March 23, 2013



The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and the Government of Dr.Manmohan Singh have come under criticism for the perceived ham-handedness of the CBI in the investigation of a complaint regarding irregularities in the import of some foreign cars involving suspected evasion in the payment of duty.

2.In connection with the preliminary enquiry into the complaint, which precedes the registration of a First Information Report  (FIR), the CBI allegedly raided the houses of ShriM.K.Stalin and ShriM.K.Alagiri, senior DMK leaders and sons of ShriM.Karunanidhi on the morning of March 21,2113, while looking for the suspected cars.

3.Since the raids came a day after ShriKarunanidhi announced the withdrawal of the DMK from the ruling coalition in protest against the Government's policy on the violation of the human and political rights of the Sri Lankan Tamils by the Sri Lankan Government, there have been allegations that the raids were politically motivated to teach the DMK a lesson for its action.

4.Dr.Manmohan Singh and some senior Ministers from the Congress (I) have dissociated themselves from any responsibility for the controversial raid and found fault with the CBI action. There has been professional as well as political ham-handedness in the entire affair.

5. The CBI has the duty and the responsibility to take cognizance of reports of illegalities and investigate them if such investigation falls within its charter, irrespective of the political and other background of the persons against whom complaints have been made.

6.The timing of the investigation  is in the hands of the CBI. Action has to be immediate where heinous offences such as murder or terrorism are involved or where there are reasons to apprehend tampering with the evidence by the wrong-doers if the investigation is delayed.

7.The investigation in connection with irregularities in the import of foreign cars did not come under any of these categories.It was not a heinous offence.Nor were there grounds to apprehend attempts to tamper with evidence.

8.The CBI could have chosen its timing keeping in view the possibility of misrepresentations and misprojections to attribute political motives to the raids in order to discredit the CBI as well as the Government. If it had delayed the raids by a few days till the heat of the controversy over the withdrawal of the DMK from the ruling coalition has died down, heavens would not have fallen.This is where sound professional   judgmentcomes in.While one could not fault the CBI for the raids, one could fault its judgment in rushing with them.

9. There is so far no evidence to believe that the raids were undertaken at the instance of anyone in the Government or the Congress. It would seem that the Prime Minister and some senior Ministers were taken unawares by the raid. There were panic reactions due to a fear that the raids may further complicate the relations of the Congresswith the DMK  at a time whenthe  Congress had not given up hopes of finding a face-saver that might enable the DMK to at least support the Government from outside.

10. In the resulting panic,the Prime Ministers and the senior Ministers handled the sequel to the raids with lack of political finesse---not only criticizing the CBI, but also giving the impression of asking the CBI to discontinue the raids.They forgot they had no powers to do so.

11.As a result of the mishandling  by the Government, the CBI has been put in an embarrassing position.It will be suspected if it went ahead with the investigation and even more suspected if it did not.

12. Building up the credibility of the CBI as an independent organization known for its professionalism depends not only on its officers, but also on the political leadership which should refrain from actions or inactions that could impact on the prestigeof the CBI.

13.In the final analysis, we will getthe CBI we deserve. There is no point in blaming it all the time----right or wrong .(22-3-13)


( The writer is Additional Secretary (retd), Cabinet Secretariat, Govt. of India, New Delhi, and, presently, Director, Institute for Topical Studies, Chennai, and Associate of the Chennai Centre For China Studies. Twitter: @SORBONNE75)


South and Central Asia: The U.S.-India Partnership in the Asian Century

The U.S.-India Partnership in the Asian Century

Robert O. Blake, Jr.
Assistant Secretary, Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs
University of California, Berkeley Institute of International Studies
Berkeley, CA
March 21, 2013

Thank you, Neil, for that kind introduction and for inviting me here today. I'd like to thank Professor Pradeep Chhibber, Director of the Institute of International Studies for organizing this event. I'd also like to give a shout out to Ambassador Steve Browning, the State Department's Diplomat in Residence here at Berkeley, who has no doubt persuaded countless Berkeley grads to join our ranks.

I met earlier this afternoon with some students studying South Asian issues and, based on our engaging discussion and their provocative questions, I think that they would all make fine recruits. In fact, a notable number of U.S. diplomats received degrees from UC Berkeley, where their interest in foreign affairs was sparked and nurtured. Most notably, my friend the late Ambassador Chris Stevens, class of 1982, is among the ranks of prominent Berkeley alumni.

In Secretary Kerry's first public speech last month at the University of Virginia, he highlighted the role that foreign policy plays in the lives of average Americans. "In today's global world," he said, "there is no longer anything foreign about foreign policy. More than ever before, the decisions that we make from the safety of our shores don't just ripple outward; they also create a current right here in America. Foreign policy is important not just in terms of the threats that we face, but the products that we buy, the goods that we sell, and the opportunity that we provide for economic growth and vitality."

And that is why Berkeley is the perfect venue for our discussion today on the U.S.-India Partnership in the Asian Century. Located near Silicon Valley in a diverse, multicultural community, you understand first-hand how partnerships between American and Indian entrepreneurs can spark innovation, foster prosperity, and contribute to a vibrant, dynamic America.

Just next door, Indian Americans are responsible for founding about a seventh of all of Silicon Valley's startups. And their contributions are seen not just in Silicon Valley, nor are they limited to IT. Indians start more companies than any other immigrant group in California and also lead all immigrant groups in the number of companies founded nation-wide in the industries of bioscience, environment, defense and aerospace.

When we talk about India in the context of the rising Asia-Pacific region, we have to include California, which can be considered a Pacific power in its own right, and one that will play a critical role in ensuring that America is connected with the economic boom happening across the Pacific region. In California alone, our exports to India are worth over $3.7 billion annually.

Today, I will begin with an overview of our relationship with India to illustrate just how far we have come. I will then talk about the education collaboration that is building a vast web of people-to-people ties that will carry our relationship through the next generation. I will touch on our robust economic partnership, and conclude by highlighting our work together to ensure security in the Indian Ocean region and beyond.

U.S.-India Relationship

There is perhaps no nation in the world with which we have traveled faster and farther over the last fifteen years than India. From 1998 when India exploded a nuclear weapon and we enacted sanctions in response, we have seen a remarkable transformation forged on the basis of common values such as pluralism, tolerance, openness, and respect for fundamental freedoms. We have seen important milestones from 9/11 when both our nations recognized the opportunity to work more closely to counter terrorism, to the landmark U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Agreement in 2005.

President Obama and Prime Minister Singh agreed to expand the Strategic Partnership further by establishing a Strategic Dialogue chaired by the Secretary of State and Indian External Affairs Minister to give strategic focus to our widening collaboration. Today, we collaborate on nearly every issue of strategic importance, fully living up to the President's declaration that the U.S.-India relationship will be the "defining partnership of the 21st century." Over the last decade, the United States and India have deepened economic, military, and strategic ties. Let me describe some specific areas of engagement.

Trade, Investment and Sub-National Engagement

Our booming trade relationship already is delivering substantial benefits to the American people. Over the past decade, our bilateral trade has nearly quadrupled, reaching nearly $100 billion last year. India is also among the fastest growing investors in the United States, highlighting the mutually beneficial nature of our economic relationship. As bilateral trade and investment flourish, our software development, manufacturing, aerospace, healthcare, and many more sectors are thriving. To give one example: India has contracted with Boeing to purchase ten C-17 transport aircraft worth $4 billion from Boeing's facility in Long Beach California.

As the Indian market continues to open and integrate more fully with the global economy, the future looks even brighter. A PricewaterhouseCoopers report predicts that the Indian economy will more than quadruple in size by 2030, to nearly $8 trillion, making it the world's third-largest economy. This expanding economic base, which includes everything from high-tech and media to finance and tourism, could be even larger if the Indian government addresses policy and regulatory restrictions that constrain imports from the United States and elsewhere.

Despite this promise, India faces enormous resource constraints, particularly in infrastructure. Current estimates suggest that 80% of the infrastructure required to sustain and support India in 2030 has yet to be built. The United States is home to some of the most competitive road, bridge, water supply, electrical grid, and telecommunications companies in the world. So we see a big opportunity in this growth to deepen our commercial partnership with India, working together with American companies to build the airports, power plants, water and sanitation systems, and fiber optic networks of India's future.

Businesses and citizens on both sides are recognizing the benefits of increased partnership. A 2012 report by the Confederation of Indian Industry noted that Indian companies in America had invested more than $820 million in U.S.-based facilities, had collectively conducted 72 mergers and acquisitions in the United States since 2005, and had projected research and development investments estimated to be over $190 million in 2012 alone. Indian companies operating in the United States are adding tremendous value to the local economies in which they operate, the most tangible effects of which are felt at the state and county levels. That's why one of our top priorities in building the partnership with India is to expand state- and local-level engagement.

This year, at least eight American governors and city mayors plan to visit India with trade and investment delegations, which the State Department is pleased to help arrange. We are particularly excited that Governor Jerry Brown is planning a visit to India. During these visits, state officials and private sector representatives explore opportunities for job creation and investments by American companies in India and Indian companies in America. Our state officials increasingly understand that, as the fastest-growing market for U.S. exports, India provides significant opportunities to drive U.S. job growth and bring economic opportunity to the American workforce.

In February of this year, a 30-member delegation from California traveled to India to explore agricultural cooperation with the Indian state of Haryana. The delegation which included deans from four different California universities promoted the expertise and technological know-how, including in drip irrigation, horticulture, and cold storage facilities, of great benefit to the state's agricultural economy. We look forward to hearing about the business deals and new partnerships resulting from their visit.

Education Collaboration

A cornerstone of keeping both of our economies healthy and growing is to ensure that we have the best possible education systems, particularly higher education, so that our students can receive the education and training they need for our country to compete successfully and to continue to drive innovation and entrepreneurship.

U.S.-Indian collaboration in the sphere of education is growing fast. We are proud that more than 100,000 young Indians study in the U.S., second only to China in numbers. But we want to do more. That's why we have a higher Education dialogue that Secretary Kerry chairs with his Indian counterpart. That's why we have a Passport to India program to provide internship opportunities for young Americans in India. That's why we have made India the recipient of our largest Fulbright scholar program in the world. There are a growing number of collaborative programs between American and Indian institutions, at the cutting edge of creating knowledge and solutions for the future. Leading U.S. universities have established or are currently developing innovative educational joint ventures with India.

Berkeley is a great example of this, with its long history of collaborating with India. With some 70 India-related courses taught here every semester, a significant number of faculty member projects in India and an estimated 800 alumni in India, Berkeley is a leader in forging educational and institution partnerships with India. A UC Berkeley delegation which visited India in 2007 helped enable numerous collaborative research projects, as well as the information exchange and resultant scientific breakthroughs which have real-life impact on the wellbeing of our citizens. Berkeley's collaboration with the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, in the areas of clean energies, particularly biofuels, and diseases, particularly TB and malaria, are but a couple of examples of the cutting-edge collaboration made possible by this partnership.

Through these kinds of collaboration, it is the citizens of our nations who propel the U.S.-India relationship forward, as relationships between nations are rooted in the relationships between their people.

Clean Energy Partnerships

One of the most exciting aspects of our growing collaboration is the effort to combat the effects of climate change, which has tremendous economic as well as environmental implications. As one of the world's ten largest economies and top five greenhouse gas emitters, India has important stakes in global climate change and clean energy discussions.

Our energy, space, and commercial dialogues include bilateral technical and scientific initiatives that deliver clear, immediate, environmental and economic benefits that promote low-carbon growth. We work together to increase energy efficiency, expand renewable energy, and improve forest and resource management, including weather forecasting to improve farming.

The U.S.-India Partnership to Advance Clean Energy, initiated in 2009, has mobilized more than $1.7 billion in public and private resources for clean energy projects in India, which has also benefited American companies, many of them located here in California. U.S. companies have installed 40% of India's first 1,000 megawatts of solar capacity.

Regional Cooperation

As we build a vital economic partnership with India, we also support India's broader role in the Asia-Pacific region. With many of the world's nuclear powers, half of its population, and some of the most dynamic economies in the world in the Asia Pacific, we firmly believe that much of the history of the 21st century will be written here. That is why President Obama called for a rebalance of U.S. foreign policy toward this region.

We should not forget, however, that for India the notion of the Asia-Pacific region as a key driver of global politics and economics is nothing new. It has shared cultural and historical ties that have laid the foundation for its expanded involvement of today. Through the "Look East" policy it initiated in 1991, India began to link itself more closely with its Asian partners to engage the rest of the world. Today India is forging closer and deeper economic ties with its eastern neighbors by expanding regional markets and increasing both investments and industrial development. India is also seeking greater security and military cooperation with its neighbors through greater commitment with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

The United States supports and welcomes these developments. We have encouraged India to not simply look east, but to "engage east and act east" as well. We welcome robust Indian economic engagement with the states of East and Southeast Asia, and we see even greater potential in this region.

Thanks in part to Burma's recent political and economic reforms, we now see unprecedented opportunities for trade and engagement between South and East Asia, especially along the emergent road, air, and sea links between India, Bangladesh, Burma, and the rapidly expanding economies of ASEAN.

In the past year alone, trade between India and the countries of Southeast Asia increased by 37%. This emerging Indo-Pacific Economic Corridor is a boon for the region; at the same time, it also provides our economy with potential new markets. Linkages across the rapidly expanding economies of South Asia with those of Southeast Asia will both accelerate economic development and strengthen regional stability, while helping unlock and expand markets for American goods and services.

Because of our shared interest in a secure, interconnected, and economically prosperous Asia-Pacific region, we have increased our dialogue and cooperation with India in the Asia Pacific. Through the semiannual U.S.-India Consultations on the Asia-Pacific and the India-U.S.-Japan Trilateral Consultations, we share a vital exchange of views on the development of this crucial region. Our discussions emphasize how we can better align strategies to reinforce one another's engagement.

To protect and advance our growing, shared economic interests, we are working together to ensure security in the Indian Ocean and beyond. India transports over 90% of its goods by sea, and shares our interest in ensuring that trade flows remain open. Like us, India understands that economic integration, enabled by the improvements in connectivity across Asia, will lead to prosperity that benefits all countries in the region. Already in the Western Indian Ocean region, India is demonstrating its growing maritime capabilities with a robust counter-piracy approach that serves common regional interests. As a founding member of the international Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia, India has shown great leadership in the efforts to combat piracy stemming from Somalia, which threatens trade flows to and from Asia.

South Asia

Our interests also increasingly converge on issues such as promoting democracy and peace in India's neighbors to the north, east and south. As you may have heard, earlier today the UN Human Rights Council, including India, voted in favor of a U.S.-led resolution calling on the Government of Sri Lanka to fulfill its commitments to its people on post-conflict accountability and reconciliation. India's support and close coordination has been crucial. The United States and India are Sri Lanka's largest trading partners, and we share a mutual desire to see peace and reconciliation among all Sri Lankans.

We both want to see Nepal's transition to a full constitutional democracy come to fruition and welcome the formation of the Interim Election government. And we are glad to see India's increasingly close cooperation and progress in addressing long-standing disputes with Bangladesh. With all three, we have strongly welcomed India's regional role as a beacon of democracy and economic prosperity.


Nowhere is India's role more critical than in Afghanistan, particularly as we prepare for the 2014 transition. The Afghan government looks to India as a regional source of economic, political and security support. India is the largest regional investor in Afghanistan, led by a planned $10 billion mining investment, and has committed more than $2 billion in official assistance for reconstruction purposes. Last year New Delhi hosted a major summit on international investment in Afghanistan's economy. As Afghanistan shifts its economy from aid to trade in the coming years, India's regional role as a driver of economic prosperity and anchor of democratic stability becomes even more important.

Next month in Almaty, India and other countries of the region, will meet to discuss how they can best support a secure and prosperous Afghanistan, integrated into its region. This gathering is part of the Istanbul Process, in which Afghanistan's neighbors and near-neighbors support Afghanistan through a range of initiatives that advance security and regional economic cooperation. For instance, India chairs a working group focused on expanding cross-border commercial and business-to-business relations. We welcome India's leadership, because the United States and India have a shared interest in Afghanistan's security and prosperity as well as a shared vision for increasing regional cooperation in support of Afghanistan.


In conclusion, I am proud to report that our partnership has achieved much, whether it's creating jobs and economic opportunity for American and Indians; meeting the need to educate the next generation; promoting security and prosperity in Afghanistan and the region; or countering the effects of climate change. But this partnership holds the promise for even more – and for that we look to you. If the next generation of students, educators, businesspeople, and artists have the same opportunity that I have had, to build new collaborations and form lasting friendships with the people of India, I am confident you will help fulfill the promise of this "defining partnership of the 21st century." Thank you.

The Office of Website Management, Bureau of Public Affairs, manages this site as a portal for information from the U.S. State Department.
External links to other Internet sites should not be construed as an endorsement of the views or privacy policies contained therein.



I have been in receipt of many tweets and E-Mails criticizing me for advocating that the case of Sanjay Dutt, who has been convicted under the Arms Act for having been found in illegal possession of two fire-arms and sentenced to five years of imprisonment, should be treated differently and any petition from him for a lenient view of his guilt should be considered sympathetically.

2.In my first tweet after his conviction by a bench of the Supreme Court, I had said that, as in the US, there is a need for a provision in our laws under which a court can allow a convicted criminal in certain cases to do compulsory community service in lieu of imprisonment to cover cases like that of Sanjay.

3.Subsequently, I had tweeted my agreement with the view of retired Justice Katju, Chairman of the Press Council of India, that Sanjay's case deserves pardon in view of the good service to the community that he and his parents had done in the past.However, I had differed from Justice Katju in respect of the community service.I am of the view that Sanjay could be considered for pardon  not for his good service of the past, but for the community service that he promises to do in future in lieu of the imprisonment.His performance has to be closely monitored by someone designated by the Governor to ensure that he carries out his solemn commitment.If he violates his commitment, his pardon should be cancelled.

4.My views have been strongly criticized on the following grounds.Firstly, he has committed a heinous offence by accepting a gift of arms from a person allegedly connected with Mumbai's mafia. Secondly, if any special consideration is shown to him by virtue of his celebrity status, it would be a violation of the sacred principle of equality before law. Thirdly, there are many others who are languishing in jail despite their good service to the community. When the law has not shown them any special consideration, why should it show a special consideration only to Sanjay.

5. Sanjay is a confirmed convict under the Arms Act against whom a minimum sentence of five years as provided in the Arms Act has been awarded by the Supreme Court. Taking into consideration the 18months that Sanjay had already spent in jail during the trial, the court has ordered that he should spend another  three and a half years.

6.I  argue for a lenient view in his case on the following grounds

·       Even though Sanjay has been found guilty of illegal possession of arms, no evidence has been forthcoming to show that he was aware that these arms were part of a consignment that had been smuggled in from Pakistan for use in the Mumbai serial blasts of March 1993. If he was aware of this fact, as a law-abiding citizen, he should have immediately alerted the police and his failure to do so would have amounted to complicity in an act of terrorism. Since there is no evidence to show that he was aware of this fact, he cannot be accused of complicity in an act of terrorism.

·       No other evidence has been forthcoming to show that he was part of the conspiracy relating to the Mumbai blasts. He has not been found guilty of an act of terrorism.

·       Despite the absence of any evidence to show his involvement, he was treated as a suspect under the TADA along with the members of the conspiracy. As a result, he was not tried separately under the Arms Act, but along with the conspirators and perpetrators of the Mumbai blasts.The trial went on for 20 years.Had he been tried separately under the Arms Act and not with others, his case might have concluded a long time ago and by now he might have completed his sentence

·       His case being clubbed along with the cases against others has resulted in his having to wait for 20 years for the final judgment and he has to go to jail now after this long delay, spending another three and a half years in custody. This is unfair to him and is contrary to the principles of natural justice.

7.Taking into consideration the facts and circumstances relating to the conviction of Sanjay I had suggested that he should be treated differently and a sympathetic view should be taken if he petitions for pardon. It will not be a violation of the principle of equality before law.My views have nothing to do with his celebrity status or his family and social connections.

8. If there are others with similar facts and circumstances, their cases have to be examined in the light of those facts and circumstances without any prejudice.In my view, Sanjay had to suffer unfairly because of his case being clubbed along with the cases of the conspirators and perpetrators of the blasts in the absence of credible evidence to warrant it.

9. I will be happy to stand corrected if I have failed to consider any other relevant factrelating to him. (23-3-13)

( The writer is Additional Secretary (retd), Cabinet Secretariat, Govt of India, New Delhi, and , presently, Director, Institute For Topical Studies, Chennai, and Associate of the Chennai Centre For China Studies. Twitter: @SORBONNE75 )


Pakistan: Hold Musharraf Accountable for Abuses

Fair Trial of Ex-Military Ruler Key to Ending Security Forces' Impunity

MARCH 23, 2013

"Musharraf should not be allowed to elude the serious legal proceedings against him on his return to Pakistan. Only by ensuring that Musharraf faces the well-documented outstanding charges against him can Pakistan put an end to the military's impunity for abuses."

Ali Dayan Hasan, Pakistan director

(New York) – The Pakistani government should hold the country's former military ruler Pervez Musharraf accountable for human rights abuses when he returns to Pakistan, Human Rights Watch said today. Musharraf announced that he intends to return on March 24, 2013, after over four years in exile to be a candidate in parliamentary elections scheduled for May.

Legal proceedings are pending against Musharraf in several human rights cases. In November 2011, Musharraf was charged with involvement in the killing of Akbar Bugti, a Baloch nationalist leader who died under unclear circumstances while hiding in a cave in August 2006, after a long standoff with the Pakistani military. In February 2011, Musharraf was declared an absconder after a court in Rawalpindi accepted the interim charge-sheet from Pakistan's Federal Investigation Agency, which named the former president as one of the accused in the assassination of former prime minister Benazir Bhutto. Musharraf has also been charged with the illegal removal from office and confinement of much of the country's judiciary, including the serving chief justice of the Supreme Court, from November 2007 to March 2008.

"Musharraf should not be allowed to elude the serious legal proceedings against him on his return to Pakistan," said Ali Dayan Hasan, Pakistan director. "Only by ensuring that Musharraf faces the well-documented outstanding charges against him can Pakistan put an end to the military's impunity for abuses."

Musharraf has the distinction of having suspended constitutional rule twice during his time in office. After declaring a state of emergency in November 2007, he began a violent crackdown and ordered the detention of some 10,000 political opponents –including most of the country's Supreme Court judges. The fired chief justice, Iftikhar Mohammad Chaudhry, five other judges, and several leading lawyers remained under house arrest and were released only when the opposition Pakistan Peoples' Party formed a government and took over the prime minister's office in March 2008.

"Given the personal suffering many judges endured at Musharraf's hands, it will be a real test for Pakistan's judiciary, especially the Supreme Court chief justice, to ensure that prosecutions are impartial," Hasan said. "But this is a test they must face and pass if Pakistan is to send a clear message that it will not allow abusive military leaders to escape accountability."

Under Musharraf's watch, the Pakistani military and its intelligence agencies committed widespread human rights violations, including the enforced disappearances of thousands of political opponents, particularly from Balochistan province, and tortured hundreds of Pakistani terrorism suspects. Political opponents including high-profile opposition politicians were exiled, jailed, tortured, and in some instances murdered. Hundreds of "disappeared," especially from insurgency-hit Balochistan, remain unaccounted for and are feared dead.

"Throughout his years in office, Musharraf maintained that he was fully aware of the behavior of security forces in Balochistan and that they had done no wrong," Hasan said. "His role in the widespread abuses in Balochistan, including 'disappearances' during his rule, needs to be investigated and appropriately prosecuted."

Musharraf persistently undermined the right to free expression and forcibly censored the media during his years in power. During the emergency, he shut down over 30 television channels and passed decrees muzzling the media. Security forces carried out brazen attacks on media offices. Throughout Musharraf's rule, security forces repeatedly coerced, abducted, arbitrarily detained, beat, and tortured journalists working for both local and international media. Several journalists died in alleged custody of the security forces.

Pakistan's elected parliament has rolled back most of Musharraf's unlawful decrees and reversed virtually all his self-empowering constitutional measures. However, there has been little progress in holding accountable Musharraf and others in his government responsible for egregious human rights abuses including killings, torture, and enforced disappearances.

Musharraf seized power in a 1999 military coup and ruled Pakistan until his ouster in 2008. His rule was marred by widespread and serious human rights violations. During his time in power Musharraf exiled opposition leaders, including Bhutto and former prime minister, Nawaz Sharif. When Sharif tried to return to Pakistan in September 2007, Musharraf forcibly exiled him back to Saudi Arabia in violation of international law and Pakistan's constitution and in defiance of a direct ruling by Pakistan's Supreme Court.

However, Bhutto successfully returned in October 2007 and Sharif in November in the run up to elections. Musharraf was forced to resign in the wake of Bhutto's assassination in December 2007 and subsequent elections that brought her Pakistan People's Party to power. Since fleeing Pakistan in 2008, Musharraf has formed his own political party, the All Pakistan Muslim League, considered electorally and politically marginal by most independent analysts.

"It is fortunate for General Musharraf that Pakistan is a democracy today that will neither force him back into exile nor prevent him from participating in the political process as Musharraf did to his opponents," Hasan said. "But it is the government's responsibility to ensure that Musharraf is fully investigated and fairly prosecuted for abuses such as torture and disappearances that were widespread under his rule."

Ali Dayan Hasan
Pakistan Director, Asia Division

Ali Dayan Hasan
Before taking over as Pakistan Director, Ali Dayan Hasan served as Human Rights Watch's South Asia researcher since 2003 and has specialized expertise in Pakistan. Hasan is responsible for researching, authenticating and writing reports, briefing papers and news releases produced by Human Rights Watch on Pakistan. He advocates South Asian human rights concerns globally with regional bodies, national governments, international financial institutions and is a regular contributor on Pakistan in the international media. In addition to appearing frequently as a commentator on television, his opinion pieces have appeared in major international media.

Before joining Human Rights Watch, Hasan was a senior editor at Pakistan's premier independent, political news monthly magazine,Herald. During 2006 and 2007, Hasan was also a Visiting Research Fellow at the Leverhulme Changing Character of War Programme at the University of Oxford. He has a B.A. from the London School of Economics and a master's degree from St. Antony's College, Oxford. Hasan speaks Urdu

Baloch to boycott elections, seek UN referendum on freedom: BRP chief Brahamdagh Bugti

   Mar 23, 3:05 pm

Geneva, Mar. 23 (ANI): Balochistan Republican Party (BRP) Chairperson Brahamdagh Bugti (BRP) has said that the Baloch population will boycott the elections in Balochistan, and will simultaneously work to convince the international community to undertake and allow a United Nations-sponsored referendum to determine the Baloch demand for establishing a free and democratic state.

In an exclusive interview given to Asian News International (ANI), Bugti said that all nationalist parties of Balochistan were coordinating with each other to realize the long-term goal of freedom from Pakistan.

"Our strategy is that people should not vote. It does not mean that we are against elections or political process, we have our own political party and we believe in political process. But these are not our elections, they are the elections of Pakistan and we believe that we were a separate country. Unluckily, Pakistan has occupied our land for the past forty years and we have tried our best to adjust with them.  Our elders have tried but what have we got for our effort in return, perhaps that was the wrong decision of our elders. Right now, we can't even imagine being the part of the election process in Pakistan," Bugti said.

Bugti further said 'since the death of Nawab Bugti (2006), our struggle has intensified'.

"The Baloch ideology has strengthened up to large extent, which you can see. This is because after the sacrifice, the political struggle has intensified, and other armed groups have also speeded up their struggle. There are more political parties in Balochistan, like nationalist parties that are fighting for the freedom of Balochistan. Our party is one among them," he said.

Bugti, who has been leading a struggle to secure freedom for the people in Balochistan, has accused the Pakistan Government of suppressing the movement through the selective picking up of political activists, and then torturing them into submission.

He told ANI, "The ISI and military forces of Pakistan are trying to suppress this struggle by picking up political activists. They torture these activists. Earlier they used to pick them and later set them free, but now they capture and torture them on daily basis. Earlier, such incidents would happen five to six times a month, but now this is happening on daily basis."

Elaborating further, he compared Islamabad's authoritative rule over the country's largest province to what Nazi Dictator Adolf Hitler had managed to achieve during his nearly decade-and-a-half rule over Germany in the 1930s and 1940s.

"They (Pakistan) are doing the same thing, which Hitler was doing in Germany, which is a very negative thing. The biggest thing worrying us at this moment is that there is no media coverage of such incidents. They don't allow any one to go there. No journalist or NGO can pay visit to that area," Bugti said.

He further revealed that the situation of Balochistan is such that people are getting kidnapped and mutilated bodies are being found on daily basis

"Operations are going on and these things are growing rapidly. I have given an interview to Pakistan media and BBC some five six years back where they asked me the same question that what is the situation of Balochistan. I have always been saying this that it is getting worst than before. Just the procedures are changing, otherwise the killing of people and the launching operations directly or indirectly, continues," he added.

He also accused Islamabad of trying to build pressure so that it could tell the international community that people of Balochistan were willingly participating in the forthcoming general elections without reservations.

"That is why I have said this once that if Pakistan is claiming that the whole Baloch community is supporting them, we nationalists say that 80 to 90 per cent Baloch want freedom and only 10 per cent are with Pakistan may be because of pressure, or they have been bribed so much, that they support them," he added.

He reiterated the Baloch view that Pakistan was in illegal occupation of Balochistan, and that a political solution to this decades old dispute is possible through a United Nations sponsored referendum.

He said that the long-term goal was to create a democratic state of Balochistan, where the basic human rights of the people are guaranteed and safeguarded.

"Once a separate country is formed, the final constitution of the country will be decided after consultation with the people, tribals and other political parties," he said.

During the course of his interview to ANI, he confirmed China's presence in Balochistan, and that gunship helicopters were being used to force people to migrate from the area.

"There is a political solution to the Balochistan issue, but it depends on the one who is powerful. In Pakistan, the ISI and the military have had powers from the very beginning. Power is in the hands of the army, and the army mostly belongs to Punjab. The economic interest of Pakistan, in majority, is also for Punjab. Eighty percent of bureaucrats of Pakistan are also from Punjab. So, the majority of people who are involved in looting the country belong to Punjab," he claimed.

He also claimed that Pakistan would not easily agree to leave gas, oil and other resources of Balochistan, as it was not in its interest to do so.

"I don't think they will let it go easily or agree to hold dialogue on this issue. They will try to use their force, which they have been doing. Perhaps they will increase their brutalities in future like they have done in Bangladesh in the past," he warned. (ANI)

I’m in the Mood for Cash

Velocity of Money

The Daily Reckoning Presents...
By Doug French

"Cash is king," was once the old saw. The saying became passĂ© in boomtime. Nobody wanted to hold on to cash. There were stocks and real estate to buy, not to mention big screen TVs and granite counter tops. Besides, the PhDs at Federal Reserve stay up late at night figuring out how to make money less valuable. Ben Bernanke and his colleagues keep printing the stuff to solve what they fear the most: insufficient aggregate demand and liquidity traps. 

But for all of the Fed's stimulus and the central bank's desire to nudge people and businesses out of cash and into riskier assets, the cash hoards still pile up. 

The Economist reported last November that companies have been supplying cash rather than using it since 2008. Firms in the S&P 500 are holding close to a trillion dollars in cash on their collective balance sheets, an increase of 40% from the dark days of 2008. 

President Obama has businesses scared to death of investing. Instead cash is sloshing around in banks around the globe. In fact, banks themselves are swimming in liquidity. The loan-to-deposit ratio of America's banks is a decades-low 70%. Plus, banks still have nearly $1.5 trillion parked at the central bank in excess reserves.

You can get a sense of the significance by looking at the Fed's data on money velocity. It serves as a measure of how quickly money moves. Lower velocity means higher demand for holding on to the stuff. 

This cash hoarding is a worldwide phenomenon. Companies in Japan have increased their liquid assets by 75% since 2007 to $2.8 trillion. Canadian firms have $300 billion sitting on their balance sheets, a 25% increase from 2008. 

When he was a governor for the Bank of Canada, Mark Carney told those companies to "put money to work and if they can't think of what to do with it, they should give it back to their shareholders."

What's enticing companies to leave so much money sitting around in demand deposit accounts, money market funds, or treasuries? Usually you might say that they earn more interest this way. But not so. Interest rates have never been lower. Lower rates would seem to discourage cash hoarding. 

Banks were hungry for money during the boom. Today, they are doing all they can to get rid of deposits. The central bank's zero interest rate policy has compressed interest rate margins at banks. Banks can't pay less than zero for demand deposits, so as lending rates and treasury rates have decreased, interest rate margins have been flattened. 

The fact is loan demand is still not up to boomtime levels, and, "The response has been to eliminate some unprofitable deposits," writes business reporter Jeff Blumenthal, "effectively showing certain customers the door by adding fees or increasing pricing on certain products." 

Still the deposits pile up. At the end of 2008, the total amount in loans and leases in America's banks stood at $7.9 trillion. Four years later that total stood at $7.7 trillion. The total of Commercial and Industrial loans hasn't grown at all, standing at $1.5 trillion at the end of 2008 and 2012.

Meanwhile deposits at federally insured institutions have grown from $9 trillion at year end 2008 to $10.8 trillion at the end of last year.

In his book Conquer The Crash, Robert Prechter explains that while the Fed may have an agenda to stimulate, "the ultimate success of the Fed's attempts to influence the total amount of credit outstanding depends not only upon willing borrowers but also upon the banks as willing lenders." 

It's not just Keynesians like Ben Bernanke who think low rates equal animal spirits. Followers of the Austrian Business Cycle Theory claim that interest rates set below the natural rate tempts entrepreneurs into investing in higher order goods. These are goods involved in production, say land and factories, rather than consumption goods.

As the Austrian story goes, these lower rates fool entrepreneurs into believing that consumers are saving, thus pushing down interest rates, instead of spending their money on consumer goods. Entrepreneurs start projects that are more "roundabout" and ultimately won't be completed because the resources won't ultimately exist to complete them. 

Another effect of artificially lowered rates is the distortion of the appreciation of risk. According to Tyler Cowan, Interest rates forced below the natural rate will lead businessmen to make risky investments (defined as "long-term, costly to reverse, high- yielding, and having returns highly sensitive to the arrival of future information"), that leads to clusters of entrepreneurial error. 

The Fed is desperate for businesses to make investments and hire people, whether they result in entrepreneurial errors or not. The stated plan is to lower borrowing costs for businesses so that borrowers will seek and be granted loans to do projects that require increased hiring. 

However, the results have been terrible. The headline unemployment rate still hovers near 8%. Three million fewer Americans are employed now than in January 2008. Median household income has dropped 9% since the end of 2007. GDP growth since 2007 has been just over half a percent annually. 

Here we are four plus years after the financial crisis and businesses are still building or at least holding onto precautionary assets. The Federal Reserve has done most everything in its power to ignite the animal spirits that would make businesses let loose of their reserve assets and put them to work more productively. 

While the Fed can create money and lower interest rates, it can't change social attitudes. With 100 years of central banking under its belt, those operating the Federal Reserve give the impression that its PhDs can set this interest rate or create that amount of money and fix whatever ails the economy by spurring lending, borrowing, and in turn hiring. However, as Prechter reminds us, bullishness for lending and borrowing "cannot be set by decree." 

Leave Wall Street and talk to people on Main Street, and you quickly learn that consumer sentiment is dismal. College graduates are underemployed or can't find any jobs. There are as many as 20 million homeowners that are still underwater on their homes. A record number of people buy their groceries courtesy of food stamps. 

The negative psychology has created an extraordinary demand for liquidity, as evidenced by decades-low money velocity. 

The wariness of business to invest and instead hoard cash is a reflection of this negative mood. Try as he might, Ben Bernanke can't do anything about it. 

The monetary authorities may have the will, but the negative social mood holds the sway. It's the market's way of thumbing its nose at the great and powerful.

Doug French
for The Daily Reckoning




Between 20 and 26 persons are reported to have been killed in three days of violent clashes between Buddhists and Burman Muslims (not Rohingyas) in the central Myanmar cantonment town of Meikhtila since March 20,2013. Official figures have, however, given the death toll as five only till the evening of March 22.

2. The town has a population of about 100,000 of whom one-third are estimated to be Muslims. The violence reportedly broke out following a quarrel between the Muslim owner of a jewellery shop and some of his Buddhist customers.

3.Five mosques, including the main mosque of the town, are reported to have been burnt down by Buddhist mobs. Armed Buddhist monks prevented journalists from taking photographs of the damages caused to the mosques.

4.Finding the local police unable to bring the violence under control, the Government imposed a State of Emergency in Meikhtilla and neighbouring townships and villages on March 22 to enable the deployment of the Army.

5. A reporter of the privately-owned Irrawaddy Journal has reported as follows: "Photo evidence of widespread carnage is also emerging, with news media websites and social media sites such as Facebook posting pictures that show numerous charred bodies and whole neighborhoods on fire.Some local residents told The Irrawaddy that militant Buddhist monks and laymen went on a rampage through the city in Mandalay Division on Friday morning, destroying mosques and what they believed were Muslim-owned properties."It's as if they are destroying the town. The situation is now out of control," said a PaukChaung quarter resident, who wanted to remain anonymous for fear of his safety."

6.He said Muslim residents were seeking shelter at sites in Meikhtila where police could offer them some form of protection."They [police] are standing guard over 800 Muslim people taking refuge at a football ground. Now I've heard that the ministers for internal affairs and religious affairs and the chief minister for Mandalay Division are here," the Buddhist man said.However, police had little control over events, according to the resident. "Now we have nearly 30 truckloads of riot police here, but they can't control the mob," he said. "Instead they are trying to put out the fires."

7.The Irrawaddy Journal reporter added: "Thousands of Muslims, who are believed to make up as much as a third of the city's population, have reportedly fled since Wednesday out of fear that they might be killed.On Friday evening, The Irrawaddy's reporter in Meikhtila observed police evacuating about 1,500 residents, mostly women and children, out of the city's Chan Aye quarter to a makeshift refugee camp on the town's outskirts. More than 2,000 Muslim refugees were gathered at the site."

8.Meikhtila is a garrison city (Cantonment) with a heavy military presence, located halfway between Mandalay and Naypyidaw.

9.The Journal has quoted Kay OO May, a representative of a local NGO, as saying that  12 Muslims and eight Buddhists are dead. "I myself witnessed two dead bodies," she said. "Five mosques, including the biggest one, were destroyed.The Muslim quarter of Chan Aye was the most hard-hit."

10. Members of the  88 Generation Students organization have criticized President TheinSein for his allegedly inadequate response to the violence. Islamic Organizations have  sent a letter to the  President  urging him to urgently provide Muslim people in the country with lawful protection.

11.The Irrawaddy Journal has commented as follows:' "The clashes in Meikhtila are the latest flare-up in ongoing Buddhist and Muslim inter-communal violence in Burma. Since June 2012 there have been recurrent waves of violence between Buddhist Arakanese and Muslim Rohingya in western Burma's Arakan State, which have killed 180 people and displaced 110,000 villagers, mostly Rohingyas.In recent months there have been several reports of inter-communal clashes in other parts of Burma, but no one was reportedly killed in  these incidents."

( 23-3-13)


( The writer is Additional Secretary (retd), Cabinet Secretariat, Govt of India, New Delhi, and, presently, Director, Institute For Topical Studies, Chennai, and Associate of the Chennai Centre For China Studies. Twitter @SORBONNE75 )

BALOCHISTAN: Black Day March 27

Naila Quadri Baloch

Chinese people take stand against their government's imperialist policies; occupation of Gwadar is a foolish dream.Pakistan army is selling body organs of our missing loved ones, Balochistan is converted into a Nazi concentration camp with the help of China.

On coming March 27, the black day, the day of occupation of Balochistan by Pakistan's army in 1948, Professor Naela Quadri President of the World Baloch Women's Forum has sent a message to Chinese mothers that they must take stand and raise their voices against imperialist policies of their government that is resulting in genocide of Baloch people. She said that our fourteen thousand loved ones including our daughters are abducted by Pakistan and Iran, we have received one thousand mutilated bodies of our gems like sons with uncountable wounds of severe torture in last two years and this is a continuous daily base routine, our women and children are facing deaths due to bombardment on our civil populations, burning alive in homes, poisoning of water resources, state control on mobility and supplies of food and medicines. We understand this is painful for you but may be shocking to know that all this is baked and backed by China. In 1958 Chinese doctors were seen monitoring and guiding the process of torture of Baloch freedom leaders in a secret Pakistani prison; the notorious 'Kuli camp' in Shall (Quetta) Balochistan, it was not a coincidence that at the same time detailed survey work started for Saindak gold mine in Balochistan. 

After few years Chinese secret ties with an extremist terrorist country Pakistan, responsible for rape of a hundred thousand women in Bengal once a part of it, became open and official. In early 70s elected Baloch government was dissolved, military operation started on innocent Balochs and China got the contract to get gold from Saindak and Pakistan-China secret nuclear activities started in the same region under cover of mining. That proved on May 28, 1998 in devastating nuclear test changed our mountains into ashes, killed thousands of innocent people, surface water changed its color due to uncontrolled radioactivity 90% cattle and wild life died. 

Still we are facing miscarriages, birth of abnormal children and high rate of cancers. Instead of feeling sorry China included Iran also in its nuclear terrorism that is totally against international laws, and Iranian occupied Balochistan iswas chosen for these heinous nuclear activities that mean their conspiracy of Baloch genocide gaining multiplied momentum. Balochistan is facing bloody state violence from the first day of occupation but since 2000 Pakistan's and Iran's armies crossed the Nazi age, and again this is not a coincidence that China decides to built a navy base on a Baloch port Gwadar, known as the energy corridor.  

Baloch resisted against the occupation of Gwadar port as a Pak-China joint plan and as a punishment our motherland Balochistan has been changed in to a Nazi Concentration Camp. Through the ancient ages Balochs are defending the port of Gwadar from various invaders sacrificing precious lives. Portuguese (1502-1503) in the leadership of Vasco da gama after defeat in many battles to conquer Gwadar he went back to Portugal, Portuguese built a huge statue of Baloch leader Mir Hammal Jiand in Goa India to pay tributes to his bravery and superior naval strategies. It was a tribute to the hero of a brave nation. Sustaining freedom has become more achievable in today's modern techniques, affective communication and vocal presence of world's nations who believe in rights of all nations and peoples. Chinese voracity to loot Baloch gold mines oil gas resources, misuse Baloch land for nuclear adventurism and occupy Baloch ports for naval bases shows imperialist nature instead of a revolutionary one as it claims with red flags. Instead of supporting Baloch freedom struggle China joined hands with oppressors without your will and consent that resulted in a continuous dark age of state terror on Baloch since 50s till today. 

But now Chinese government has changed its decades long proxy war against Baloch into a direct war by declaring that Chinese army will be grounded in Gwadar, as their proxy partner Pakistan' continuous military defeats proved that it is no more able to keep the occupation by itself alone. Means they are planning for Chinese mothers also to receive bodies of their precious sons as they did with Baloch mothers that would be tragic, we are going through this bottomless pain for protection of our motherland but pain mixes with shame for a mother who receives body of a son killed during looting other nation's wealth We are receiving bodies of our sons every day, earlier  their hearts and eyes were holed with drill machines, now we are receiving them without heart, liver, kidneys, lungs and eyes, Pakistan army is selling organs of our loved ones, bodies of our beloved abducted sons found on dissection tables in their medical colleges, our abducted daughters were seen in their rape cells reported by international human rights organizations, we can imagine what else they are doing with our missing sons and daughters. We know where your government and bureaucracy stand in this scene but we need to know where you stand my dear? With the rapists tortures thieves of human body organs, killers and dacoits or with the aggrieved mothers of victims of your government policies. Motherhood is equally gracious in China and in Balochistan, please raise your voices to stop our genocide, join hands to stop the expected tragedies in your homes, and save Chairman Mao's revolutionary China from getting an ugly image of imperialist.

Message is available on website:

March 21, 2013

Ceasefire Violations along Line of Control (LoC) and International Border (IB)

The details of Ceasefire Violations along Line of Control (LoC) and International Border (IB) during the last three years are as under:-

Year No. of Violations
Number of Violations

The details of casualties during this period are as under:-

All ceasefire violations with Pakistan are appropriately retaliated through return of fire / protested through established mechanisms of Hotline, Flag Meeting and Director General of Military Operations Talks et

Exports to Pakistan spur China to become world’s 5th largest arms supplier: Report

China's arms export­s grew by 162% primar­ily due to large-scale acquis­itions by Pakist­an.
Published: March 18, 2013
BEIJING: China became the world's fifth largest arms exporter with five per cent of the global trade, primarily due to large-scale acquisitions by Pakistan, a Swedish think tank said on Monday.
China's arms exports in 2008-2012 grew by 162 per cent compared to the previous five years, with most of them – 55 per cent – going to Pakistan, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) said in a report.

"China's rise has been driven primarily by large-scale arms acquisitions by Pakistan," Paul Holtom, a research director at SIPRI said in a press release.

"A number of recent deals indicate that China is establishing itself as a significant arms supplier to a growing number of important recipient states."

Pakistan has long been China's key ally in South Asia. The report also named Myanmar, Bangladesh and Venezuela as importers of Chinese arms.

China had replaced UK on the list, gaining its highest position since the Cold War. It is the first time Britain has not figured in the top five weapons suppliers since 1950.

The global arms trade grew by 17 per cent in 2008-2012 over the previous period, the report said, with the US and Russia still the main exporters, holding market shares of 30 per cent and 26 per cent respectively.

They were followed by Germany and France in the rankings.

European countries beset by economic troubles were attempting to re-sell recently acquired combat aircraft to cut costs, the report added, with Portugal and Spain looking for buyers for F-16 and Eurofighter aircraft respectively.

East Asian countries are seeking to boost their naval capabilities amid territorial disputes, the document said, adding that the top five importers of major conventional weapons worldwide were all Asian.

China has boosted its domestic weapons production since it faced bans on western military imports following the crushed Tiananmen Square protests in 1989. Beijing does not release arms export figures.

US should dump Islamabad, Pakistan diplomat says

Mar 19, 2013, 11.58 PM IST
WASHINGTON: Washington and Islamabad should give up the fiction of being allies and acknowledge that their interests simply do not converge enough to make them strong partners, Pakistan's recent envoy to the US, who is now a hunted man in his home country, has advised both sides in a searing examination of tortured relationship between the two countries.

Instead, says HussainHaqqani, till recently Pakistan's ambassador to the US, Washington should leave Pakistan to its own devices so that it can discover for itself how weak it is without American aid and support, eventually enabling it to return to the mainstream suitably chastened about its limitations. 

"By coming to terms with this reality, Washington would be freer to explore new ways of pressuring Pakistan and achieving its own goals in the region. Islamabad, meanwhile, could finally pursue its regional ambitions, which would either succeed once and for all or, more likely, teach Pakistani officials the limitations of their country's power," Haqqani writes about the broken relationship in the latest issue of Foreign Affairs journal.

"Once Pakistan's national security elites recognize the limits of their power, the country might eventually seek a renewed partnership with the United States -- but this time with greater humility and an awareness of what it can and cannot get," says Haqqani who was ousted by Pakistan's security establishment because he was seen to be working with Washington to contain the overarching influence of the military on Pakistan.

Taking a distinctly dim view of Pakistan's prospects without US support, Haqqani acknowledges that "it is also possible, although less likely," that Pakistani leaders could decide that they are able to do quite well on their own, without relying heavily on the United States, as they have come to do over the last several decades. In that case, too, the mutual frustrations resulting from Pakistan's reluctant dependency on the United States would come to an end.

"Even if the breakup of the alliance did not lead to such a dramatic denouement, it would still leave both countries free to make the tough strategic decisions about dealing with the other that each has been avoiding," Haqqani writes. "Pakistan could find out whether its regional policy objectives of competing with and containing India are attainable without US support. The United States would be able to deal with issues such as terrorism and nuclear proliferation without the burden of Pakistani allegations of betrayal."

After all, Haqqani says, "they could hardly be worse off than they are now, clinging to the idea of an alliance even though neither actually believes in it. Sometimes, the best way forward in a relationship lies in admitting that it's over in its current incarnation."

Haqqani's critique traces US-Pakistani ties from the early years, showing that it was dodgy, mistrustful, and never based on realistic expectations from the very beginning. Both sides repeatedly papered over cracks for expediency as Pakistan sought security based on spurious grievances and assumptions against India and the US sought a foothold in the region to counter communism.

A former journalist who has written and spoken against the Pakistani security state with remarkable clarity and candor except when he was in office, Haqqani is literally in exile in the US, wanted and summoned by the courts in Pakistan but fearful to return because of the threats to his life. In a remarkable insight, he describes the work of his immediate predecessors in Washington DC, including a fellow journalist-turned-ambassador Maleeha Lodhi, who he says worked to build the case that Pakistan was the frontline state in the war on terrorism by reaching out to the US media and lobbying Congress. With support from the Bush administration, he says the ambassadors were able to fend off criticism and get huge aid packages approved in the face of criticism from skeptics unconvinced that there was any change of heart in Pakistan, a conclusion he appears to agree with in the Foreign Affairs article.

Describing his own tenure, Haqqani says he and the late AfPak special envoy spent hours together going to the movies and meeting for lunch when their spouses were away from Washington to discuss how to resolve the US-Pak security imbroglio. Convinced that the Pakistani military held the key to stability in the region, President Barack Obama conveyed to Pakistan that the United States wanted to help Pakistan feel secure and be prosperous but that it would not countenance Pakistan's support for jihadist groups that threatened American security, he reveals, conceding that in the end, these attempts to build a strategic partnership got nowhere.

"The civilian leaders were unable to smooth over the distrust between the US and Pakistani militaries and intelligence agencies. And the lack of full civilian control over Pakistan's military and intelligence services meant that, as ever, the two countries were working toward different outcomes," he concludes.

UN must intervene to stop Pakistani spy agency ISI's brutality in PoK

Brazil’s SisGAAz programme

Have you heard about Brazil's SisGAAz programme?*

It's the Brazilian Navy's $4 billion surveillance project designed to help defend its coastline and protect its offshore assets … or, to put it another way: It's a massive programme that Brazil is spending lots of money on and you can get a piece of the action…

With the SisGAAz request for proposal (RFP) due to be delivered next month, Defence IQ is hosting the Coastal Surveillance Brazil conference with official support from the Brazilian Navy, allowing you to meet with the nation's decision-makers and industry prime contractors to explore opportunities for this significant programme.

We have confirmed an unprecedented speaker faculty, which boasts participation from the key Brazilian coastal surveillance authorities including a Senior General Officer representing the Commander of the Navy as well as Captain Marcus Vinicius da Silva Roberto, Project DSAM-SGAA31, Brazilian Navy.

The full line-up of speakers and a detailed agenda can be viewed here.

Furthermore, to view the significant resources and content Defence IQ has available on this subject, including our Maritime Surveillance market report, a look at the next generation surveillance technologies and the latest update on Brazil's $4 billion SisGAAz programme, the Coastal Surveillance Brazil content library is accessible here.

If you'd like to find out more information on, or to secure your place at Coastal Surveillance Brazil, you can contact the team directly on +44 (0) 207 368 9737.

Kind regards,

Defence IQ

* The programme's name is full is Sistema de Gerenciamento da AmazĂ´nia Azul (SisGAAz), but it's also been dubbed Blue Amazon.