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Britain’s Second Embassy to China


Lord Amherst's 'Special Mission' to the Jiaqing Emperor in 1816

Authored byCaroline Stevenson

Lord Amherst’s diplomatic mission to the Qing Court in 1816 was the second British embassy to China. The first led by Lord Macartney in 1793 had failed to achieve its goals. It was thought that Amherst had better prospects of success, but the intense diplomatic encounter that greeted his arrival ended badly. Amherst never appeared before the Jiaqing emperor and his embassy was expelled from Peking on the day it arrived.

Historians have blamed Amherst for this outcome, citing his over-reliance on the advice of his Second Commissioner, Sir George Thomas Staunton, not to kowtow before the emperor. Detailed analysis of British sources reveal that Amherst was well informed on the kowtow issue and made his own decision for which he took full responsibility. Success was always unlikely because of irreconcilable differences in approach. China’s conduct of foreign relations based on the tributary system required submission to the emperor, thus relegating all foreign emissaries and the rulers they represented to vassal status, whereas British diplomatic practice was centred on negotiation and Westphalian principles of equality between nations.

The Amherst embassy’s failure revised British assessments of China and led some observers to believe that force, rather than diplomacy, might be required in future to achieve British goals. The Opium War of 1840 that followed set a precedent for foreign interference in China, resulting in a century of ‘humiliation’. This resonates today in President Xi Jinping’s call for ‘National Rejuvenation’ to restore China’s historic place at the centre of a new Sino-centric global order.


  1. Introduction (PDF, 0.2MB) doi
  2. The Political Setting of the Amherst Embassy (PDF, 1.2MB) doi
  3. Origins of the Amherst Embassy: Canton and Sir George Thomas Staunton (PDF, 0.4MB) doi
  4. The View from London: John Barrow and Lord William Pitt Amherst (PDF, 0.3MB) doi
  5. Amherst’s Preparations for the Embassy (PDF, 0.3MB) doi
  6. The Voyage from Portsmouth to ‘Hong Kong’ (PDF, 0.2MB) doi
  7. Up the Coast of China and Arrival at Tianjin (PDF, 0.5MB) doi
  8. The Imperial Banquet of 13 August 1816 and Progress to Tongzhou (PDF, 1.1MB) doi
  9. To Yuanmingyuan, Reception and Dismissal (PDF, 0.6MB) doi
  10. Overland to Canton: The British Cultural Encounter with China (PDF, 2.4MB) doi
  11. Aftermath: Britain’s Reaction to the Failure of the Amherst Embassy (PDF, 0.2MB) doi
  12. Retrospect: Reflections on the Amherst Embassy (PDF, 0.2MB) doi


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