Park, Gurgaon, Haryana
13. Rajiv Gandhi Chowk, Andheri, Mumbai
14. Indira Gandhi Road, Mumbai
15. Indira Gandhi Nagar, Wadala, Mumbai
16. Indira Gandhi Sports Complex, Mulund, Mumbai
17. Nehru Nagar, Kurla, Mumbai
18. Jawaharlal Nehru gardens at Thane, Mumbai
19. Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Hall, Chennai
20. Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Vadapalani, Chennai, Tamilnadu
21. Rajiv Gandhi Salai (Old Mahabalipuram road named after Rajiv Gandhi)
22. Rajiv Gandhi Education City, Haryana
23. Mount Rajiv, a peak in Himalaya
24. Rajiv Gandhi IT Habitat, Goa
25. Rajiv Gandhi Nagar, Chennai
26. Rajiv Gandhi Park, Vijayawada
27. Rajiv Gandhi Nagar in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
28. Rajiv Gandhi Nagar, Trichy, Tamil Nadu
29. Rajiv Gandhi IT Park, Hinjewadi, Pune
30. Rajiv Gandhi Panchayat Bhav , Palanpur Banaskantha
31. Rajiv Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park, Chandigarh
32. Rajiv Gandhi Smriti Van, Jharkhand
33. Rajiv Gandhi statue, Panaji, Goa
34. Rajiv Gandhi Road, Chittoor
35. Rajiv Gandhi Memorial at Sriperumbudur
36. Indira Gandhi Memorial Library, University of Hyderabad
37. Indira Gandhi Musical Fountains, Bangalore
38. Indira Gandhi Planetarium , Lucknow
39. Indira Gandhi Centre for Indian Culture (IGCIC), High Commission of India, Mauritus
40. Indira Gandhi Zoological Park , Eastern Ghats of India
41. Indira Gandhi Canal, Ramnagar, Jaisalmer
42. Indira Gandhi Industrial Complex, Ranipet, Vellore District
43. Indira Gandhi Park, Itanagar
44. Indira Gandhi Squiare , Pondicherry
45. Indira Gandhi Road, Willingdon Island, Cochin
46. Indira Gandhi Memorial Tulip Garden, Kashmir
47. Indira Gandhi Sagar Dam, Nagpur
48. Indira Gandhi bridge, Rameshvar, Tamil Nadu
49. Indira Gandhi Hospital, Bhiwandi Nizampur Municipal Corporation
50. Indira Gandhi memorial cultural Complex, UP Govt.
51. Indira Gandhi Sports Stadium , Rohru District, Shimla
52. Indira Gandhi Panchayati Raj Sansthan , Bhopal
53. Indira Gandhi Nagar, Rajasthan
54. Indira Nagar, Lucknow
55. Roads are named after Jawaharlal Nehru in many cities e.g. in Jaipur, Nagpur, Vile Parle, Ghatkopar, Mulund etc.
56. Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad
57. Jawaharlal Nehru Gardens, Ambarnath
58. Jawarharlal Nehru Gardens, Panhala
59. Jawaharlal Nehru market, Jammu.
60. Jawaharlal Nehru Tunnel on the Jammu Srinagar Highway
61. Nehru Chowk, Ulhas Nagar, Maharashtra.
62. Nehru Bridge on the river Mandvi, Panaji, Goa
63. Nehru Nagar Ghaziabad
64. Jawaharlal Nehru Road, Dharmatala, Kolkata
65. Nehru Road, Guwahati
66. Jawahar Nagar, Jaipur
67. Nehru Vihar Colony, Kalyanpur, Lucknow
68. Nehru Nagar, Patna
69. Jawaharlal Nehru Street, Pondicherry
70. Nehru Bazaar, Madanapalli, Tirupathi
71. Nehru Chowk, Bilaspur. M.P
72. Nehru Street, Ponmalaipatti, Tiruchirapalli
73. Nehru Nagar, S.M. Road, Ahmedabad
74. Nehru Nagar,. Nashik Pune Road

WHERE IS BHAGAT SINGH ,RAJGURU ,SUKHDEV,CHANDERSHEKHAR AZAD,UDHAM SINGH AND OTHER MATYRS WHO LAYED DOWN THEIR LIVES FOR THIS COUNTRY HAPPYLY
& many more........ Ohhh God save this country. Looks like other than these 3 (Nehru-Indira-Rajiv) no one contributed to India

THIS IS A WAKE UP CALL FOR TRUE INDIANS AND FAMILIES OF MARTYERS .LET US JOIN THE FIGHT OF CORRUPTION AND FORCE THE GOVERNMENT AND OPPOSITION PARTIES AT THE CENTRE TO DO SOME NOBLE ACTIVITIES FOR THESE CONTRIBUTERS ALSO.LET THE ANNAS FIGHT NOT BE LIMITED TO LOKPAL BILL ONLY

LET YOUNGSTERS FIGHT FOR AT LEAST FORCE THE GOVT. TO NAME ALL THE FLYOVERS AND BIG PROJECTS IN THE NAME OF EACH MARTYR.WE NEED TO SUPPORT NON VIOLENT MOVEMENT BUT YOUNGESTER SHOULD BE PREPARED FOR THE WORST."KYUNKI KAI BAAR LATON KE BHOOT BATON SE NAHI MANTEY"

1.LET YOUNGSTER JOIN ANNA MOVEMENT WITH BLOOD DONATION CAMPS AT ANSHAN LOCATIONS ON REGULAR BASIS TILL THE DEMANDS WERE MET.WITH A BANNER AT SITE

"AO KHOON BAHAYEN NAHI DAAN KARE KYUNKI YEH HAMARI GHAR KI LADAI HAI BHRASTACHAR AUR KUSHASHAN KE KHILLAF"

2.LET YOUNGESTERS DRESS UP LIKE THESE MARTYRS ATLEAST ONCE A WEEK.

3 LET PUNJABI YOUNGESTERS CONTRIBUTE TO THIS MOVEMENT IN DUPLICATES LIKE BHAGAT SINGH/RAJGURU/SUKHDEV /UDHAM SINGH/CHANDERSHEKAR AZAD OR LIKE ANY OTHER MARTYR TO REMIND INDIANS OF THEIR "KURBAANI"

JAI HIND

INQLAAB ZINDABAD


RAJYA-MULAM-INDRIYA JAYAH:

Those who have complete control over their senses can become great leaders.

To ensure the same we should learn to keep control over our ‘Mind’ which manages our thoughts, speech and physical actions. Our senses are influenced by Material Desires.

Our true inner self, the soul is linked to the body through mind. Meditation helps in self-realization, which helps in controlling senses utilization, by developing control over min
d.


NASTI DEHINA SUKH-DUKHA-BHAV:

Happiness and sorrow are the two sides of a coin i.e. our life. Success and failure are part of the life cycle
Our failures teach us to be careful the next time by not repeating the same mistakes again. Success in one commitment may guide us to succeed in other tasks which are yet to be performed in life.
Learn from past failure and success, but live in present. This will help us to plan for the future in a much better way


Jai Hind

Vande Matram